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*  Sphagnum - Wikipedia
The spores germinate to produce minute protonemae, which start as filaments, can become thalloid, and can produce a few ... Main article: List of Sphagnum species. Peat moss can be distinguished from other moss species by its unique branch clusters. ... is induced to produce non-photosynthetic gemmae that can survive the fungal attack and months later germinate to produce new ... Spore dispersalEdit. As with many other mosses, Sphagnum species disperse spores through the wind. The tops of spore capsules ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphagnum
*  Sphagnum - Wikipedia
The spores germinate to produce minute protonemae, which start as filaments, can become thalloid, and can produce a few ... Individual peat moss plants consist of a main stem, with tightly arranged clusters of branch fascicles usually consisting of ... is induced to produce non-photosynthetic gemmae that can survive the fungal attack and months later germinate to produce new ... spherical spore capsule that becomes black with spores. Sporophytes are raised on stalks to facilitate spore dispersal, but ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphagnum
*  Primer -- The Fungi
Travelling back to the main branch, again, we encounter one of the major shifts in fungal form, the loss of the flagellum [3, 4 ... They also produce asexual, thick-walled multinucleate spores defined by adventitious septa. The fragmentary knowledge about ... The cyst germinates to start the life cycle anew. Although some Chytridiomycota have developed filamentous growth (hyphae), ... Where alternative methods of spore dispersal have evolved, fruitbody forms can only be described as bizarre: tiny bird-nest- ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2913116/
*  Leucostoma kunzei - Wikipedia
Lesions that originate on branches close to the main stem may actually spread into the main stem. Cambium that has been killed ... Once a branch or stem of a susceptible host has been girdled, the pathogen will rapidly colonize large areas of bark beyond the ... These airborne spores, as well as, insects provide an explanation for the spread of this disease from tree to tree. ... There is speculation that this dispersal by air may in fact be due to spore release via rain droplets which become free in air ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucostoma_kunzei
*  Phytophthora cactorum - Wikipedia
Ginseng foliar infection occurs through the rain splash dispersal of spores from the soil onto above ground wounds. Once ... Furthermore, although the hyphae are not the main survival unit of P. cactorum, as long as they are not completely desiccated, ... After being released, zoospores swim to a nearby wound on a suitable host, germinate, and enter wounds to cause a hyphal ... The minimum amount of time the plant must be saturated to produce an infection depends on factors such as genetics, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytophthora_cactorum
*  Evolutionary history of plants - Wikipedia
Early land plants reproduced in the fashion of ferns: spores germinated into small gametophytes, which produced eggs and/or ... left where the leaf's vascular bundle leaves that of the main branch resembles two axes splitting. In each of the four groups ... The microgametophyte - a pollen grain which has germinated from a microspore - is employed for dispersal, only releasing its ... where they would fuse with an egg to produce an embryo, which would germinate into a sporophyte. Heterosporic plants, as their ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_history_of_plants
*  Spruce broom rust - Wikipedia
The main damage from the rust is simply overall volume and growth loss. The number of brooms as well as their proximity to the ... This fertilization allows for aecia to form and in turn produce aeciospores. Spruce broom rust is common in the western United ... Spruce broom rust or yellow witches' broom rust is a fungal plant disease caused by the basidiomycete fungus known as ... Twig tissue is typically infected as well, allowing hyphae to spread into an entire branch of needles. In midsummer, bright ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spruce_broom_rust
*  Glossary of botanical terms - Wikipedia
exospory the production of spores that germinate to produce free-living multicellular gametophytes. exotesta the outer layer of ... sympodial a mode of growth in which the main axis is repeatedly terminated, and replaced with a lateral branch. Examples occur ... epizoochory Seed dispersal by sticking on the outside of vertebrate animals. epruinose not pruinose equitant of a leaf when ... mycobiont The fungal component of a lichen (compare to photobiont. mycorrhiza one of several types of symbiotic association ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_botanical_terms
*  Cranberries: The Most Intriguing Native North American Fruit
... the surface of the branch looks like it has been dusted with powdered sugar. Protectant type fungicides applied when spores are ... thus eliminating the need for an elaborate basidiocarp to maximize the production and dispersal of spores. Basidia erupt from ... Cottony fungal growth of Monilinia oxycocci in locules of infected berries (center) and Yellow-green color of infected berries ... The main reason that berries can be water harvested and air-dried in Wisconsin for subsequent packing as fresh fruit is because ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/Cranberries.aspx
*  Fungus Facts
The old cell wall enclosing them opens letting the spores free to germinate and form normally budding cells. Such spores often ... They can also produce diseases in animals, some of them very serious. In the moist tropics there are countless fungal disease ... In other Mucor species, the sporangium wall liquefies, releasing the spores, but the method of spore dispersal is uncertain. ... The hyphae, which have no cross-walls, grow rapidly under favorable conditions and branch repeatedly, within a few days forming ...
  http://www.essortment.com/fungus-facts-47704/
*  Penicillium digitatum - Wikipedia
During development, the conidiophore can branch into three rami to produce a terverticillate structure although biverticillate ... Spores can be reduced by removing fallen fruit. Risk of injury can be decreased in a variety of ways including, storing fruit ... CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Center. Samson, Robert A; Pitt, John I (2000). Integration of Modern Taxonomic Methods for ... In nature, it is often found alongside the fruits it infects, making species within the Citrus genus its main ecosystem. It is ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillium_digitatum
*  Fungi by Emma Ritcey on Prezi
This is when structures grow from the spores. For example, when the hyphae grow from spores to produce a multicellular mycelium ... Some fungi are parasites of plants and most crops are extremely susceptible to fungal attack.. Spore production and dispersal ... There are three main types of asexual reproduction.. Spore Production. Spores are produced by one parent cell through mitosis ... However, eventually the branch or the whole tree will die if left untreated.. It occurs only on the wood part of the tree, not ...
  https://prezi.com/5qt3qvlmxotp/fungi/
*  Tree - Wikipedia
Palms, bananas, and bamboos also produce seeds, but tree ferns, produce spores instead. Trees play a significant role in ... Many trees produce it when injured but the main source of the latex used to make natural rubber is the Pará rubber tree (Hevea ... This may allow fungal spores to gain admittance and attack the tree. Dutch elm disease is caused by a fungus (Ophiostoma ... Within a few weeks lateral roots branch out of the side of this and grow horizontally through the upper layers of the soil. In ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree
*  Chestnut blight - Wikipedia
Once on the new host, or new area of the tree, the spores can germinate and infect the innerbark through insect wounds and ... It is the main cause of chestnut blight, a devastating disease of the American chestnut tree that in the early 1900s caused a ... Mature trees often grew straight and branch-free for 50 feet and could grow up to 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 14 ... In Europe during the late 1960s, it was found that a strain of C. parasitica was less virulent, only able to produce shallow ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chestnut_blight
*  Micro-organisms - Fungi
... or spores in a sticky substance are carried away by insects. Alternatively, Mucor can also produce sexual spores, as a result ... but the main part of the fungal structure can only be seen with the aid of a lens or low power microscope. From a structural ... After its dispersal, this will break open to produce a hypha which grows to support a sporangium, which once again releases ... it may germinate and produce a few filamentous strands (about 10 m in diameter) called hyphae (singular - hypha) which are the ...
  http://biotopics.co.uk/microbes/fungi.html
*  Cultural practices Cactus e Dintorni: il sito per appassionati di Piante Grasse
This practice proves useful in eliminating fungal spores. One possible method is to immerse the seeds in water maintained at a ... The minuscule seeds of the Crassulaceae are difficult to germinate.. The fruits can be stored inside a jar placed in a well- ... When a plant does not naturally branch, as is often the case with cacti, we can stimulate the formation of lateral shoots by ... Follicles should be wrapped in gauze or fine net to avoid the dispersal of the pappus-bearing seeds.. The capsules of ...
  http://www.cactusedintorni.com/en/Cultural-practices/index.html
*  Thermomyces lanuginosus - Wikipedia
It is proposed that their wide presence in soil is due to dispersal of spores elsewhere and fallout from air. T. lanuginosus ... which causes thermophilic spores to germinate and eventually outgrow pioneers, raising the temperature even higher to 60 °C. ... One of its main uses is in the modification and production of oils and fats to make food healthier. Its regiospecificity allows ... Fungal endocarditis is fatal without treatment. It has a high morbidity and mortality, as well as a potential for relapse, so ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermomyces_lanuginosus
*  Boraginales
... pollen grains bicellular at dispersal, germinating in less than 3 hours, siphonogamy, pollen tube unbranched, growing towards ... cons. - Main Tree.. Plant ± herbaceous; (pyrrolizidine alkaloids + [esp. lycopsamines, also triangularines]), rosmarinic acid + ... Bacterial/Fungal Associations. Holm (1979) noted that some Boraginaceae and Hydrophyllaceae have similar rusts. ... Wellstedia, the next branch of that part of the tree where it now resides, is also African. ...
  http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/orders/boraginalesweb.htm
*  Phylogenetic Analysis of Pasteuria penetrans by Use of Multiple Genetic Loci | Journal of Bacteriology
The taxon selection, in this case, had no influence on branch resolution, as found in the metazoan tree by Rokas and coworkers ... Center for Integrated Fungal Research, Department of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina ... The Meloidogyne J2 stage is a nonfeeding, developmentally arrested, long-lived dispersal stage and can survive in the soil for ... The endospores do not germinate until the J2 has entered the plant root and established a feeding site. Sometime between the ...
  https://jb.asm.org/content/187/16/5700.full
*  Pinophyta - Wikipedia
Wind bore seed dispersal involves two processes, namely; local neighborhood dispersal (LND) and long- distance dispersal (LDD ... generating two different types of spores: male microspores and female megaspores. These spores develop on separate male and ... Seed germinates and seedling grows into a mature plant. When the plant is mature, it produces cones and the cycle continues. ... They were the main food of herbivorous dinosaurs, and their resins and poisons would have given protection against herbivores. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinophyta
*  Ascomycota - Wikipedia
When the spores reach a suitable substrate, they germinate, form new hyphae, which restarts the fungal life cycle. ... Ascomycetes are 'spore shooters'. They are fungi which produce microscopic spores inside special, elongated cells or sacs, ... Main article: Lichen. Probably since early in their evolutionary history, the Ascomycota have formed symbiotic associations ... Conidiophores may simply branch off from the mycelia or they may be formed in fruiting bodies. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascomycete
*  Pinales
2014). Variation in seed size links with dispersal mechanisms - abiotic dispersal < seed subtended by attractant tissues < ... However, the main problem is the position of Cedrus with respect to Abietoideae (Abies, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Pseudolarix, ... 2015). Overall ECM fungal diversity may be low in such situations, but this is by no means always so for pine ECM communities ( ... 2015), and this is facilitated by their ability to form ECM associations with Suillus species whose spores are very widely ...
  http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/orders/conifers.html
*  Introduction to Fungi
... that is capable of germinating to produce a new hypha. Unlike plant seeds, fungal spores lack an embryo, but contain food ... Fungal reproduction. Fungi frequently reproduce by the formation of spores. A spore is a survival or dispersal unit, consisting ... If the canker encircles the trunk or branch of a tree, that plant part will die. The canker-causing fungus can often be ... Fungi are among the few organisms that can effectively break down wood, and fall into two main types-brown and white rot fungi ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/pathogengroups/pages/introfungi.aspx
*  Frontiers | Morphology, phylogeny, and ecology of the aphelids (Aphelidea, Opisthokonta) and proposal for the new superphylum...
The phyla Microsporidia and Cryptomycota, and the class Aphelidea have recently been considered to be а deep branch of ... The phyla Microsporidia and Cryptomycota, and the class Aphelidea have recently been considered to be а deep branch of ... Some aphelid species produce dormant or resting spores which are thought to be resistant to environmental extremes, and/or the ... Gleason, F. H., and Lilje, O. (2009). Structure and function of fungal zoospores: ecological implications. Fungal Ecol. 2, 53- ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00112/full
*  Life history biology of early land plants: Deciphering the gametophyte phase | PNAS
... rapidly germinating ones form surface-dwelling gametophytes with stomata, whereas some more slowly germinating spores produce ... Since the initial report of terrestrial land plants, microbes, and fungal spores in the Rhynie chert (1-5), numerous studies ... Archegoniophores branch dichotomously, whereas antheridiophores are unbranched (Fig. 1).. A cutinized epidermis covers both the ... If Aglaophyton is functionally anisporous, then spore dispersal becomes an important factor in maintaining the next generation ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/102/16/5892.full