*  "Selection Dynamics in the Germinal Center During Antibody Affinity Mat" by Alexander Gitlin
... is critical to the development of high affinity humoral immunity. This process takes place in germinal centers (GCs), which are ... The mechanism whereby somatic antibody mutants are selected on the basis of affinity has been elusive. In the first part of ... high affinity cells can expand within the population and are provided more opportunities to hypermutate their antibody genes. ... High affinity B cells are selectively expanded in the GC by iterative rounds of migration between a zone of hypermutation and ...
  http://digitalcommons.rockefeller.edu/student_theses_and_dissertations/303/
*  Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung | Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research |: News Detail
... the body produces antibodies that recognise and fight the intruder by means of antibodies that bind to a specific portion of ... Visualizing Antibody Affinity Maturation in Germinal Centers. Science. 2016 Feb 19. DOI: 10.1126/science.aad3439. ... Germinal centres are antibody training sites: The B-cells proliferate in them, diversify their antibodies. through mutation and ... versus diverse germinal centres, we can specifically adapt the diversity of the induced antibodies. to the mutation rate of the ...
  https://www.helmholtz-hzi.de/en/news_events/news/view/article/complete/flexibility_rather_than_perfection_helps_in_the_fight_against_pathogens/
*  Newest Articles | JEM
Stochasticity enables BCR-independent germinal center initiation and antibody affinity maturation Whether Ig engagement by ... show that germinal center flexibility permits nonspecific B cells to achieve de novo antigen recognition and antibody affinity ... antigen is required to initiate somatic evolution and affinity maturation is not well defined. Silver and colleagues ...
  http://jem.rupress.org/latest?page=6&variant=full-text.pdf
*  Frontiers | Computational Model Reveals Limited Correlation between Germinal Center B-Cell Subclone Abundancy and Affinity:...
The expanded subclones are expected to have BCR affinities for the Ag higher than the affinities of the naive B cells in the ... Given the nature of affinity maturation one would expect that abundant subclones are of high affinity but since repertoire ... Given the nature of affinity maturation one would expect that abundant subclones are of high affinity but since repertoire ... Consequently, in general we do not know if the selected highly abundant subclone(s) are also the high(est) affinity subclones. ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00221/full
*  Whitehead Institute - News - 2016 - B-cell diversity in immune system's germinal centers may hold key to broad-spectrum vaccines
... notion that only a handful of B cells producing the highest affinity antibodies are allowed to survive in the germinal center. ... While the predicted jackpot events were indeed observed in some germinal centers, most germinal centers contained a variety of ... Within the germinal centers that form in the body's lymph nodes during an immune response are B cells that produce antibodies ... To produce these high-quality antibodies, B cells undergo a selection process in the germinal centers. B cells mutate their ...
  http://wi.mit.edu/news/archive/2016/cell-diversity-immune-system-s-germinal-centers-may-hold-key-broad-spectrum
*  Progress in Immunology Vol. VIII | SpringerLink
Germinal Centres in the Affinity Maturation of T Cell-Dependent Antibody Responses ... Restricted VH Gene Usage and Generation of Antibody Diversity in Rabbit ... monoclonal antibodies, CD serology, SCID and transgenic mice, modern immunomodulation and vaccines. A trmendous mass of data ...
  https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-51479-1
*  Keystone Symposia Conference | B Cells: Mechanisms in Immunity and Autoimmunity - Program
Affinity maturation of antibodies within the germinal center is now considered to be more complex than previously thought. The ... and the generation of autoantibodies during germinal center responses, have challenged existing dogmas. B cell metabolism and ... Maritim Hotel & International Congress Center Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Sponsored by Roche. BEWARE of booking lodging through ... Antibody-independent functions of B cells, for example in secreting inflammatory or regulatory cytokines, suggest B cells are ...
  http://keystonesymposia.org/index.cfm?e=Web.Meeting.Summary&meetingid=1555&subTab=summary
*  The effect of age on the response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text
In comparison of the antibody needed for 1:8 opsonic titer, more antibodies were needed in the elderly for serotypes Pn 4, 19F ... Although the amount of antibodies elicited were similar between the two age groups, distinct differences in function were noted ... 23F and 6A, suggesting the functional activity of antibody detected by the ELISA was lower in the elderly compared with the ... however the functional activity of the antibodies elicited after vaccination were lower in the elderly group for more than half ...
  https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-10-60
*  JCI - Volume 126, Issue 1
Antibody affinity for antigen is increased through the affinity maturation in germinal centers (GCs). This is an iterative ... The development of high-affinity antibodies in response to infection is an iterative process in which B cells cycle between ... These processes occur within specific regions of the secondary lymphoid structures known as germinal centers (GCs) and the ... The production of high-affinity antibodies by B cells is essential for pathogen clearance. ...
  https://jci.org/126/1
*  Early CCR6 expression on B cells modulates germinal centre kinetics and efficient antibody responses. | Sigma-Aldrich
... its absence accelerates the appearance of germinal centres (GCs) and increases the production of low-affinity antibodies. The ... Early CCR6 expression on B cells modulates germinal centre kinetics and efficient antibody responses.. [Dorothea Reimer, Adrian ... Lack of CCR6 increased the dark zone/light zone ratio of GC and led to decreased antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibody ...
  https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/27465674
*  Sir Henry Dale Fellowships: people we've funded | Wellcome
... at determining some of the biological mechanisms employed by germinal centre B cells for promoting efficient antibody affinity ... Exploring how the germinal centre cellular programme promotes efficient affinity maturation. Oliver is a cellular immunologist ... Germinal centres are highly-dynamic, tightly-regulated environments in which B cells repeatedly mutate their immunoglobulin ... I have co-discovered a novel antibody receptor, TRIM21, which can detect antibody-coated viruses inside the cell and strip them ...
  https://wellcome.ac.uk/node/1792
*  BCL6 Gene - GeneCards | BCL6 Protein | BCL6 Antibody
Transcriptional repressor mainly required for germinal center (GC) formation and antibody affinity maturation which has ... Transcriptional repressor mainly required for germinal center (GC) formation and antibody affinity maturation which has ... Tissue specificity: Expressed in germinal center T- and B-cells and in primary immature dendritic cells. ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BCL6&keywords=kr-znf3
*  Era of polyurethane foam cells, an necessary stage for change cholesterol - Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets in Cancer...
The germinal center (GC) is a microanatomical compartment wherein high affinity antibody-producing W cells are selectively ... The germinal center (GC) is a microanatomical compartment wherein high affinity. ...
  http://www.exposed-skin-care.net/2018/02/08/era-of-polyurethane-foam-cells-an-necessary-stage-for-change-cholesterol/
*  γδ T-cell help in responses to pathogens and in the development of systemic autoimmunity | Springer for Research & Development
Development of antibody diversity in single germinal centers: selective expansion of high-affinity variants. Eur J Immunol 1994 ... Jacob J, Kelso G, Rajewsky K, Weiss U: Intraclonal generation of antibody mutants in germinal centers. Nature 1991 ;354:389. ... Pulendran B, Smith KG, Nossal GJ: Soluble antigen can impede affinity maturation and the germinal center reaction but enhance ... Thorbecke GJ, Amin AR, Tsiagbe VK: Biology of germinal centers in lymphoid tissue. FASEB J 1994;8:832-84O.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02786392
*  MicroRNAs in Immune Response and Macrophage Polarization | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
... miR-155 generate reduced extrafollicular and germinal center responses and fail to produce high-affinity IgG1 antibodies.48 ... Regulation of the germinal center response by microRNA-155. Science. 2007;316:604-608. ... and B1 B cells that are home to the peritoneal and pleural cavities and represent an important source of natural antibodies in ... including follicular B cells that are responsible for T cell-dependent antibody responses and marginal zone B cells that can ...
  http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/33/2/170.full
*  Nature Immunology
Toll-like receptor 9 antagonizes antibody affinity maturation The presentation of antigen by germinal-center B cells to ... The RNA-binding protein PTBP1 is necessary for B cell selection in germinal centers ... which leads to the enhanced generation of short-lived plasma cells and the production of lower-affinity antibodies. ... follicular T cells engenders the process of antibody affinity maturation and humoral memory. Pierce and colleagues show that ...
  https://www.nature.com/ni/?error=cookies_not_supported&code=2ec63d9d-71d3-4d3a-8fb5-9a89c6af4004
*  Choreography of Cell Motility and Interaction Dynamics Imaged by Two-Photon Microscopy in Lymphoid Organs
In germinal centers, the humoral immune response becomes fine-tuned to produce high-affinity antibodies generated by ... Germinal center dynamics Germinal centers are sites of organization for B cells and FDCs, and perhaps also T cells, to interact ... Imaging of germinal center selection events during affinity maturation. Science. 2007;315:528-31. [PubMed] ... is required for B cell immunoglobulin class switching and hypermutation in germinal centers to become high-affinity antibody- ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2732400/?lang=en-ca
*  Mark Y. Sangster, Ph.D. - University of Rochester Medical Center
... cognate T cell help is critical if activated B cells are to participate in germinal center reactions, where affinity maturation ... Virus-specific antibodies play a key role in providing a protective barrier to infection and in facilitating viral clearance ... Antibody-producing cells or plasma cells are generated from B cells that divide and differentiate following recognition of ... A critical requirement for optimal antibody responses is the cognate help delivered to activated B cells by CD4 T cells. This ...
  https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/people/27418307-mark-y-sangster
*  Control of plasma cell generation and population dynamics
Later, plasma cells emerge from the germinal centre reaction and secrete high--‐affinity antibodies. These plasma cells have ... affinity antibodies that provide a first line of defence against invading pathogens. ... Plasma cells, the effector stage of the B cell compartment, secrete large amounts of antibody. These cells arise in two waves ... This depletion mediated a reduction of antigen--‐specific bone marrow plasma cell populations and serum antibody previously ...
  https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/7646
*  CD154 - Wikipedia
Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an ... the B cell can undergo rapid cellular division to form a germinal center where antibody isotype switching and affinity ... Early evidence for these effects were that in CD40 or CD154 deficient mice, there is little class switching or germinal centre ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD154
*  T helper cell - Wikipedia
Absence of CD154 also stops the formation of germinal centers and therefore prohibiting antibody affinity maturation, an ... The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can ... Type 2 and Type 3 hypersensitivity both involve complications from auto-immune or low affinity antibodies. In both of these ... CD4+ T cells have TCRs with an affinity for Class II MHC, and CD4 is involved in determining MHC affinity during maturation in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_helper_cell
*  Affinity Biologicals Incorporated Company Profile
Affinity Biologicals Inc. is a manufacturer producing antibodies and antibody-related reagents and plasmas used in thrombosis ... Affinity Biologicals Incorporated company data, news, contact details and stock information. ... Selective expansion of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells in germinal centers (GCs) is a key event in antibody affinity ... Affinity Biologicals Incorporated. Affinity Biologicals Inc. is a manufacturer producing antibodies and antibody-related ...
  https://www.bioportfolio.com/corporate/company/17570/Affinity-Biologicals-Incorporated.html
*  Affinity BioReagents, Inc Company Profile
Founded nearly 20 years ago, the team at ABR-Affinity BioReagents has worked to establish a sterling reputation and world-class ... Affinity BioReagents, Inc company data, news, contact details and stock information. ... Selective expansion of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells in germinal centers (GCs) is a key event in antibody affinity ... Affinity Bioreagents Incorporated. Apoptosis Related Antibodies Bioactive Peptide Antibodies Chaperonin Antibodies Cytochrome ...
  https://www.bioportfolio.com/corporate/company/21954/Affinity-BioReagents-Inc.html
*  Frontiers | Follicular T Cells from smB− Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients Are Skewed Toward a Th1 Phenotype |...
... most patients show a characteristic defective B cell differentiation into memory B cells or antibody secreting cells. We ... most patients show a characteristic defective B cell differentiation into memory B cells or antibody secreting cells. We ... Germinal center follicular T helper (GCTfh) cells are essential players in the differentiation of B cells. Circulating ... Germinal center follicular T helper (GCTfh) cells are essential players in the differentiation of B cells. Circulating ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00174/full
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by K. Mark Ansel (Translated to Dutch)
... are the prototypic helper T cell subset specialized to enable B cells to form germinal centers (GCs) and produce high-affinity ... in regulating T helper cell differentiation and the germinal center reaction to produce an optimal T cell-dependent antibody ... The germinal center (GC) response was 2-fold reduced when T cells lacked CXCR5, although these T cells were able to access the ... Regulation of the Germinal Center Response by MicroRNA-155 Science (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2007 , Pubmed ID: 17463289 MicroRNAs ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/K.+Mark_Ansel?language=Dutch