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*  Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Downy Mildew) Infection Assay in Arabidopsis -BIO-PROTOCOL
Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa; formerly Peronospora parasitica or Hyaloperonospora parasitica) is an oomycete downy mildew pathogen of the model plant Arabidopsis. The pathosystem between Arabidopsis and Hpa has been extensively used to study host/pathogen co-evolution (Coates and Beynon, 2010). As Hpa is an obligate biotrophic pathogen, its host is absolutely required for survival. Thus, Hpa must be maintained on susceptible Arabidopsis accessions and mutants. Growth of Hpa is evaluated in two ways; counting conidiospores (Asai et al., 2014) or counting sporangiophores after trypan blue staining (Holt et al., 2005). Here, we describe how to do inoculation with Hpa and how to evaluate Hpa growth on Arabidopsis.
  http://www.bio-protocol.org/cn/e1627
*  PLOS Genetics: Distinctive Expansion of Potential Virulence Genes in the Genome of the Oomycete Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia...
Author Summary Fish are an increasingly important source of animal protein globally, with aquaculture production rising dramatically over the past decade. Saprolegnia is a fungal-like oomycete and one of the most destructive fish pathogens, causing millions of dollars in losses to the aquaculture industry annually. Saprolegnia has also been linked to a worldwide decline in wild fish and amphibian populations. Here we describe the genome sequence of the first animal pathogenic oomycete and compare the genome content with the available plant pathogenic oomycetes. We found that Saprolegnia lacks the large effector families that are hallmarks of plant pathogenic oomycetes, showing evolutionary adaptation to the host. Moreover, Saprolegnia harbors pathogenesis-related genes that were derived by lateral gene transfer from the host and other animal pathogens. The retrotransposon LINE family also appears to be acquired from animal lineages. By ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1003272
*  Disease-Specific Expression of Host Genes During Downy Mildew Infection of Arabidopsis
Here, we report on the identification of Arabidopsis genes that are induced during compatible but not during incompatible interactions with the downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. This set of so-called compatible specific (CS) genes contrasts with the large group of defense-associated genes that is differentially expressed during both compatible and incompatible interactions. From the 17 identified CS genes, 6 belong to the ethylene response factor (ERF) family of transcription factor genes, suggesting that these ERF have a role during compatibility. The majority of CS genes are differentially regulated in response to various forms of abiotic stress. In silico analysis of the CS genes revealed an over-representation of dehydration-responsive element/C-repeat binding factor (DREB1A/CBF3) binding sites and EveningElement motifs in their promoter regions. The CS-ERF are ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/publications/mpmi/2009/September/Pages/22_9_1104.aspx
*  Effect of selected essential oils and pure compounds on Saprolegnia parasitica | IRIS Università di Pisa
Saprolegnia parasitica Coker is the main agent of saprolegniosis, one of the most important causes of economic losses in the fish farming industry, affecting all developmental stages. In this work the activity of some essential oils are compared with the activity of their isolated chemical constituents (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, and hydrocarbons) to evaluate molecular classes active against S. parasitica. This suggests potential new products to use against saprolegniosis. Sixteen commercial essential oils and 37 pure constituents were tested against a strain of Saprolegnia parasitica from cutaneous lesions of Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, using a continuously agitated broth technique that allows both the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Lethal Concentration (MLC) to be evaluated. It was possible to evaluate the efficacy of each essential oil against S. parasitica in relation to its specific composition and the efficacy of its main constituents. Carvacrol (MIC of ...
  https://arpi.unipi.it/handle/11568/79915
*  Downy mildew of cucurbits
Cohen, Y. 1981. Downy mildew of cucurbits. In: D.M. Spencer (ed), The Downy Mildews, Academic Press, NY. 636 pages.. Colucci, S. 2008. Host Range, Fungicide Resistance and Management of Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Causal Agent of Cucurbit Downy Mildew. Master's thesis. North Carolina State University.. Crute, I.R. 1981. The host specificity of Peronosporaceous fungi and the genetics of the relationship between host and parasite. In: D.M. Spencer (ed.), The Downy Mildews, Academic Press, NY. 636 pages.. Gisi, U. 2002. Chemical Control of Downy Mildews. In: Advances in Downy Mildew Research. P.T.N. Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi and A. Lebeda (eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht. 119-159.. Holmes, G., T. Wehner, and A. Thornton. 2006. An old enemy re-emerges. American Vegetable Grower. February, 2006. 14-15.. Holmes G.J., C.E. Main, Z.T. Keever III. 2004. Cucurbit downy mildew: A unique pathosystem for disease forecasting. Pages 69-80 in: P.T.N. Spencer‑Phillips and M. Jeger (eds), Advances ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/Oomycetes/Pages/Cucurbits.aspx
*  Genetic signature of a range expansion and leap-frog event after the recent invasion of Europe by the grapevine downy mildew...
Biologic invasions can have important ecological, economic and social consequences, particularly when they involve the introduction and spread of plant invasive pathogens, as they can threaten natural ecosystems and jeopardize the production of human food. Examples include the grapevine downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, an invasive species native to North America, introduced into Europe in the 1870s. We investigated the introduction and spread of this invasive pathogen, by analysing its genetic structure and diversity in a large sample from European vineyards. Populations of P. viticola across Europe displayed little genetic diversity, consistent with the occurrence of a bottleneck at the time of introduction. Bayesian coalescent analyses revealed a clear population expansion signal in the genetic data. We detected a weak, but significant, continental-wide population structure, with two geographically and genetically distinct clusters in Western and Eastern European ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.12293/abstract
*  Tapping into Molecular Conversation Between Oomycete Plant Pathogens and Their Hosts - Worcester Research and Publications
Several plant pathogenic oomycetes have been under investigation using modern molecular approaches. Genome sequencing and annotations are underway or near to completion for some of the species. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) and effector molecules perform inter- and intracellular tasks as adaptation factors and manipulators of the defence network. Hundreds of secreted putative effectors have been discovered and conserved molecular patterns such as RXLR and EER motifs have been identified and used for classifications. PAMPs and effectors are recognized directly or indirectly by the pattern recognition receptors at the cell surface including receptor-like kinases and receptor-like proteins, and/or by nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat proteins within the cytoplasm. The current knowledge of effectors, immune receptors and the defence network, will help us understand the 'intricate genetic dance' between the oomycete pathogens and their hosts. This review ...
  http://eprints.worc.ac.uk/1162/
*  Genus Achlya - Classification - Systema Naturae 2000
Natura - nature Mundus - physical world;material world Naturalia Biota Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotes Kingdom Chromista - chromists Subkingdom Chromobiota Infrakingdom Heterokonta - heterokonts Phylum Oomycota Class Oomycetes - oomycetes Order Saprolegniales Family Saprolegniaceae Genus Achlya H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:P.M. Kirk et al., 2001:570; Count:3s Achlya ambisexualis Raper, 1939 H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:K. Shalchian-Tabrizi et al., 2006:1838 (informal mention) Achlya bisexualis Coker H,N,P,R,B,L Achlya flagellata Coker, 1923 H,N,P,R,B,L; Ref:G.W. Beakes, 1989:329 (informal mention ...
  http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Main/Classification/96501.htm
*  MYB72, a node of convergence in induced systemic resistance triggered by a fungal and a bacterial beneficial microbe
Colonisation of plant roots by selected beneficial Trichoderma fungi or Pseudomonas bacteria can result in the activation of a systemic defence response that is effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. In Arabidopsis thaliana, induced systemic resistance (ISR) triggered by the rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r is regulated by a ... read more jasmonic acid- and ethylene-dependent defence signalling pathway. Jasmonic acid and ethylene also play a role in Trichoderma-induced resistance. To further investigate the similarities between rhizobacteria- and Trichoderma-induced resistance, we studied the response of Arabidopsis to root colonisation by Trichoderma asperellum T34. In many aspects T34-ISR was similar to WCS417r-ISR. First, colonisation of the roots by T34 rendered the leaves more resistant to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Second, ...
  https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/31774
*  Downy Mildew Of Cucurbits - Growing Produce
Downy mildew of cucurbits, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is found annually on squash, cucumbers, pumpkins, muskmelons, and other cucurbits in Florida. The disease occurs on watermelons yearly in the South Florida, but in northern Florida, it may be present in some years but not others. Although downy mildew of all cucurbits is caused by the same species, strains within the species seem to exist. It is not uncommon to see squash, cantaloupe, and cucumber severely diseased by downy mildew whereas nearby watermelons show no signs of the disease.. Although downy mildew can kill plants severely infected at an early stage, downy mildew typically reduces yield, fruit quality, and harvesting time by causing leaf infections that impair photosynthesis in the plant.. Leaf symptoms can be used to diagnose downy mildew in the field in some cases. On cucurbits, other than watermelon, small yellowish spots occur on the upper leaf surface initially away from the leaf margin. Later, a more brilliant yellow ...
  http://www.growingproduce.com/sponsor/dupont-crop-protection/downy-mildew-of-cucurbits/
*  Purpose and background information
These root-rotting oomycetes (Pythium, Phytophthora, Aphanomyces) are the reason we use sterile potting mixes for houseplants and for starting vegetable and flower transplants, rather than taking soil directly from our yards or gardens. Since oomycetes like water-logged soils, we also use pots with holes in the bottom to promote good drainage and healthy plant roots.. Other important plant diseases caused by oomycetes include downy mildews and the white rusts, which are diseases of aboveground plant parts, e.g., leaves, shoots, and fruits. Both downy mildews (e.g., Peronospora, Plasmopara) and white rusts (Albugo) are caused by obligate parasites, that cannot be grown in culture.. ...
  http://www.apsnet.org/EDCENTER/K-12/TEACHERSGUIDE/WATERMOLD/Pages/background.aspx
*  Reducing copper use in the environment: The use of larixol and larixyl acetate to treat downy mildew caused by Plasmopara...
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions.. RESULTS: Toxicologically and technically acceptable solvents like ethanol were used to extract the active compounds larixyl acetate and larixol from bark in sufficient amounts and their combined concentration could be increased up to 39% by purification steps. The combined concentration of larixyl acetate and larixol from larch turpentine could be increased up to 66%. MIC100 against P. viticola in vitro ...
  http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/842312/
*  Oomycete - Wikipedia
This group was originally classified among the fungi (the name "oomycota" means "egg fungus") and later treated as protists, based on general morphology and lifestyle.[6] A cladistic analysis based on modern discoveries about the biology of these organisms supports a relatively close relationship with some photosynthetic organisms, such as brown algae and diatoms. A common taxonomic classification based on these data, places the class Oomycota along with other classes such as Phaeophyceae (brown algae) within the phylum Heterokonta.. This relationship is supported by a number of observed differences in the characteristics of oomycetes and fungi. For instance, the cell walls of oomycetes are composed of cellulose rather than chitin[11] and generally do not have septations. Also, in the vegetative state they have diploid nuclei, whereas fungi have haploid nuclei. Most oomycetes produce self-motile zoospores with two flagella. One flagellum has a "whiplash" ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_mold
*  Emerging oomycete threats | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
The key to pathogenic oomycetes' success resides in their capacity to adapt to overcome host resistance and occasionally jump to new hosts. Various features of oomycete biology can explain their high evolutionary potential. One major driving force for their success is encompassed by their flexible mating system. Oomycetes can reproduce sexually (either homothallic or heterothallic), asexually or through interspecific hybridization [17] enabling them to gain both allelic diversity (sexual and interspecific hybridization) and to rapidly proliferate, resulting in large population sizes (asexual/clonal populations) [18]. Large population sizes compensates for the lack of sexual recombination and increase the occurrence of spontaneous mutants with enhanced fitness [18].. Genome sequencing of oomycetes has provided additional insights into their capacity to adapt to hosts. Oomycete genomes harbour large repertoires of genes encoding virulence ...
  http://d1vn86fw4xmcz1.cloudfront.net/content/371/1709/20150459
*  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
The key to pathogenic oomycetes' success resides in their capacity to adapt to overcome host resistance and occasionally jump to new hosts. Various features of oomycete biology can explain their high evolutionary potential. One major driving force for their success is encompassed by their flexible mating system. Oomycetes can reproduce sexually (either homothallic or heterothallic), asexually or through interspecific hybridization [17] enabling them to gain both allelic diversity (sexual and interspecific hybridization) and to rapidly proliferate, resulting in large population sizes (asexual/clonal populations) [18]. Large population sizes compensates for the lack of sexual recombination and increase the occurrence of spontaneous mutants with enhanced fitness [18].. Genome sequencing of oomycetes has provided additional insights into their capacity to adapt to hosts. Oomycete genomes harbour large repertoires of genes encoding virulence ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/371/1709/20150459.long
*  PHI-base :: Pathogen Host Interactions
PHI-base is being developed and maintained by scientists at Rothamsted Research and funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC, UK).. PHI-base is one of the ELIXIR-UK node resources ...
  http://www.phi-base.org
*  Biotrophs on Arabidopsis
Below is a summary of the progress reports that Ian and I (Eric) contributed to the quarterly newsletter of the UK-AFRC Arabidopsis initiative. Since the newsletter only had limited distribution, it seemed worthwhile that we share our summary with more of the Arabidopsis community via the network. Although speaking with hindsight, writing the reports has most definitely been a useful exercise to find out even for ourselves how far we have come over the past two years. I hope this contribution to the network will stimulate other groups in the community to provide a similar report of their own work. Eric Holub Ian Crute ============================================================ Identification and mapping of genes for resistance of Arabidopsis to biotrophic fungal pathogens /Peronospora parasitica/ and /Albugo candida/. Eric Holub and Ian Crute; HRI-East Malling, Kent. Jim Beynon, Mahmut Tor and Edemar Brose, Wye College, Kent. March 1990: Investigation began of two obligate fungal biotrophs ...
  http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/arab-gen/1992-June/000348.html
*  oomycete | mSphere
The oomycetes are a class of eukaryotes and include ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens. Single-gene and multigene phylogenetic studies of individual oomycete genera and of members of the larger classes have resulted in conflicting conclusions concerning interspecies relationships among these species, particularly for the Phytophthora genus. The onset of next-generation sequencing techniques now means that a... ...
  http://msphere.asm.org/keyword/oomycete
*  species phylogeny | mSphere
The oomycetes are a class of eukaryotes and include ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens. Single-gene and multigene phylogenetic studies of individual oomycete genera and of members of the larger classes have resulted in conflicting conclusions concerning interspecies relationships among these species, particularly for the Phytophthora genus. The onset of next-generation sequencing techniques now means that a... ...
  http://msphere.asm.org/keyword/species-phylogeny
*  Dr. Johannes Fahrentrapp | ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Fahrentrapp J, Seibicke T, Kassemeyer HH (2010). "Characterization of the Necrosis Producing Protein NPPpv from Plasmopara viticola Belonging to the Nep1-like Protein Family (NLPs) and its Putative Role in the Host-Pathogen-Interaction". 6th International Workshop of Grapevine Downy and Powdery Mildew, Bordeaux, France, ISBN 978-2-7380-1279-1 ...
  https://www.zhaw.ch/en/about-us/person/fahe/
*  MAKER - Differences in non overlapping protein file between runs
Differences in non_overlapping protein file between runs. Hello, First, thank you for developing MAKER, this is a great annotation tool! I am trying to annotate the genome of a biotrophic oomycete...
  http://gmod.827538.n3.nabble.com/Differences-in-non-overlapping-protein-file-between-runs-td4057173.html
*  Fungi/fungal-like antagonists - Pestinfo-Wiki
This group includes antagonistic fungi or oomycetes which are natural enemies of plant-diseases or nematodes. Various species are commercially produced and used in biological control programs of plant diseases or to protect stored products against infections. The following groups of antagonistic fungi and oomycetes have been entered into the system: ...
  http://wiki.pestinfo.org/wiki/Fungi/fungal-like_antagonists
*  Small Things Considered: Five Questions About Oomycetes
by Elio | As you know, the potato blight caused widespread famine in potato-dependent, mid-19th century Ireland. You may also be aware of a current malady, sudden oak death, that affects large numbers of trees in the Pacific coastal states of the USA. And if you are involved in agriculture in any way, you have likely heard of...
  http://schaechter.asmblog.org/schaechter/2009/11/fiv-1.html
*  FRAC | Introduction to the Phenylamides - FRAC Expert Fora
Despite the presence of Phenylamide-resistant isolates in major target pathogen populations, they continue to be used by growers as effective tools to manage disease when used in accordance with sound resistance management programs (see General Use Recommendations). The use recommendations are well established and do not create significant controversy among member companies, officials and advisors. Current sensitivity monitoring data are produced by only a few research groups in industry and academia. The presence of resistant subpopulations at varying proportions is well documented in several plant pathogen species of Oomycetes on a range of crops worldwide (Gisi and Cohen 1996; Gisi and Sierotzki 2008; FRAC Resistance Survey List, www.frac.info). However, sensitive subpopulations have not disappeared, even though PA-containing products have been used continuously in similar quantities and intensities over the past 30 years. This strongly suggests that the recommended anti-resistance ...
  http://www.frac.info/expert-fora/phenylamides/introduction
*  All 12-letter words containing Letters A, A, L, P and V
There are 19 twelve-letter words containing 2A, L, P and V: APPELLATIVES APPLAUSIVELY ... UPVALUATIONS VALPOLICELLA. Every word on this site can be used while playing scrabble. Create other lists, beginning with or ending with letters of your choice.
  https://www.bestwordlist.com/c/a/5/12letterwordswithaalpv.htm