Cisatracurium Besylate (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com
General anesthetics (eg, enflurane, isoflurane) May potentiate the action of cisatracurium. In long surgical procedures during ... General Advice. *Individualize dose, especially in patients with preexisting conditions and/or in burn patients. ... For inpatients and outpatients as adjunct to general anesthesia, to facilitate tracheal intubation and to provide skeletal ... Consider reduction of the infusion rate by 30% to 40% when administered during stable isoflurane or enflurane anesthesia. ...https://www.drugs.com/ppa/cisatracurium-besylate.html
Cisatracurium Besylate Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com
Anesthetics, general (enflurane, isoflurane). Increased potency and prolonged duration of neuromuscular blockade1 21 32 ... General. * Facilities and personnel necessary for intubation, administration of oxygen, and respiratory support should be ... Production of skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery after general anesthesia has been induced.1 5 11 20 21 ... Consider reducing infusion rate by up to 30-40% if steady-state anesthesia has been induced with enflurane or isoflurane; ...https://www.drugs.com/monograph/cisatracurium-besylate.html
Diprivan (propofol) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions... from PDR.net
Methamphetamine: (Major) General anesthetics (e.g., enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane) may sensitize the ... General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Doxepin: (Moderate) General anesthetics ... General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Prazosin: (Moderate) General anesthetics ... Norepinephrine: (Moderate) Norepinephrine interacts with general anesthetics because the anesthetics increase cardiac ...http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/diprivan?druglabelid=1719
Quillivant XR (methylphenidate hydrochloride) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions... from PDR.net
Enflurane: (Moderate) Inhalational general anesthetics (e.g., enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane) may ... Halogenated Anesthetics: (Moderate) Inhalational general anesthetics (e.g., enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and ... Desflurane: (Moderate) Inhalational general anesthetics (e.g., enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane) may ... Halothane: (Moderate) Inhalational general anesthetics (e.g., enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane) may ...http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Quillivant-XR-methylphenidate-hydrochloride-3038
Taken adderall, Having having an endoscopy to stretch my esophagus. Is taking adderall before anesthesia is bad? - Doctor's...
Flourinated General anesthetics like Halothane, Enflurane and methoxyflurane interact with Amphetamine by sensitizing heart to ... Flourinated General anesthetics like Halothane, Enflurane and methoxyflurane interact with Amphetamine by sensitizing heart to ... These drugs are called general anesthetics as they result in reversible loss of conciousness. But you have mentioned that it is ... These drugs are called general anesthetics as they result in reversible loss of conciousness. But you have mentioned that it is ...http://www.healthcaremagic.com/questions/Taken-adderall-Having-having-an-endoscopy-to-stretch-my-esophagus-Is-taking-adderall-before-anesthesia-is-bad/289488
Enflurane: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Entecavir: ( ... General anesthetics: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. ... Etomidate: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Everolimus: ( ... Fospropofol: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Gemifloxacin: ( ...http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Accupril-quinapril-hydrochloride-2551
Sedative - Wikipedia
Hydroxyzine Brompheniramine Chlorpheniramine General Anesthetics Nitrous oxide Sevoflurane Halothane Xenon Enflurane Chloroform ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sedative
Accuretic (hydrochlorothiazide/quinapril hydrochloride) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions... from PDR.net
Enflurane: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. (Moderate) General ... General anesthetics: (Moderate) General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. ( ... General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. (Moderate) General anesthetics can ... General anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. (Moderate) General anesthetics can ...http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Accuretic-hydrochlorothiazide-quinapril-hydrochloride-1684
Desflurane and Its Effect on Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Thoracic Surgery - Full Text View -...
Halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane are volatile anesthetics, a group of general anesthetics. Because ... In the last 10 years, however, numerous studies have reported that volatile anesthetic agents interact with membrane structures ... Anesthetic-induced preconditioning has become a main topic in cardiac research worldwide ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01452256
Safe and Unsafe Anesthetics - MHAUS
The following anesthetic agents are known triggers of MH: Inhaled General Anesthetics Desflurane Enflurane Ether ... Safe and Unsafe Anesthetics: Not safe for use in MH-susceptible patients... ... The following anesthetic agents are known triggers of MH:. *Inhaled General Anesthetics ... All other anesthetic agents outside of these two categories of Volatile anesthetic agents and depolarizing muscle relaxants are ...https://www.mhaus.org/healthcare-professionals/be-prepared/safe-and-unsafe-anesthetics/
Assessing Changes in Volatile General Anesthetic Sensitivity of Mice after Local or Systemic Pharmacological Intervention |...
McKenzie, J. D., et al. Effects of temperature on the anaesthetic potency of halothane, enflurane and ethanol in Daphnia magna ... McCarren, H. S., Moore, J. T., Kelz, M. B. Assessing Changes in Volatile General Anesthetic Sensitivity of Mice after Local or ... Moore, J. T., et al. Direct Activation of Sleep-Promoting VLPO Neurons by Volatile Anesthetics Contributes to Anesthetic ... Kelz, M. B., et al. An essential role for orexins in emergence from general anesthesia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, (4 ...https://www.jove.com/video/51079/vurdere-ndringer-i-flygtige-narkose-flsomhed-af-mus-efter-lokale?language=Danish
Patent US5419759 - Apparatus and methods for treatment of HIV infections and AIDS - Google Patents
Halogenated ethers that are currently used as general anesthetic agents can also be used, including: methoxyflurane (2,2- ... said halogenated ethers include: methoxyflurane (2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethyl methyl ether, Penthrane); enflurane (2-chloro-1 ... in small amounts for general anesthesia and it has always been recognized as being the safest anesthetic agent. However, if ... which is also a general anesthetic; trichloroethylene; dichloromethane (methylene chloride); ethyl chloride; ethylene; 1,1,1- ...http://www.google.ca/patents/US5419759
Block 1: Anesthetics- General Flashcards - Cram.com
Anesthetics- General at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade ... ":"Block 1: Anesthetics- General","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/block-1-anesthetics-general-269889","isGuest":true,"ga_ ... Enflurane. Sevoflurane IV anesthetics sedatives- (BBEP) barbituates, benzodiazepine, etomidate, propofol, opiods- -tanyl's. ...http://www.cram.com/flashcards/block-1-anesthetics-general-269889
Methoxyflurane - Wikipedia
... and the drug was abandoned as a general anesthetic in the late 1970s. In 1999, the manufacturer discontinued distribution of ... while fluoride formation from other volatile anesthetics (such as enflurane and sevoflurane) is not. Furthermore, the ... of patients developed an unusual type of nephropathy after operations in which methoxyflurane was used as a general anesthetic ... but also because of the development of newer volatile anesthetics such as enflurane, isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane, ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methoxyflurane
Anesthetic - Wikipedia
Anesthetics are categorized into two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local ... Partly because of its side effects, enflurane never gained widespread popularity. In theory, any inhaled anesthetic agent can ... June 2009). "General anesthetics and the developing brain". Current Opinion in Anesthesiology. 22 (3): 368-73. doi:10.1097/ACO. ... Concerns have been raised as to the safety of general anesthetics, in particular ketamine and isoflurane in neonates and young ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anesthetic
Patients receiving MAOIs may have an increased risk of hypotension after administration of general anesthetics. In general, ... Enflurane: (Severe) Patients taking MAOIs should not undergo elective surgery, including dental procedures, that require the ... General anesthetics: (Severe) Patients taking MAOIs should not undergo elective surgery, including dental procedures, that ... Combined hypotensive effects are also possible with the combined use of MAOIs and spinal anesthetics. In general, MAOIs should ...http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Nardil-phenelzine-sulfate-462
CNS Pharmacology General anesthetics Dr. Hiwa K. Saaed, H.D, M.Sc, Ph.D Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology College of ... 2. CLASSIFICATION General anesthetics Inhalational Gas Nitrous oxide Zenon Volatile liquids Ether halothane enflurane ... General anesthetics * 1. CNS Pharmacology General anesthetics Dr. Hiwa K. Saaed, H.D, M.Sc, Ph.D Department of Pharmacology & ... Nitrous oxide (N2O) "laughing gas" • It is a potent analgesic but a weak general anesthetic. • Rapid onset and recovery: • Does ...https://www.slideshare.net/Pharmacologist/2014-general-anesthetics
Pharmacology - General Anesthetics Flashcards - Cram.com
General Anesthetics at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you ... General Anesthetics","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/pharmacology-general-anesthetics-401418","isGuest":true,"ga_id":"UA- ... anesthetics dissolve in membrane = general change in volume/fluidity (Critical volume hypothesis/Membrane Fluidization ... Pharmacology 22 (General Anesthetics) * Pharmacology General Anesthetics Sedi... * General Anesthetics * Dr. Schriefer General ...http://www.cram.com/flashcards/pharmacology-general-anesthetics-401418
Trigenics Oat Procedure for Frozen Shoulder
General anesthetic drugs that have triggered MH include isoflurane, desflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane, methoxyflurane, cycl- ... Once the anesthetic has taken effect, the procedure is conducted. Even with the anesthetic, the patient does briefly experience ... there are also other basic complications of using general anesthetic for any surgery or manipulative procedure: Although ... are normally brought on specifically by agents used in general anesthetics. ...https://frozenshoulderclinic.com/oat-procedure/treatment-of-adhesive-capsulitis-using-local-anesthetic/
... general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics ... Enflurane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation ... general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics ... general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics ...http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Calan-verapamil-hydrochloride-1693
Frontiers | Propofol and sevoflurane induce distinct burst suppression patterns in rats | Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
... suggest that the circuit mechanisms that generate burst suppression activity may differ between different general anesthetics. ... We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. Finally, we report the results of our new study ... We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. Finally, we report the results of our new study ... suggest that the circuit mechanisms that generate burst suppression activity may differ between different general anesthetics. ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00237/full
Biological aspects of fluorine - Wikipedia
Several inhaled general anesthetic agents, including the most commonly used inhaled agents, also contain fluorine. The first ... Examples include sevoflurane, desflurane, enflurane, and isoflurane, all hydrofluorocarbon derivatives. Prior to the 1980s, ... Modern fluorinated anesthetics are longer-lasting still and almost insoluble in blood, which accelerates the awakening. ... fluorinated anesthetic agent, halothane, proved to be much safer (neither explosive nor flammable) and longer-lasting than ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_aspects_of_fluorine
Enflurane: (Major) Concomitant use of fentanyl with other CNS depressants, such as general anesthetics, may cause respiratory ... Only individuals trained in the administration of general anesthetics and the management of the respiratory effects of potent ... Halothane: (Major) Concomitant use of fentanyl with other CNS depressants, such as general anesthetics, may cause respiratory ... or in those receiving phenothiazines or general anesthetics, which may alter the capacity to sustain adequate pressures. In ...http://physician.pdr.net/drug-summary/Abstral-fentanyl-1395
General anesthetics modulate GABA receptor channel complex in...
General anesthetics modulate GABA receptor channel complex in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.: The effects of halothane, ... The effects of halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane on ionic currents induced by bath application of gamma-amino-butyric acid ( ... General anesthetics modulate GABA receptor channel complex in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.. Authors * Nakahiro, M ... In conclusion, general anesthetics exert a dual effect on the GABA receptor channel complex: to potentiate the nondesensitized ...https://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/general-anesthetics-modulate-gaba-receptor-channel-complex-rat-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-68c98c49
Sevoflurane and Isoflurane Reduce Oxygen Saturation in Infants: RESULTS
There were no significant differences among the three experimental groups with regard to age, body weight, or height (Table 1). The mean values (and standard deviations) for Spo2, heart rate, blood pressures, Petco2, and body temperature are listed in Table 2 by group and stage. In the sevoflurane and isoflurane groups, the mean Spo2 in stage 2 was significantly higher than in stages 1 and 3 (paired t test) but not in the enflurane group. The stage 1 and stage 3 Spo2 means were also lower statistically for the 2 anesthetics compared with enflurane. Heart rate in all the groups changed significantly from stage 1 to stage 2 but not from stage 2 to stage 3. Comparison of heart rates between stage 1 and stage 3 showed a significant difference in the enflurane and isoflurane groups but not in the sevoflurane group. Among the groups, there was no significant difference in stage 1; however, in stage 2, heart rate in the isoflurane ...http://www.anesthesiaprogress.com/sevoflurane-and-isoflurane-reduce-oxygen-saturation-in-infants-results.html
Enflurane - Drugs.com
Enflurane is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Enflurane is available on the Drugs.com website.https://www.drugs.com/international/enflurane.html
Effect of a small dose of droperidol on nausea, vomiting and recovery after outpatient enflurane anaesthesia.
Young, healthy outpatients (100) undergoing restorative dentistry and/or oral surgery under enfluranenitrous oxide-oxygen anaesthesia were given 0.014 mg/kg of droperidol or a saline placebo i.v. in a double-blind random fashion 5 min after inductionhttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Effect-small-dose-droperidol-nausea/4013624.html
Actions of Enflurane, Isoflurane, Vecuronium, Atracuium, and Pancuronium on Pulmonary Resistance in Dogs | Anesthesiology | ASA...
Jöorg Vettermann, M.D., Kenneth C. Beck, Ph.D., Sten G. E. Lindahl, M.D., Jean-Francois Brichant, M.D., Kai Rehder, M.D.; Actions of Enflurane, Isoflurane, Vecuronium, Atracuium, and Pancuronium on Pulmonary Resistance in Dogs. Anesthes 1988;69(5):688-695. Download citation file:. ...http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1953935
Nausea and vomiting after general anaesthesia with isoflurane, enflurane or fentanyl in combination with nitrous oxide and...
One-hundred and eighty patients undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy were anaesthetized in random order with isoflurane, enflurane or fentanyl in combination with nitrous oxide and oxygen. Incidence and severity of emetic sequelae (none, nauseahttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Nausea-vomiting-after-general-anaesthesia/3181147.html
Soda Lime Adsorption of Isoflurane and Enflurane | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
We have emailed you at with instructions on how to set up a new password. If you do not receive an email in the next 24 hours, or if you misplace your new password, please contact:. ASA members: ...http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1955277
Inhalation anesthetic legal definition of inhalation anesthetic
Definition of inhalation anesthetic in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is inhalation anesthetic? Meaning of inhalation anesthetic as a legal term. What does inhalation anesthetic mean in law?http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/inhalation+anesthetic
Diagnostic Activation of Epileptogenic Foci by Enflurane | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
DAVID C. FLEMMING, F.F.A.R.C.S., JAMES FITZPATRICK, M.D., RUGGERO G. FARIELLO, M.D., THOMAS DUFF, M.D., DANIEL HELLMAN, M.D., BRIAN H. HOFF, M.D.; Diagnostic Activation of Epileptogenic Foci by Enflurane. Anesthesiology 1980;52(5):431-433. Download citation file:. ...http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1958177
Common Side Effects of Ethrane (Enflurane) Drug Center - RxList
Find a comprehensive guide to possible side effects including common and rare side effects when taking Ethrane (Enflurane) for healthcare professionals and consumers.http://www.rxlist.com/ethrane-side-effects-drug-center.htm
RightAnswer Knowledge Solutions
Enflurane may cause CNS and respiratory depression, coughing, laryngospasm, hypotension, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity, and seizures. ECG changes, nausea and vomiting, and malignant hyperthermia have occurred with enflurane anesthesia. Rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure is a rare effect ...http://rightanswerknowledge.com/Chem_Pages/13838-16-9.htm
Comparative Effects of Halothane, Enflurane, and Isoflurane at Equipotent Anesthetic Concentrations on Isolated Ventricular...
We have emailed you at with instructions on how to set up a new password. If you do not receive an email in the next 24 hours, or if you misplace your new password, please contact:. ASA members: ...http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1953657
A Novel Method for Determining the Blood/Gas Partition Coefficients of Inhalation Anesthetics to Calculate the Percentage of...
The loss by blood/gas (λ) partition of inhalation anesthetics can be estimated by an equation for the percentage of loss. However, because λs of inhalation anesthetics at different temperatures have not been fully determined so far, the percentage of loss at varying temperature in various headspace volumes cannot be estimated. Therefore, a novel method was developed for the determination of inhalation anesthetic λ, in this study. The method was precise, with a relative standard deviation of less than 5%. The average of λ from seven distinct blood samples at 4°C 25°C and 37°C were determined as 6.68, 2.04, and 1.32 of isoflurane; 3.47, 1.10, and 0.65 of sevoflurane; and 2.31, 0.75, and 0.46 of desflurane, respectively. In addition, increasing temperature was found to decrease λ profoundly by a secondary order mechanism. Using the obtained value of λ, the percentage of loss of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and ...http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/jat/28.2.122
The Effects of Diethyl Ether, Enflurane, and Isoflurane at the Neuromuscular Junction | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications
We have emailed you at with instructions on how to set up a new password. If you do not receive an email in the next 24 hours, or if you misplace your new password, please contact:. ASA members: ...http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1961811
Effects of Halothane, Enflurane, Isoflurane, and Nitrous Oxide on Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Humans | Anesthesiology |...
Neuroanesthesia Fellow, Department of Anesthesiology (Neuroanesthesia Research), University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California. Currently Staff Anesthesiologist, U. S. Naval Hospital, San Diego, California, and Assistant Clinical Professor of Anesthesiology, University of California at San Diego ...http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1956205
Effects of Halothane, Enflurane, and Isoflurane in Nitrous Oxide on Multilevel Somatosensory Evoked Potentials | Anesthesiology...
Enflurane - DrugBank
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. [PubChem]https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00228
Halothane Hepatotoxicity: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Halothane and other halogenated inhalational anesthetic agents, such as enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, are known to cause severe liver dysfunction. The National Halothane Study, a retrospective analysis, reviewed the incidence and mortality rates of postoperative hepatic necrosis from 1959-1962.http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/166232-overview
Inhalation anesthetic agents
This topic will review the mechanisms, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, advantages, disadvantages, and techniques employed to induce and maintain general anesthesia with inhalation anesthetics, including the potent volatile agents (,,[and in somehttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/inhalation-anesthetic-agents
Global Inorganic Fluorides Market Professional Survey Report 2017 : ReportsnReports
[104 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Inorganic Fluorides Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Inorganic Fluorides in Global market, especially in...http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/1173343-global-inorganic-fluorides-market-professional-survey-report-2017.html
Episode 46: Obstetric Pharmacology and Fetal Assessment with Mike Hofkamp
The elimination of nitrous oxide by ten infants whose mothers had received 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen and enflurane 0.6-1% during general anaesthesia for Caesarean section was studied. The concentration of nitrous oxide detected in end-expired gas ranged from 1 to 4 vol% (mean 1.9 vol%). These levels are too low to produce significant diffusion hypoxia in vigorous neonates. However, a minority of infants may be adversely affected and it is recommended that oxygen-enriched air be administered to infants whose mothers have received nitrous oxide.. ...http://accrac.com/episode-46-obstetric-pharmacology-and-fetal-assessment-with-mike-hofkamp/
KAKEN - Research Projects | Effect of Inhalation Anesthetic on Barnoreflex and Maxillofacial Blood Flow under Hypotention...
Principal Investigator：SOMETY Genji, Project Period (FY)：1989 - 1990, Research Category：Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field：外科・放射線系歯学https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-01571090/
The effects of low dose isoflurane on inhibition of saccadic generation - Surrey Research Insight Open Access
Khan, OA, Taylor, SRJ, Swart, M and Jones, JG (1997) The effects of low dose isoflurane on inhibition of saccadic generation In: Anaesthetics Research Society Annual Meeting, 1997-04 - ?. Full text not available from this repository ...http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/828962/
Is it possible to get droopy eye lids from local anesthetic at the dentists office? (Photo) Doctor Answers, Tips
I agree with Dr. Ladocsi that this would be an incredibly unusual complication. Even a temporary eyelid droop would be unusual. A consultation with an...https://www.realself.com/question/droopy-eye-lid-from-local-anesthetic-dentists-office
OBSERVATIONS ON THE INDIVIDUAL EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON THE BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART RATE, STROKE VOLUME AND CARDIAC OUTPUT OF...
INTRODUCTION. There is increasing evidence that smokers suffer from coronary artery disease somewhat more frequently than nonsmokers.1-4 The reason for such an association is not known. English, Willius and Berkson first demonstrated the statistical validity of this finding in 1940, when they compared the records of 1,000 smokers and 1,000 nonsmokers and found a significantly higher incidence of coronary artery disease among smokers 40 to 59 years old than among nonsmokers of comparable age.1 The authors expressed the belief that "in all probability the smoking of tobacco was not an etiologic factor but was perhaps an influence that affected the ...http://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/676212/observations-individual-effects-smoking-blood-pressure-heart-rate-stroke-volume