*  Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/kexin Type 2 (PCSK2) Antikörper
differential gene expression profiles revealed more abundant mRNA expression in ectopic ACTH (zeige POMC Antikörper) syndrome ... The encoded protein plays a critical role in hormone biosynthesis by processing a variety of prohormones including proinsulin, ... variant of the PCSK2 gene was associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin (zeige INS Antikörper) secretion, but also ... PCSK2 gene polymorphisms are associated with pleiotropic effects on various traits of glucose homeostasis and incident diabetes ...
  http://www.antikoerper-online.de/peptide-hormone-metabolism-pathway-41/pcsk2-antibody-4780/
*  Carboxypeptidase E - Wikipedia
Goodge KA, Hutton JC (August 2000). "Translational regulation of proinsulin biosynthesis and proinsulin conversion in the ... Maeda K, Okubo K, Shimomura I, Mizuno K, Matsuzawa Y, Matsubara K (May 1997). "Analysis of an expression profile of genes in ... In humans, CPE is encoded by the CPE gene. Carboxypeptidase E functions in the production of nearly all neuropeptides and ... Hall C, Manser E, Spurr NK, Lim L (February 1993). "Assignment of the human carboxypeptidase E (CPE) gene to chromosome 4". ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxypeptidase_E
*  The proinsulin gene was positively detected in our transformed algae using genotyping PCR | Experiment
Experiment is an online platform for funding and sharing scientific discoveries. Push the boundaries of knowledge in biology, chemistry, medicine, physics, computer science, paleontology, economics, engineering, neuroscience, and more.
  https://experiment.com/u/BjnZCA
*  insulin facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about insulin
They started with the direct precursor to the insulin gene, proinsulin. Many of the steps are the same as when producing ... Another hope for diabetics is gene therapy. Scientists are working on correcting the insulin gene's mutation so that diabetics ... They insert it next to the lacZ gene. LacZ encodes for 8-galactosidase, a gene widely used in recombinant DNA procedures ... except in this method the amino acid machine synthesizes the proinsulin gene. ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/insulin
*  Disease Regression | GreenMedInfo | Keyword | Natural Medicine
Rehmannia enhances the gene expression of proinsulin in type 2 diabetic rats, leading to disease regression. Jan 01, 2002. ...
  http://www.greenmedinfo.com/keyword/disease-regression
*  Plus it
Parental INS-1 cells were stably transfected with a plasmid containing the human proinsulin gene, as previously described (14 ... Recombinant adenovirus as a gene delivery tool.. The use of a recombinant adenovirus for gene transfer into islet cells was ... Finally, we are currently applying the tools of gene discovery and recombinant adenovirus to identifying genes that may be used ... This level of efficiency for gene transfer is required for testing the impact of specific genes on candidate signaling pathways ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/suppl_3/S389
*  Frontiers | Structural and Molecular Conservation of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Its Receptor Confers Selective Ligand-Receptor...
... stimulation of proinsulin gene expression and proinsulin biosynthesis in insulinoma beta TC-1 cells. Endocrinology 130, 159-166 ... and exendin genes were generated by genome duplication events during early vertebrate evolution, as these genes are flanked by ... GLP-1 is a product of the GCG gene which encodes a common GCG-GLP-1-GLP-2 precursor. All three peptides are encoded by ... One GLP-1 paralog is the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) which is independently encoded by the GIP gene ( ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2012.00141/full
*  Patent US7790690 - Glucose sensitive regulator of insulin transcription - Google Patents
5. Short D K, Okada S, Yamauchi K, Pessin J E. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of a modified human proinsulin gene reverses ... Gene therapy of diabetes: glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in a human hepatoma cell line (HEP G2ins/g). Gene Therapy 1997; ... Human Gene Therapy 1997; 8:2249-2259.. *17. Wanke I E, Wong N C. Specific problems facing gene therapy for insulin-dependent ... Human Gene Therapy 1999; 10:1753-1762.. *3. Muzzin P, Eisensmith R C, Copeland K G, Woo S L C. Hepatic insulin gene expression ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US7790690?dq=6825444
*  Plus it
Despite the demonstration that GLP-1 stimulates proinsulin gene transcription, pancreatic insulin mRNA transcripts were similar ... We demonstrate here a gene dosage effect for the incretin action of GLP-1, as heterozygous GLP-1R +/- mice exhibit an abnormal ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/47/4/632
*  The Safety and Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 on cardiovascular tissue, adipose tissue, liver, and kidney
Fehmann HC, Habener JF. Galanin inhibits proinsulin gene expression stimulated by the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like ... Nakagawa A, Satake H, Nakabayashi H, Nishizawa M, Furuya K, Nakano S, Kigoshi T, Nakayama K, Uchida K. Receptor gene expression ...
  http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/the-safety-and-extrapancreatic-effects-of-glp-1-on-cardiovascular-tissue-adipose-tissue-liver-and-kidney/
*  Researching proinsulin misfolding to understand diabetes | EurekAlert! Science News
"When you are born, you receive two copies of the gene encoding proinsulin, one from your mom and one from your dad," says Billy ... "In the MIDY disease, having that one mutated gene making proinsulin is bad news," Tsai says. "The cell has to figure out a way ... The idea is that if misfolded proinsulin is chopped up and degraded, then the remaining normal proinsulin can move through the ... We also found that in animals in which production of misfolded proinsulin molecules reaches 30 percent of total proinsulin, ...
  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-11/uomh-rpm111616.php
*  Patent US20030119736 - Methods for improving islet signaling in diabetes mellitus and for its ... - Google Patents
... stimulation of proinsulin gene expression and proinsulin biosynthesis in insulinoma beta TC-1 cells. Endocrinology 130: 159-16 ... In the Gene Bank data base, this enzyme is registered as KIAA1492. In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, ... In the GENE BANK data base, this enzyme is registered as KIAA1492 (registration in February 2001, submitted on Apr. 4, 2000, ... Drucker D J, Philippe J, Mojsov S, Chick W L, Habener J F: Glucagon-like peptide I stimulates insulin gene expression and ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US20030119736?dq=5,646,839
*  Variants in the Human Insulin Gene That Affect Pre-mRNA Splicing | Diabetes
Shalev A, Blair PJ, Hoffmann SC, Hirshberg B, Peculis BA, Harlan DM: A proinsulin gene splice variant with increased ... Quantification of secreted proinsulin.. Total and intact proinsulin levels were measured in culture supernatants (48 h post- ... Variants in the Human Insulin Gene That Affect Pre-mRNA Splicing. Jana Královičová, Tom R. Gaunt, Santiago Rodriguez, Peter J. ... Variants in the Human Insulin Gene That Affect Pre-mRNA Splicing. Jana Královičová, Tom R. Gaunt, Santiago Rodriguez, Peter J. ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/55/1/260.full?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=kralovicova&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
*  Plus it
Leibowitz G, Üçkaya G, Oprescu AI, Cerasi E, Gross DJ, Kaiser N: Glucose-regulated proinsulin gene expression is required for ... B: Relative insulin gene mRNA expression in rat islets under basal conditions and after exposure to FGF-21 (50 nmol/l) for 24 h ... Khoo S, Griffen SC, Xia Y, Baer RJ, German MS, Cobb MH: Regulation of insulin gene transcription by ERK1 and ERK2 in pancreatic ... In summary, this study demonstrates that FGF-21 stimulates insulin gene transcription and insulin biosynthesis via activation ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/55/9/2470
*  Five Stages of Evolving Beta-Cell Dysfunction During Progression to Diabetes | Diabetes
Leibowitz G, Uckaya G, Oprescu AI, Cerasi E, Gross DJ, Kaiser N: Glucose-regulated proinsulin gene expression is required for ... Clearly these changes in gene expression are just the tip of the iceberg, and a full picture of β-cell phenotype awaits gene ... There must have been induction of some genes required for β-cell replication, but the genes responsible for maintaining the ... To maintain this degree of specialization, the genes that are highly expressed in β-cells include those of the secretory ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/53/suppl_3/S16.full
*  Plus it
... but transcriptional activity of the pre-proinsulin gene, as measured with a luciferase reporter gene assay, was not affected. ... Briefly, 1) SREBP-1c or the downstream genes regulated by it are candidate genes for primary β-cell dysfunction in insulin ... Indeed, the knockout of the UCP-2 gene has been shown to lead to elevation of the ATP/ADP ratio and insulin secretion of islets ... In agreement with this observation, SRE has been found in the promoter region of the UCP-2 gene (20). It has also been reported ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/suppl_3/S414
*  Inhibition of Preproinsulin Gene Expression by Leptin Induction of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 in Pancreatic β-Cells |...
Given that the insulin signaling pathway can regulate proinsulin gene expression, it is possible that leptin-induced SOCS3 ... Luciferase reporter gene assays in INS-1 β-cells. A: Cotransfection of the empty vector or rSOCS3 expression vector with the ... Luciferase reporter gene assays in INS-1 β-cells. A: Cotransfection of the control vector pcDNA3.1- and STAT3 and STAT5b ... Luciferase reporter gene assay in INS-1 β-cells. A: Treatment of INS-1 cells transiently transfected with the luciferase ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/54/12/3410
*  Plus it
However, the INS-1-derived cells used previously (39) were stably transfected with the human proinsulin gene and were selected ... Expression of the bcl-2 gene from a defective HSV-1 amplicon vector protects pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis. Human Gene ... Discovery of gene networks regulating cytokine-induced dysfunction and apoptosis in insulin-producing INS-1 cells. Diabetes ... Regulation of insulin gene transcription by a Ca2+-responsive pathway involving calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/58/8/1807
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Yue Zhou (Translated to Swedish)
We also show that CLECs transduced with a modified human proinsulin gene were transplanted intraperitoneally into ... SHA3/CBRD also possessed seedling resistance gene Lr26, and Naxos contained Lr1 based on gene postulation following tests with ... To identify APR genes in this line, a mapping population of 164 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from a cross of ... An increased gene copy number ranging from 4 to 20 copies was identified in a subset of the overexpressing patient samples and ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Yue_Zhou?language=Swedish
*  Plus it
We introduced a null mutation for the proinsulin 1 or proinsulin 2 gene by crossing proinsulin 2−/− 129 mice with NOD mice. ... Moreover, islet proinsulin 2 primes an immune response to proinsulin in proinsulin 2−/− mice. Thymus and bone marrow chimeras ... and proinsulin 1−/− 129 mice (53). The repertoire of immunogenic proinsulin peptides was identical in wild-type and proinsulin ... With the exception of MHC class II genes, the 5′ flanking region of the insulin gene, and the CTLA4 gene, most susceptibility ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/54/suppl_2/S87
*  Plus it
The knock out of either of the proinsulin genes in the mouse shows a direct impact on the repertoire of proinsulin-specific T- ... Many genes likely contribute to diabetes by directing the autoimmune reaction toward the β-cell target. As for mechanisms ... Genes that encode restricting class II molecules are the strongest genetic determinant of the development of autoimmunity, as ... The gerbil Psammomys obesus is a good model of gene versus environment interactions in type 2 diabetes. On a high-calorie diet ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/54/suppl_2/S1
*  Metagenics - Wikipedia
Recent advances have allowed the chains to be synthesized together by inserting the human proinsulin gene into E. coli cells, ... To accomplish this, synthetic genes for human insulin are fused with the β-galactosidase gene of E.coli, where they undergo ... which produce proinsulin through fermentation. Chemically synthesized genes for human insulin Synthesis of customized petroleum ... The limiting factor for the use of microorganisms like E. coli in biosynthesis of gene products like insulin is time, yet due ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metagenics
*  Plus it
... it involves a single point mutation in the proinsulin gene resulting in the substitution of aspartic acid for the naturally ... Proinsulin, the single chain precursor of insulin is more effective in the liver than in the periphery (Revers et al., 1984; ... 1987) Selective suppression of hepatic glucose output by human proinsulin in the dog. Am J Physiol 252:E230-E236. ... Dose requirements for proinsulin are approximately 4-fold higher than for human insulin, and there is a possible association ...
  http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/content/52/1/1
*  Bovine milk in human nutrition - a review | Springer for Research & Development
... as ROS inhibit expression of the pro insulin gene. Glutathione appears to have different important roles in leukocytes, as a ... PUFA may also affect signal transduction and gene expression [57, 58]. It is conceivable therefore that the type of fatty acid ... Jump DB, Clarke SD: Regulation of gene expression by dietary fat. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999, 19: 63-90. 10.1146/annurev.nutr.19.1.63 ... Zinc has several functions in the body, in DNA repair, cell growth and replication, gene expression, protein and lipid ...
  https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/1476-511X-6-25
*  Cord lining - Wikipedia
Animal studies on cord lining EpSC have shown that genetic modifications using the proinsulin gene allowed transplanted stem ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cord_lining