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*  Biliary colic - Wikipedia
The presence of gallstones can lead to inflammation of the gall bladder (cholecystitis) or the biliary tree (cholangitis) or ... ileal disease and impaired gallbladder emptying. Patients that have gallstones and biliary colic are at increased risk for ... causing gallstone ileus (mechanical ileus). Complications from delayed surgery include pancreatitis, empyema, and perforation ... Biliary colic, also known as a gallbladder attack or gallstone attack, is when pain occurs due to a gallstone temporarily ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biliary_colic
*  Gallstone - Wikipedia
There is 4 mm gall bladder wall thickening. Gallstones as seen on plain X-ray Large gallstone as seen on CT Play media A normal ... gallstones may erode through the gallbladder into adherent bowel potentially causing an obstruction termed gallstone ileus. ... Wine and whole-grained bread may decrease the risk of gallstones. Rapid weight loss increases risk of gallstones. Patients ... Play media Gallstone disease refers to the condition where gallstones are either in the gallbladder or common bile duct. The ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallstone
*  Cholecystitis - Wikipedia
Complications include the following: Gangrene Gallbladder rupture Empyema Fistula formation and gallstone ileus Rokitansky- ... differentiation from associated gall bladder carcinoma". Trop Gastroenterol. 26 (1): 31-3. PMID 15974235. CS1 maint: Multiple ... Patients are more likely to have yellowing of the skin (jaundice) than in calculous cholecystitis. Ultrasonography or computed ... With these direct connections, gallstones can pass from the gallbladder to the intestines. Gallstones can get trapped in the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecystitis
*  Cholecystectomy - Wikipedia
... of people with gallstones develop gallbladder cancer. Additional risk factors for gall bladder cancer include a "porcelain ... emphysematous gallbladder, fistulization of gallbladder and gallstone ileus, cholangitis, cirrhosis or portal hypertension, and ... The surgery is typically very successful in relieving symptoms that patients have, but up to 10% of people may continue to ... The gall bladder is removed in order to treat inflammation of the gall bladder (cholecystitis), biliary dyskinesia or ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecystectomy
*  Irritable bowel syndrome - Wikipedia
... patients were at increased risk of having unnecessary gall bladder removal surgery not due to an increased risk of gallstones, ... postoperative ileus, food allergy and inflammatory bowel disease. ▸ Mast cells play a central pathophysiological role in IBS ... Patient education and a good doctor-patient relationship are an important part of care. About 10 to 15% of people in the ... It acts as a bulking agent, and for many IBS-D patients, allows for a more consistent stool. For IBS-C patients, it seems to ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irritable_bowel_syndrome

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*  Inhibition of macrophage function prevents intestinal inflammation and postoperative ileus in rodents | Gut
Background: Abdominal surgery results in a molecular and cellular inflammatory response in the intestine, leading to postoperative ileus. It was hypothesised that resident macrophages within the intestinal muscularis have an important role in this local inflammation.. Aims: To investigate whether chemical or genetic depletion of resident muscularis macrophages would lead to a reduction in the local inflammation and smooth-muscle dysfunction.. Methods: Two rodent models were used to deplete and inactivate macrophages: (1) a rat model in which resident macrophages were depleted by chlodronate liposomes; (2) a model of mice with osteopetrosis mice, completely lacking the resident muscularis macrophages, used as an additional genetic approach. Animals with normal or altered intestinal macrophages underwent surgical intestinal manipulation. The inflammatory response was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for mRNA of MIP-1α, interleukin (IL)1β, IL6, ...
  http://gut.bmj.com/content/56/2/176
*  Plus it
Intestinal inflammation is associated with dysfunction from the mucosal barrier, which can occur in intestinal bowel diseases, allergic diarrhea, and infectious enteritis, or conditions that affect muscularis or outer layers of the bowel wall, such as peritonitis and postoperative ileus. In the latter case, intestinal muscularis macrophages play an important role in inducing intestinal dysmotility during inflammation by producing PGs and NO (7, 20, 40, 41, 50). However, the roles of PGs in iNOS induction and the subsequent intestinal dysmotility are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that PGE2 produced due to LPS stimulation activates the muscularis resident macrophages via EP2 and EP4 receptors to express the iNOS gene, which, in turn, induces intestinal dysmotility via the production of NO. PGE2 induces iNOS gene expression through the cAMP/PKA/MAPK signal transduction pathways in the intestinal muscularis macrophages.. Intestinal muscularis macrophages play an ...
  http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/302/5/G524
*  Economic Impact of Alvimopan Considering Varying Definitions of Postoperative Ileus | RTI
BACKGROUND: Prolonged postoperative ileus (POI) is the predominant cause of extended hospitalization after bowel resection surgery. Alvimopan accelerates gastrointestinal recovery, potentially reducing health care costs. We examined the value of alvimopan in reducing prolonged POI and length of stay for patients undergoing abdominal surgery using different definitions of POI. STUDY DESIGN: We developed a decision analytic model to examine costs and outcomes associated with postoperative treatment with either an accelerated care pathway (ACP) only or alvimopan+ACP.
  https://www.rti.org/publication/economic-impact-alvimopan-considering-varying-definitions-postoperative-ileus
*  Gallstone ileus: a forgotten rare cause of intestinal obstruction.
Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis, with a high morbidity and mortality rate - usually related to the delayed diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Diagnosing gallstone ileus needs a high index of suspicion. A case of a gall
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Gallstone-Ileus-forgotten-rare-cause/19858612.html
*  Functional ileus legal definition of functional ileus
Definition of functional ileus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is functional ileus? Meaning of functional ileus as a legal term. What does functional ileus mean in law?
  http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/functional+ileus
*  Ileus paralyticus | Article about ileus paralyticus by The Free Dictionary
Looking for ileus paralyticus? Find out information about ileus paralyticus. Acute intestinal obstruction of neurogenic origin Explanation of ileus paralyticus
  http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ileus+paralyticus
*  Ileus: Overview
Another name for Ileus is Ileus. What is an ileus? A person with an ileus has a condition that slows, or prevents, the passage of material through the ...
  http://www.freemd.com/ileus/overview.htm
*  Electroacupuncture for Postoperative Ileus After Laparoscopic Rectal Cancer Surgery
Postoperative ileus remains a significant medical problem after colorectal surgery that adversely influences patients' recovery. The investigators previ
  http://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT01844908/
*  Bouveret's syndrome: presentation of two cases with review of the literature and development of a surgical treatment strategy |...
The main treatment modality for Bouveret's syndrome is surgery, especially when percutaneous or endoscopic approaches are not an option or have failed [53]. The most common surgical options for extracting the stone are enterolithotomy and gastrotomy [16, 54]. Small bowel obstruction should be managed by enterolithotomy with longitudinal antimesenteric incision. A transverse closure of the enterolithotomy site is recommended to avoid stenosis [27, 28]. Resection is required for parts of the small bowel that have become irreversibly damaged [54, 55]. Surgical removal of the stone can be carried out with or without a simultaneous (one stage procedure) or subsequent cholecystectomy and fistula repair (two stage procedure) [15-17, 27, 28]. Cholecystectomy is indicated for retained gallstones in the gallbladder to prevent recurrence and complications [10, 54]. Laparoscopic techniques should be considered for surgical treatment whenever possible to minimize the ...
  https://bmcsurg.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2482-13-33
*  Trial of Acupuncture for Reduction of Post-Colectomy Ileus - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Postoperative ileus contributes to prolonged hospital stay, readmission and postoperative morbidities in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Reduction of postoperative ileus is important in postoperative recovery. Postoperative pain may require opioids, which further reduce gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Postoperative nausea and vomiting hamper the resumption of oral intake. Together, these three common postoperative problems contribute to patient discomfort, delayed discharge and increased overall hospitalization costs, despite current multi-modal management options. Any safe and effective therapy in addition to current standard of care would be welcomed by patients, surgeons and hospitals.. Acupuncture is a complementary medicine modality shown to reduce postoperative pain, suppress nausea and vomiting, and promote GI motility. It is associated with few adverse events. Here we propose a randomized, sham controlled phase II study ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00402961
*  Therapeutic action of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists targeting peritoneal macrophages in post-operative ileus. | Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Toko Maehara, Kenjiro Matsumoto, Kazuhide Horiguchi, Makoto Kondo, Satoshi Iino, Shunji Horie, Takahisa Murata, Hirokazu Tsubone, Shoichi Shimada, Hiroshi Ozaki, Masatoshi Hori].
  http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25377620
*  Alvimopan - DrugBank
Alvimopan is a peripherally acting μ opioid antagonist. It is used to avoid postoperative ileus following small or large bowel resection and accelerates the gastrointestinal recovery period.
  https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB06274
*  The Effect of Gum Chewing on Postoperative Ileus - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
After operations for a ruptured appendix, children are usually not allowed to eat or drink anything. This is because the infection inside the abdomen and the manipulation of the intestines during the operation cause the bowels to stop their normal movement. The resulting lack of bowel function is called an 'ileus'. When this occurs, intestinal secretions and anything taken in by mouth can become backed up, causing bloating, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Children are not allowed to eat or drink anything during this time and require fluid hydration through an IV or even nutrition through an IV. This ileus usually lasts an average of 4-5 days, and can sometimes delay the discharge of children who are otherwise ready to go. The purpose of this research study is to determine if simple things, like gum chewing or anti-motion sickness bracelets can help speed the time it takes for the bowels to begin working after an operation for a ruptured appendix. Because the gum is not ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00879294?recr=Open&cond=%22Appendicitis%22&rank=15
*  Postoperative ileus
Postoperative paralytic ileus refers to obstipation and intolerance of oral intake due to nonmechanical factors that disrupt the normal coordinated propulsive motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract following abdominal or nonabdominal surgery. T
  https://www.uptodate.com/contents/postoperative-ileus
*  "Identifying Characteristics Associated with Ileus Development Post Cor" by Kara C. Hannon
Background: Postoperative ileus (POI) is the period of intestinal paralysis following any surgical procedure. POI is manifested by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, delayed tolerance of oral diet and delayed time to flatus and stool. Little is known about POI following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) as no other study has focused specifically on the incidence of POI following CABG. Purpose: The primary objective of this study is to determine the incidence of POI post CABG. The secondary aim is to evaluate baseline characteristics associated with POI following CABG. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 100 patients who underwent CABG from October 2014 to February 2015 at Nebraska Medicine. The incidence of POI was the primary outcome. Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests were used to compare characteristics between participants who did and did not develop POI. POI risk factors were determined using univariate logistic regression. Results: The ...
  http://digitalcommons.unmc.edu/etd/132/
*  Entereg(R) (alvimopan) Available for the Management of Postoperative Ileus - MASSAGE Magazine
Opioid pain relievers have a role in inhibiting bowel function and motility. POI is associated with abdominal distension and bloating, persistent abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, delayed passage of or an inability to pass flatus (gas) or stool, and an inability to tolerate oral intake or progress to a solid diet.2. Opioid analgesics, such as morphine, are widely used for the treatment of postoperative pain. Entereg works by binding to mu-opioid receptors in the gut, selectively inhibiting the negative effects of opioid medications on GI function and motility without reversing central analgesic effects of the opioids. Entereg is for short-term hospital use only. The recommended adult dose of Entereg is a single 12 mg capsule administered orally 30 minutes to five hours prior to surgery followed by a 12 mg capsule twice daily beginning the day after surgery for a maximum of seven days or until discharge, not to exceed 15 doses. Enrollment in the E.A.S.E.„ Program Entereg is available only ...
  https://www.massagemag.com/enteregr-alvimopan-available-for-the-management-of-postoperative-ileus-1008/
*  A Study of Alvimopan for the Management of Postoperative Ileus in Participants Undergoing Radical Cystectomy - Tabular View -...
Time to achieve recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) function as measured by a composite endpoint of both upper GI recovery (toleration of solid food) and lower GI recovery (first bowel movement [BM]) using KM Estimates and Cox PH Model. This endpoint was referred to as GI2. GI2 was calculated as GI2 = maximum (max) (solids, BM). The KM estimate reported below is biased because of the censoring of the last observation.. Censoring Rules for Study Participants who:. Completed: the censored time for the event was determined as: censored time = minimum [maximum (time of/to last GI assessment, time of/to hospital discharge order written), study duration].. Discontinued: censored time = maximum (time of/to last GI assessment, time of/to discontinuation) ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00708201
*  Visceral Manipulation Is Shown to Reduce Postoperative Ileus in an Animal Model | The Journal of the American Osteopathic...
Before undergoing operations, the 20 rats assigned to the ST and SNT groups were appropriately anesthetized with isoflurane in pure oxygen and underwent sterile procedures for preoperative preparation. Each operation began with a midline incision. The small intestine was carefully "exteriorized," and its entire length was gently rolled between gloved thumb and forefingers in a process taking 5 minutes. Saline-soaked gauze was then draped over the small intestine, where it was left in place for 10 minutes. After this time, the small intestine was returned to the abdominal cavity and the incision closed. The start of the experiment was defined as the moment when the rats received a subcutaneous injection of morphine sulphate, 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. (Rats that did not undergo surgical procedures also received morphine injections, to control for the effects of morphine.) The rats were then wrapped in a soft pad for the recovery period. All rats were housed in separate enclosures, to facilitate ...
  http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094820
*  Did I Ask For It Stat?: Ileus
Ileus is a partial or complete non-mechanical blockage of the small and/or large intestine. It causes colic, vomiting, and constipation ...
  http://didiaskforitstat.blogspot.com/2007/04/ileus.html
*  Ileus | Sunrise Hospital
Learn more about Ileus at Sunrise Hospital & Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
  https://sunrisehospital.com/hl/?/23625/paralytic-ileus&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1
*  Ileus | Oak Hill Hospital | Brooksville, FL
Learn more about Ileus at Oak Hill Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
  https://oakhillhospital.com/hl/?/23625/Paralytic-ileus&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1
*  Ileus | Lawnwood Medical Center & Heart Institute | Fort Pierce, FL
Learn more about Ileus at Lawnwood Medical Center & Heart Institute DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
  https://lawnwoodmed.com/hl/?/23625/&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1
*  Ileus: Causes | ABIM Medical Mnemonics | NCLEX | Knowmedge
Medical Mnemonics - Ileus: Causes - Medicine Mnemonics - Looking for a MKSAP alternative? Try the Knowmedge ABIM Internal Medicine Qbank.
  http://knowmedge.com/medical_mnemonics/Medicine_mnemonics/Ileus:-Causes/442
*  adynamic ileus
... definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
  http://www.dictionary.com/browse/adynamic-ileus
*  Biliary-enteric fistula: pneumobilia | Radiology Case | Radiopaedia.org
The differential diagnosis includes pneumobilia (usually centrally located gas) and portal venous gas (usually more peripheral). The cause of this finding was a biliary-enteric fistula.
  https://radiopaedia.org/cases/biliary-enteric-fistula-pneumobilia-1