*  Sporogenous tissue, Sporogenous Tissue The primary sporogenous cells (PSCs) result, Biology
Biology Assignment Help, Sporogenous tissue, Sporogenous Tissue The primary sporogenous cells (PSCs) result after the periclinal division of the archesporial cells. The PSCs may undergo mitotic divisions and increase in number before functioning as MMCs or the PSCs may function directly as
*  ASMscience | The Role of Bacterial Spores in Metal Cycling and Their Potential Application in Metal Contaminant Bioremediation
Bacteria are one of the premier biological forces that, in combination with chemical and physical forces, drive metal availability in the environment. Bacterial spores, when found in the environment, are often considered to be dormant and metabolically inactive, in a resting state waiting for favorable conditions for them to germinate. However, this is a highly oversimplified view of spores in the environment. The surface of bacterial spores represents a potential site for chemical reactions to occur. Additionally, proteins in the outer layers (spore coats or exosporium) may also have more specific catalytic activity. As a consequence, bacterial spores can play a role in geochemical processes and may indeed find uses in various biotechnological applications. The aim of this review is to introduce the role of bacteria and bacterial spores in biogeochemical cycles and their potential use as toxic metal bioremediation agents.
*  Protons' binding within nanometer scaled compartments of natural ionic reservoirs: Bacillus subtilis spores
Dormant spores of bacteria of Bacillus genus are intriguing micrometer-scaled objects for a physico-chemical study. The most paradoxical feature of dormant spores is that, being metabolically inactive and resistant to environmental insults, they actually monitor the external environment continuously in order to sense a specific germinant, i.e., life of a spore is determined by the balance between stabilization factors and germination effectors. One may suggest that this dynamic alert system is linked to the spore's multi-layered structure which can change with time. The structure of Bacillus spores and mechanisms of spore resistance and dormancy support the hypothesis on the spore's ability to act as a natural ionic reservoir accumulating/releasing ions in response to environmental stimuli. At least two of the spore integuments, cortex and core, can be considered as interacting ion-sensitive polymer networks with different mobility of small ions. Since the ...
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Bacillus megaterium QM B1551
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
*  Spore Germination?
Your needle might have been too hot. Let it cool inthe water agar for 20-30 seconds before picking up the spores. Also, it often happens that % germination is low. I recommend spreading out the spores and leaving them to germinate overnight. Next day you can just pick off those that have actually germinated. This way you get 100% recovery. Good luck. Dave Brayford, IMI ---------- From: BIOSCI-REQUEST To: mycology Subject: Spore Germination? Date: 25 November 1995 5:51 I did monospore isolation with water agar and fine metal thread under microscopy. The agar that contained a single spore was cut and the isolated spore was cultured into PDA slants at 30 degree Celsius, but the germination rate was very low. Only 10 slants out of 200 slants germinated, did I do anything wrong ...
*  ASMscience | Spore Surface Display
A variety of bioactive peptides and proteins have been successfully displayed on the surface of recombinant spores of Bacillus subtilis and other sporeformers. In most cases, spore display has been achieved by stably anchoring the foreign molecules to endogenous surface proteins or parts of them. Recombinant spores have been proposed for a large number of potential applications ranging from oral vaccine vehicles to bioremediation tools, and including biocatalysts, probiotics for animal or human use, as well as the generation and screening of mutagenesis libraries. In addition, a nonrecombinant approach has been recently developed to adsorb antigens and enzymes on the spore surface. This nonrecombinant approach appears particularly well suited for applications involving the delivery of active molecules to human or animal mucosal surfaces. Both the recombinant and nonrecombinant spore display systems have a number of advantages over cell- or phage-based systems. The stability, ...
*  Termites as models of swarm cognition | SpringerLink
Eusociality has evolved independently at least twice among the insects: among the Hymenoptera (ants and bees), and earlier among the Isoptera (termites). Studies of swarm intelligence, and by inference, swarm cognition, have focused largely on the bees and ants, while the termites have been relatively neglected. Yet, termites are among the world's premier animal architects, and this betokens a sophisticated swarm intelligence capability. In this article, I review new findings on the workings of the mound of Macrotermes which clarify how these remarkable structures work, and how they come to be built. Swarm cognition in these termites is in the form of "extended" cognition, whereby the swarm's cognitive abilities arise both from interaction amongst the individual agents within a swarm, and from the interaction of the swarm with the environment, mediated by the mound's dynamic architecture. The latter provides large scale "cognitive maps" which enable termite swarms to assess the functional ...
*  Pollen : Map (The Full Wiki)
In angiosperms, during flower development the anther is composed of a mass of cells that appear undifferentiated, except for a partially differentiated dermis. As the flower develops, four groups of sporogenous cells form with in the anther, the fertile sporogenous cells are surrounded by layers of sterile cells that grow into the wall of the pollen sac, some of the cells grow into nutritive cells that supply nutrition for the microspores that form by meiotic division from the sporogenous cells. Four haploid microspores are produced from each diploid sporogenous cell called a microsporocyte, after meiotic division. After the formation of the four microspores, which are contained by callose walls, the development of the pollen grain walls begins. The callose wall is broken down by an enzyme called callase and the freed pollen grains grow in size and develop their characteristic shape and form a resistant outer wall called the exine and an inner wall called ...
*  Bacterial Spores Power Small Engine - Xaf Gadget
A car that runs on bacteria? It might not be quite the kind of car you're imagining, but researchers report they have built a rotary engine powered by bacterial spores.. A spore lengthens as it soaks up water from the air and shortens with evaporation. To harvest energy from those natural movements, biophysicist Ozgur Sahin and his Columbia University colleagues glued spores to both sides of small tapes, shown in yellow. When dry, the spores make the tapes curl; in humid surroundings, they stretch out.. The team arranged about 100 tapes evenly around a wheel scaffold and encased it in a moist shell that covers half of the wheel. After they rigged it up to a toylike car that weighs as little as a small apple, their contraption, reported in Nature Communications, actually propelled the car - albeit at less than 4 inches per minute.. ...
*  MegaSporeBiotic 60 caps
The use of spores as probiotics is highly important as spores are designed to survive through the gastric system and colonize well to produce the needed effects. Additionally, spores make a potent impact in the gut since the spore population in the gut is low enough that the 4 billion spores added each day through MegaSporeBiotic will make a potent impact on the sensory systems in the gastrointestinal tract to create beneficial effects. Spores are also important to police and defend the gut from unwanted microbes and to support the growth of the natural species found in each individual. A mega dose, spore culture/consortium formula with broad-spectrum activity, has only been available as a pharmaceutical drug, until now MegaSporeBiotic is the first offered as a dietary supplement.. A culmination of published research shows that spores, like those found in MegaSporeBiotic, when used as probiotics could confer ...
*  Swarm Robotics | Technology Trends
Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of multirobot systems which consist of large numbers of mostly simple physical robots. It is supposed that a desired collective behavior emerges from the interactions between the robots and interactions of robots with the environment. This approach emerged on the field of artificial swarm intelligence, as well as the biological studies of insects, ants and other fields in nature, where swarm behaviour occurs. ...
*  Spore Hero details revealed for Wii and DS - Pocket-lint
As Pocket-lint reported back in January, Spore is coming to the Wii, and extending its presence on the DS handheld. Spore Hero and Spore Hero Arena will
*  Spore API | ProgrammableWeb
The Spore API gives you access to the database for the game Spore from Maxis and Electronic Arts. Millions of custom content created and shared by the community of players. You can select items made by individual users, grouped by sporecasts or customize your search by other filters.
*  Oriental Fermented Foods - Foodelphi.com
Polished rice is soaked in water overnight ® drained ® steamed for 1 hr ® mixed with 2% of wood ash, for trace elements ® inoculate with A. oryzae spores ® Spread out in tray 1,5 cm ® cover with damp clothes ® incubate at 30C for 5 days (green to yellowish spores of A. oryzae mycellium ® spores are harvested ® dried at 50 C and stored at 15 C. [ 25×107 viable spore/gm of tane koji ...
*  Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microspor-idia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Con-tact to...
Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microspor-idia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Con-tact to Human
*  PAR-12-296: Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs) in Human Cancer for Years 2013 and 2014 (P50)
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs) in Human Cancer for Years 2013 and 2014 (P50) PAR-12-296. NCI
*  Will Wright's E3 Spore Presentation - Slashdot
moto writes 'ThinkGaming is reporting from E3, and had a chance to take a look at Will Wright's Spore during the early-hours press access. From the article: 'To start, Will showed an overview of the latest creature editing system. He mentioned that almost all parts of the editing system, from hands ...
*  Spore Available For Download - Games news
Games news - Spore has become available for download on the EA Store. Everyone willing to pay the bill can rush over and click the download button. Don't be too ha
*  Spore • Eurogamer.net
Sims creator enormously ambitious new project sees you control life from the petri dish to the Star Destroyer in a totally user-defined environment. ...
*  Spore | GamesRadar+
You don't need us to tell you that E3 is packed full of more games than you can shake an outsize third-party joypad at - an awful lot of which are
*  Energizing Spores - Spell - World of Warcraft
Increases the enemy's stats by 30. This is an NPC Ability. Requires Druid. A spell from World of Warcraft. Always up to date with the latest patch.
*  Yankees no longer want Sori - AP Sports - recordonline.com - Middletown, NY
NEW YORK - Rafael Soriano still is looking for a job, but the Yankees rejected agent Scott Boras' overtures about potentially bringing the free-agent reliever back on a one-year deal.
*  Steri-7 Hand Soap 800ml Cartridge | Farm & Stable
DEFRA approved, organic and yet powerful cleaner. Kills 99.99% of pathogens, including most harmful viruses, spores, moulds and bacteria in seconds. Find Out More ...
*  Respiritory - TRM - Browse By Brand | Farm & Stable
DEFRA approved, organic and yet powerful cleaner. Kills 99.99% of pathogens, including most harmful viruses, spores, moulds and bacteria in seconds. Find Out More ...
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O.K., I know some of my entries haven''t been super-serious, but I need advice. I''m toying around with an abstract,SimAnt-like RTS-style game called Swarm, ...