*  Merotelic kinetochore orientation versus chromosome mono-orientation in the origin of lagging chromosomes in human primary...
Khodjakov, A., Cole, R. W., McEwen, B. F., Buttle, K. F. and Rieder, C. L. ( 1997). Chromosome fragments possessing only one ... An increasing number of studies have shown that abnormalities such as aneuploidy and whole-chromosome loss of heterozygosity ... that in untreated human primary fibroblasts the frequency of anaphase lagging chromosomes for all the 23 chromosome pairs was ... of which 94 displayed lagging chromosomes, for a total of 130 chromosome loss events for the two chromosomes under study. The ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/115/3/507
*  Plus it
Karyotype analysis of paired cell lines. Using classic cytogenetic techniques, a study of chromosomal abnormalities was done to ... the two pairs of cell lines obtained from 2 of 32 tumor fragments were extensively studied. They displayed similar morphology ... For example, chromosome number varied between 52 and 56 for CT320, between 49 and 55 for CT320X6, from 65 to 136 for CT329, and ... Tumor fragment F329 came from a patient who displayed a high response to FOLFOX treatment, but because of L-OHP-induced ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/1/398
*  9q34 deletion syndrome - Wikipedia
The multicolour probes attach to a certain DNA fragment. MLPA is a test that finds and records DNA copy change numbers through ... The DNA samples (which are 25-80 base pairs in length) are then placed on slides to be observed under microscope. Lastly, EHMT1 ... Terminal deletions of chromosome 9q34 have been associated with childhood hypotonia, a distinctive facial appearance and ... MLPA can be used to detect tumours in the glial cells of the brain, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Array-based ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9q34_deletion_syndrome
*  Genes & Chromosomes [M.Tevfik Dorak]
Chromosome abnormalities. Chromosome abnormalities may be numerical (aneuploidy: monosomy or trisomy) or structural: deletion, ... Telomeres have important functions such as preventing end-to-end fusion of chromosomes, assisting with chromosome pairing in ... fragments (May CA, 2002). The consequences of the obligatory recombination within PAR-1 are that genes show only partial sex ... Chromosomes differ in their sizes. The smallest human chromosome is chromosome 21 (50 Mb) and the largest one is chromosome 1 ( ...
  http://dorakmt.tripod.com/genetics/notes03.html
*  End-sequence profiling - Wikipedia
Chromosome abnormalities Chromosomal inversion Insertion (genetics) Deletion (genetics) Chromosomal translocation Chromosome ... Snyder and his group improved the ESP to 3kb resolution by sequencing both pairs of 3-kb DNA fragments without BAC construction ... the fragments is cloned into plasmids to construct artificial chromosome such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) which ... The size of fragments inserted is 150-350 kb. Another commonly used artificial chromosome is fosmid. The difference between BAC ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/End-sequence_profiling
*  Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Primer on Molecular Genetics
... or other identifiable DNA fragments are assigned to their respective chromosomes, with distances measured in base pairs. These ... associated with chromosomal abnormalities. cDNA map. A cDNA map shows the positions of expressed DNA regions (exons) relative ... which consist of fragments derived from source DNA enriched for a particular chromosome. (See Separating Chromosomes, above.) ... places on the same chromosome or on the other copy of the same chromosome (i.e., the homologous chromosome). This process ( ...
  https://biotech.law.lsu.edu/blaw/HGP/DOE1/prim2.html
*  Fluorescence in situ hybridization - Wikipedia
... of oligozoospermic men have an increased rate of sperm chromosome abnormalities. The analysis of chromosomes 21, X, and Y is ... These fragments are on the order of 100 thousand base-pairs, and are the basis for most FISH probes. Cells, circulating tumor ... In the eventual analysis, these fragments were put into order by digesting a copy of each fragment into still smaller fragments ... Each probe for the detection of mRNA and lncRNA is composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, each pair covering a space of 40-50 bp ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluorescence_in_situ_hybridization
*  Rhabdomyosarcoma | Cancer Genetics Web
A wide range of other chromosomal abnormalities have also been reported; particularly gain of material in chromosomes 2, 8, 12 ... To circumvent this problem, we irreversibly inverted the orientation of a 4.9 Mb syntenic fragment on chromosome 3, ... we applied a systematic method that takes into account germline and somatic alterations in 44 tumor-normal RMS pairs using deep ... Selected list of common recurrent structural abnormalities. Abnormality. Type. Gene(s). t(1;13)(p36;q14) in Rhabdomyosarcoma. ...
  http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/X2002.htm
*  DNA - New World Encyclopedia
For instance, the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, is 220 million base pairs long.[17] ... This is because DNA will survive in the environment for less than one million years and slowly degrades into short fragments in ... Non-homologous recombination can be damaging to cells, as it can produce chromosomal translocations and genetic abnormalities. ... DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. The set of chromosomes in a ...
  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/DNA
*  Nutrition and the genome: a new chapter in health and disease: (EUFIC)
This DNA is arranged in 23 units or chromosomes, each chromosome occurs as a pair of 2 with one chromosome donated by each ... and shape of each chromosome type. The karyotype can be used to map gross abnormalities Messenger RNA (mRNA): RNA that serves ... The cDNAs with a sequence that matches the sequence of one of the gene fragments stick to the fragment like glue and the cDNA ... Chromosome: Structures that contain the genes. The human somatic cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes). ...
  http://www.eufic.org/en/healthy-living/article/nutrition-and-the-genome-a-new-chapter-in-health-and-disease/
*  Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances,...
... chromosome- and chromatid-type fragments, identified as acentric fragments that derived from a chromosome or chromatid ... Sperm Abnormality. Reproductive toxicity was tested by applying sperm-shape abnormalities assessment using the methods ... cut into 3-4 parts by a pair of clean scissors, and immediately placed into 1 mL PBS at 37°C. After standing for 20 minutes ... chromosome fragments, (e) chromosome with dicentrics and the accompanying fragments, (f) Robertsonian translocation, (g) ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/1947819/
*  Molecular Genetic Analysis of Human Endometrial Mesenchymal Stem Cells That Survived Sublethal Heat Shock
G-banding of these cells revealed random structural and functional chromosome abnormalities (aneuploidy, chromosome breakages ... The analysis identified in both intact and SHS-survived cell small duplicated fragment (62 kB) in the chromosome 7 (7q36.3) ... O. V. Anatskaya, E. A. Erenpreisa, N. N. Nikolsky, and A. E. Vinogradov, "Pair-wise cross-species transcriptome analysis of ... The picture illustrates trisomy and near-centromere breakage of chromosomes 1, 3, monosomy of chromosomes 11; absence of 2 ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2017/2362630/
*  Neither the New Zealand Genetically Hypertensive Strain nor Dahl Salt-Sensitive Strain Has an A1079T Transversion in the α1...
PCR fragments amplified from genomic DNA, with the use of the 1079+/1079− primer pair, and from control and mutant clones were ... Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for blood pressure on rat chromosome 2. J Clin Invest. 1994; 94: 431-436. ... However, it is still possible that some other, as yet undiscovered, abnormality in the untranscribed portion of the Atp1a1 gene ... The 1079+/1079− primer pair was chosen with the principal criteria of strong and specific amplification of a fragment that ...
  http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/38/4/786
*  Molecular Genetic Testing in Pediatric Practice: A Subject Review | AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics
... from the maternally derived chromosome and the other originating from the paternally derived chromosome of each chromosome pair ... In addition to detecting large-scale deletions of chromosome material, FISH also can be used to detect abnormalities of ... Markers for DNA sequences in or near genes include restriction fragment length polymorphisms, variable number of tandem repeats ... A genetic locus is the place on homologous chromosome pairs where genes are located. Each gene is composed of 2 alternative ...
  http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/106/6/1494?ijkey=78adce5a88ab729c4dd697053eb9d8c267f9f9c5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Hepatitis C Virus Inhibits DNA Damage Repair through Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species and by Interfering with the ATM-NBS1...
B and C, SKY analysis of spontaneous chromosome abnormalities in HCV-infected JT and Raji cells. The t(8;14) translocation was ... We also examined the formation of MN, which are small nuclei arising from acentric chromatids or chromosome fragments, induced ... and complex rearrangements involving different pairs of chromosome (Fig. 2B). Similar observations were made in another cell ... 2F). The propensity for chromosome loss was greater than that for chromosome gain (Fig. 2F, 2G). As cancer cell lines, such as ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/185/11/6985.long
*  Generation X d Out
In each double strand helix of human DNA there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomes and three billion pairs of ... These DNA fragments are called micronuclei, typical mutations from excessive X-rays, or from gamma waves of nuclear detonation ... The two main causes of miscarriage are chromosomal abnormalities and problems in the intrauterine environment. Among the most ... When chromosome damage to reproductive germ cells is slight and there is no actual loss of genetic material, the offspring will ...
  http://proliberty.com/observer/20081120.htm
*  Patent US5985549 - Non-isotopic in-situ hybridization method for detection of nucleic acids - Google Patents
... or whether the nucleic acid sequence of interest is localized in the chromosomes, nucleus, or cytoplasm of a cell. The methods ... Genes on homologous chromosomes are not closely paired. Because the neu oncogene is more centrally localized at interphase than ... As with the W and A fragments, hybridization with either the K or Y/H most frequently produced a pair of closely spaced ... Methods for preparing and analyzing cells having chromosomal abnormalities. US20070031818 *. Feb 14, 2006. Feb 8, 2007. ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US5985549?dq=5,072,412
*  Genetic testing | Britannica.com
... determined to identify chromosomal abnormality. Cells for chromosome analysis also can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling ... Recombinant DNA and PCR methods can detect any change in DNA, down to a one-base-pair change, such as a point mutation or a ... In recombinant DNA technology, small DNA fragments are isolated and copied, thereby producing unlimited amounts of cloned ... Y chromosome testing is based on genetic comparison of Y chromosomes, from males. Because males with a common male ancestor ...
  https://www.britannica.com/science/genetic-testing
*  Genetic Testing facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Genetic Testing
The last pair are the sex chromosomes and include the X and Y chromosomes. If a child receives an X chromosome from each parent ... Extra or missing chromosomes cause mental and physical abnormalities. A child born with an extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) has ... Another technique known as gel electrophoresis sorts the DNA fragments by size. Autoradiography renders the DNA fragments by ... Just as each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so each parent contributes one gene from each chromosome. The pair ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/genetic-testing
*  Single-cell DNA template strand sequencing - Wikipedia
Other large chromosomal abnormalities would likely share that mapping resolution. This may be dependent on a combination of the ... At this point the chromosomes are composed of nascent strands with BrdU in place of thymidine and the original template strands ... Multiplexing PCR primers are then ligated to the PCR amplicons with hexamer barcodes identifying which cell each fragment they ... The protocols have been published for only the Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform using paired-end sequencing. Applications ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-cell_DNA_template_strand_sequencing
*  The Molecular Pathogenesis of Giardiasis : Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Giardia has been estimated to have between 8 and 50 sets of chromosomes with a total genome size of about 1.2 × 107 base pairs ... Intestinal Transport Abnormalities. Several studies in animal models suggest that there are functional consequences of the ... DNA analysis by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and DNA fingerprinting has demonstrated marked genetic diversity (14 ... Extensive and frequent polymorphisms have been noted at the end of these chromosomes, whereas the central chromosome domains ...
  http://journals.lww.com/jpgn/Fulltext/1997/01000/The_Molecular_Pathogenesis_of_Giardiasis.18.aspx
*  post by InhaleExhale
There are about about 3 billion base pairs in the human genome. One of Pye's tests consisted of a sample of only 400 base pairs ... Pye also concluded it's impossible for an abnormality like this of the FOXP2 gene to exist in humans. Here is proof that is a ... DNA testing done in 1999 by BOLD found 100% human X and 100% human Y chromosomes. Meaning the mother and father were both 100% ... based upon the dentition in the right maxillary fragment Their DNA research from 2003 shows that it was a human that was part ...
  http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread999257/pg8
*  Autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy - Wikipedia
The TREX1 gene is located on chromosome 3: base pairs 48,465,519 to 48,467,644 The immune system is composed of white blood ... The abnormality of the cells with the high concentration of "scrap" DNA triggers a T-cell response and the abnormal cells are ... In this way, it breaks down unneeded DNA molecules or fragments that may be generated during genetic material in preparation ... Optically correctable, but continuous, deterioration of visual acuity due to extensive multifocal microvascular abnormalities ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autosomal_dominant_retinal_vasculopathy_with_cerebral_leukodystrophy
*  ijaset.com
DNA fragmentation, sperm abnormalities and loss of some base pair of DNA (Genetic alternations) is due to the effect chromosome ... display four amplified fragments while 610 bp fragments for A-group. Also, samples treated with Eight fragments in the control ... In particular, chromosome aberrations, sperm abnormalities and DNA damage are closely studied.. 25 male rats have been selected ... sperm abnormalities and chromosome aberrations [14, 16 It is worth noting that the differences between amaryl- and 40]. Thus, ...
  http://medpdffinder.com/i/ijaset.com1.html
*  Project
Karyotyping Each chromosome pair is visualized. Deviations from normal kariotype are analyzed and provide a foundation for ... and red-labeled DNA fragments compete for hybridization to their locus of origin on the chromosome(3). ... have acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. The identification of specific chromosomal aberration is fundamental for the ... We often observe numerical chromosomal changes in cancer cells, meaning that certain chromosomes are present in too few or too ...
  http://icgi.net/Diagnostics/kariotyping-and-CGH