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*  A meta-analysis of previous fracture and subsequent fracture risk
article{7b0e99f3-ff3f-4c2f-a372-e10c11be417f, abstract = {Previous fracture is a well-documented risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and to explore the relationship of this risk with age, sex, and bone mineral density (BMD). We studied 15259 men and 44902 women from 11 cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, OFELY, CaMos, Rochester, Sheffield, Rotterdam, Kuopio, DOES, Hiroshima, and two cohorts from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for a total of 250000 person-years. The effect of a prior history of fracture on the risk of any fracture, any osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture alone was examined using a Poisson model for each sex from each cohort. Covariates examined were age, sex, and BMD. The results of the different studies were merged by using the weighted beta-coefficients. A previous fracture history was associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture compared with individuals without a prior fracture (RR = ...
  https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/898628
*  Fracture mechanisms and fracture pattern in men and women aged 50 years and older : a study of a 12-year population-based...
Osteoporosis-related fracture is already today a major public health problem and the number of hip fractures is expected to double to 2030. Sweden has one of the highest hip fracture incidences worldwide. This may be explained by several factors: e.g. age, genetic, climatologic, geographic and a relative vitamin D deficiency, secondary to the limited sunlight exposure especially during winter months. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to a fracture, although a prior low energy fracture is one of the strongest predictors for a subsequent one and this should be a target for secondary fracture prevention in an orthopaedic setting.. Since 1993 all injured patients admitted to the emergency floor and all in-hospital fractures at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, were registered according to the Injury Data Base, former EHLASS. There were 31,173 fracture events (one or more fractures at the same time), of which 13,931 were in patients' ≥ 50 years old. The ...
  http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:209835
*  Best Complex Long Bone Fracture Doctor in Mumbai, Complex Long Bone Fracture Doctors | Credihealth
Find the best complex long bone fracture doctors in Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select complex long bone fracture specialist in Mumbai from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
  https://www.credihealth.com/doctors/mumbai/complex-long-bone-fracture
*  High Prevalence of Low-Trauma Fracture in Chronic Pancreatitis
OBJECTIVES:Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is associated with risk factors that may negatively impact bone and mineral metabolism. The important clinical end point of osteoporosis is 'low-trauma' fracture. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of 'low-trauma' fracture in patients with CP, compared with fracture rates in 'high-risk' gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses, for which metabolic bone disease screening guidelines are in place.METHODS:This is a retrospective cohort database study examining patients with CP and 'high-risk' GI illnesses seen at a single tertiary care center. Time points ranged between 31 July 1998 and 31 July 2008. The main outcome measure was 'low-trauma' fracture prevalence using specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification fracture codes.RESULTS:A total of 3,192 CP patients and 1,461,207 non-CP patients were included in the study. The fracture prevalence (patients with fracture per total patients) was as follows: ...
  http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/55595914/high-prevalence-low-trauma-fracture-chronic-pancreatitis
*  What Is A Fracture? What Are Broken Bones?
A fracture, also referred to as a bone fracture, FRX, FX, Fx or # is a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broke. A significant percentage of bone fractures occur because of high force impact or stress; however, a fracture may also be the result of some medical conditions which weaken the bones, for example osteoporosis, some cancers or osteogeneris imperfecta. A fracture caused by a medical condition is known as a pathological fracture.. The word break is commonly used by lay (non-professional) people. Among health care professionals, especially bone specialists, such as orthopedic surgeons, break is a much less common term when talking about bones. A crack (not only a break) in the bone is also known as a fracture. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body. There are several different ways in which a bone can fracture; for example a clean break to the bone that does not damage surrounding tissue or tear through the skin is known as a closed fracture or ...
  http://www.feelingemotion.com/what-is/what-is-a-fracture-what-are-broken-bones.html
*  Fractures - Timonium Foot and Ankle
A fracture is defined as a break in a bone. Fractures are separated into two categories, traumatic/acute fractures or stress fractures.. A traumatic/acute fracture refers to a fracture that results from an acute injury. This results from a direct impact on the bone. An example of an acute fracture is stepping off of a curb and twisting the foot resulting in a fracture of the 5th metatarsal bone. These types of fractures can be non-displaced or displaced. In a displaced fracture, the normal alignment of the bone is changed and patients can sometimes see a deformity of the involved bone. In a non-displaced fracture, normal alignment is ...
  https://www.timoniumfootandankle.com/conditions/fractures/
*  Pseudopillow fracture systems in lavas: insights into cooling mechanisms and environments from lava flow fractures - Open...
We use fracture surface textures and their orientation in relation to flow banding to identify three distinct types of master fracture and two types of subsidiary fractures. Master fracture surface textures used to identify fracture mechanisms include chisel marks (striae), cavitation dimples, river lines and rough/smooth fracture surface textures. These indicate both brittle and ductile fracture happening on different types of master fracture. Chisel marks on subsidiary fractures indicate comparative cooling rates, cooling directions and isotherm orientations at the time of fracture. We propose a model for pseudopillowfracturesystem formation taking into account all the various fracture types, textures and fracture propagation mechanisms and discuss their implications for interaction mechanisms between lavaflows and external coolants.. ...
  http://oro.open.ac.uk/35462/
*  When, Where and How Osteoporosis-Associated Fractures Occur: An Analysis from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in...
Objective To examine when, where and how fractures occur in postmenopausal women. Methods We analyzed data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), including women aged ≥55 years from the United States of America, Canada, Australia and seven European countries. Women completed questionnaires including fracture data at baseline and years 1, 2 and 3. Results Among 60,393 postmenopausal women, 4122 incident fractures were reported (86% non-hip, non-vertebral [NHNV], 8% presumably clinical vertebral and 6% hip). Hip fractures were more likely to occur in spring, with little seasonal variation for NHNV or spine fractures. Hip fractures occurred equally inside or outside the home, whereas 65% of NHNV fractures occurred outside and 61% of vertebral fractures occurred inside the home. Falls preceded 68-86% of NHNV and 68-83% of hip fractures among women ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0083306
*  Fracture Trends | BMUS: The Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases in the United States
The total number of fractures of the upper and lower extremities treated in physician offices, emergency departments, and hospitals, while fluctuating from year to year, has varied between 12 million and 15 million from 1998 to 2010. Upper limb fractures, including those of the arm, forearm, wrist, hand, and fingers, have accounted for slightly more than one-half of all fractures, with a range of 52% to 59%. Fractures of the upper arm, or humerus, are the least common. In recent years, upper arm fractures have accounted for about 20% of total upper limb fractures. Fractures of the wrist, hand, and fingers occur slightly more often than fractures of the forearm ...
  http://www.boneandjointburden.org/2014-report/via23/fracture-trends
*  Patente US7866395 - Hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation control in unconsolidated and ... - Google Patentes
A method and apparatus for initiating and propagating a vertical hydraulic fracture in unconsolidated and weakly cemented sediments from a single bore hole to control the fracture initiation plane and propagation of the hydraulic fracture, enabling greater yield and recovery of petroleum fluids from the formation. An injection casing with multiple fracture initiation sections is inserted and grouted into a bore hole. A foam fracture fluid carrying a proppant is injected into the injection casing and opens the fracture initiation sections to dilate the formation in a direction orthogonal to the required fracture azimuth plane. Propagation of the fracture is controlled by limiting the fracture fluid form to that of a stable foam fracturing fluid during the fracturing process. The injection casing initiation section remains open after fracturing providing direct hydraulic connection between the production well bore, the permeable proppant filled fracture and the formation.
  http://www.google.es/patents/US7866395
*  Nearly one in four postmenopausal women with fractures is obese - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Obesity is widely believed to be protective against fracture, although a recent study has documented a high prevalence of obesity in postmenopausal women with fragility fracture. An international group of researchers has today presented research at the European Congress on Osteoporosis & Osteoarthritis (ECCEO11-IOF) that compares the prevalence and location of fractures in obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2) and non-obese postmenopausal women and examines specific risk factors for fracture. A history of fracture after age 45 years was observed in 23% of obese and 24% of non-obese women. Nearly one in four postmenopausal women with fractures is obese. The upper arm, ankle and lower leg were significantly more likely to be affected in obese than non-obese women with a prevalent fracture, whereas fractures of the wrist, hip and pelvis were significantly less common than in non-obese women. When compared to non-obese women, obese women with a prevalent fracture were more ...
  https://www.healthcanal.com/bones-muscles/15632-nearly-one-in-four-postmenopausal-women-with-fractures-is-obese.html
*  A new numerical method of considering local longitudinal dispersion in single fractures
The solutions of advection-dispersion equation in single fractures were carefully reviewed, and their relationships were addressed. The classic solution, which represents the resident or flux concentration within the semi-infinite fractures under constant concentration or flux boundary conditions, respectively, describes the effluent concentration for a finite fracture. In addition, it also predicts the cumulative distribution of solute particle residence time passing through a single fracture under pulse injection condition, based on which a particle tracking approach was developed to simulate the local advection-dispersion in single fractures. We applied the proposed method to investigate the influence of local dispersion in single fractures on the macrodispersion in different fracture systems with relatively high fracture density. The results show that the effects of local dispersion on macrodispersion are dependent on the heterogeneity ...
  http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:685407
*  Body fat mass is a predictor of risk of osteoporotic fractures in women but not in men: a prospective population study -...
The results of this study show that low body fat mass is an independent risk factor for fractures amongst women but not men. Women with, for instance, ,20% body fat have a 3.5 times higher risk of hip fracture and 2.2 times increased risk of any type of fracture compared with women with ∼40% body fat. We observed a positive association between fat mass and bone properties (as measured by heel QUS in our study), but the magnitude of this association may not have been large enough to account for the effect of fat mass on fracture risk. Risk of hip fracture amongst women almost halved with each 10% increase in %BF (Table 3), and a nonlinear reduction in risk was also observed for any type of fracture. Differences in findings between studies may reflect a lack of consideration of possible sex difference and nonlinear associations.. We observed the harmful effects of low fat mass on hip and other fractures only amongst women. Although it is possible that the lack of a significant ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02443.x/full?globalMessage=0
*  The exclusion of high trauma fractures may underestimate the prevalence of bone fragility fractures in the community : The...
Fractures associated with severe trauma are generally excluded from estimates of the prevalence of osteoporotic fractures in the community. Because the degree of trauma is difficult to quantitate, low bone mass may contribute to fractures following severe trauma. We ascertained all fractures in a defined population and compared the bone mineral...
  http://www.bdsp.ehesp.fr/Base/173699/
*  Why care about long term testosterone deficiency? Osteopenia and osteoporosis: Bone fractures, health and social consequences |...
Osteoporotic fractures in men have been, until recently, a neglected health problem, but this area is now the subject of renewed interest and investigation. Osteoporosis, once thought, inappropriately, to be an inevitable consequence of aging, is now assuming increasing importance, especially in women, because of the morbidity and mortality associated with fractures, and the burgeoning public health burden that this represents. However, more recently it has also been recognized that men lose bone density with advancing age and are also subject to osteoporotic fractures. One in eight men older than the age of fifty years has an osteoporotic fracture, and some 30% of hip fractures, representing the greatest health care burden, occur in men. Moreover, the mortality rate after a hip fracture is greater in men than women. While osteoporosis in men and women have many similarities, there are some interesting differences. Present therapies, while ...
  https://www.pulsus.com/abstract/why-care-about-long-term-testosterone-deficiency-osteopenia-and-osteoporosis-bone-fractures-health-and-social-consequenc-103.html
*  Cognitive Function in Young Men and the Later Risk of Fractures | Lund University Diabetes Centre
Dementia has been associated with an increased risk of fractures. These associations may be explained by an impaired cognitive function, as well as comorbid illness and toxic reaction from drugs. To investigate whether cognitive function in young, healthy individuals already affects the risk of fractures, overall cognitive function scores were calculated from four cognitive tests accomplished during a national conscriptions test in 960,956 men with a mean age of 18 years. Incident fractures were searched in national registers. During a median follow-up of 30 years (range 0 to 41 years), 65,313 men had one fracture and 2589 men had a hip fracture. Compared with men with no fracture, overall cognitive function at baseline was 3.5% lower for men sustaining one fracture and 5.5% lower for men sustaining a hip fracture (p,0.001 for both). When comparing the lowest and the highest decile, low overall cognitive function scores increased the risk one fracture ...
  https://www.ludc.lu.se/paul-franks/publication/821801fc-444c-4166-9c79-88f006408dc4
*  Global Bone Fracture Plate Market Research Report 2016: BAID, HOPE, DraGonbio, WASTON | Medgadget
Notes: Production, means the output of Bone Fracture Plate Revenue, means the sales value of Bone Fracture Plate This report studies Bone Fracture Plate in
  https://www.medgadget.com/2016/10/global-bone-fracture-plate-market-research-report-2016-baid-hope-dragonbio-waston.html
*  Avulsion fracture - Wikipedia
An avulsion fracture is a bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma. This can occur at the ligament due to the application forces external to the body (such as a fall or pull) or at the tendon due to a muscular contraction that is stronger than the forces holding the bone together. Generally muscular avulsion is prevented due to the neurological limitations placed on muscle contractions. Highly trained athletes can overcome this neurological inhibition of strength and produce a much greater force output capable of breaking or avulsing a bone. If the fracture is small, it is usually sufficient to treat with rest and support bandage, but in more severe cases, surgery may be required. Ice may be used to relieve swelling. Displaced avulsion fractures are best managed by either open reduction and internal fixation or closed reduction and pinning. Open reduction (using surgical incision) and internal fixation is used ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avulsion_fracture
*  Fractures after antiretroviral initiation
The study also has several limitations. Certain known risk factors such as previous fracture, alcohol use, and secondary causes of osteoporosis were not available in the ALLRT or parent study databases. Most parent studies did not specify the reporting of fractures, and therefore fractures were likely underreported. In addition, it was not possible to ascertain whether a fracture was a fragility or nonfragility fracture. Study visit schedules were more intensive for the parent studies than the semiannual visits of ALLRT, especially during the first year of the parent study; therefore, the increased rate of fracture events during the first 1-4 years may be partially confounded by increased opportunity to report adverse events on the part of the participant or increased vigilance on the part of the investigator of the parent study. However, fractures are significant adverse events that participants are likely to remember and report even if the study visits ...
  http://www.natap.org/2012/HIV/110712_01.htm
*  Guérin's fracture - definition of Guérin's fracture by The Free Dictionary
Define Guérin's fracture. Guérin's fracture synonyms, Guérin's fracture pronunciation, Guérin's fracture translation, English dictionary definition of Guérin's fracture. fracture left to right: transverse, oblique, and greenstick fractures n. 1. a. The act or process of breaking. b. The condition of having been broken or...
  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Gu%C3%A9rin%27s+fracture
*  Fracture - definition of fracture by The Free Dictionary
Define fracture. fracture synonyms, fracture pronunciation, fracture translation, English dictionary definition of fracture. fracture left to right: transverse, oblique, and greenstick fractures n. 1. a. The act or process of breaking. b. The condition of having been broken or...
  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/fracture
*  What are the Risk Factors for Fragility Fractures?
Low bone mineral density (BMD): Risk of fracture increases progressively with reduction in BMD. Every 1 standard deviation reduction in BMD equates approximately to a doubling of the relative risk of fracture. The majority of fragility fractures occur in those with a BMD T-score above the osteoporosis threshold of 2.5 or less (i.e. within the osteopenic range) rather than those with osteoporosis (i.e. with a T-score of ≤ −2.5). This is attributable to the population of patients with osteopenia being more numerous than those with osteoporosis and the osteopenic range covering a broad spectrum of fracture risk ...
  https://nos.org.uk/for-health-professionals/professional-development/osteoporosis-resources-for-primary-care/identification/what-are-the-risk-factors-for-fragility-fractures/
*  NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Hip Fracture
Preventing a hip fracture is more desirable than treating one. Preventive measures include taking in enough calcium every day. For women past menopause and not taking estrogen, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends 1,500 milligrams (mg) daily. For those taking estrogen, the recommendation is 1,000 mg. Middle-aged men should take 1,000 mg daily.. Women at menopause should consider having a bone density test. A bone density test is used to measure the bone mineral content and thickness of the bone. This measurement can indicate decreased bone mass, a condition in which bones are more brittle and more prone to break or fracture easily. A bone density test is used primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk.. Women, who sustain the majority of hip fractures, produce less estrogen when menopause begins. Most people do not know they have osteoporosis until they sustain a fracture.. Another way to help prevent hip fracture is to engage in regular weight-bearing ...
  http://www.nyhq.org/diw/Content.asp?PageID=DIW008957&More=DIW
*  NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Hip Fracture
Preventing a hip fracture is more desirable than treating one. Preventive measures include taking in enough calcium every day. For women past menopause and not taking estrogen, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends 1,500 milligrams (mg) daily. For those taking estrogen, the recommendation is 1,000 mg. Middle-aged men should take 1,000 mg daily.. Women at menopause should consider having a bone density test. A bone density test is used to measure the bone mineral content and thickness of the bone. This measurement can indicate decreased bone mass, a condition in which bones are more brittle and more prone to break or fracture easily. A bone density test is used primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk.. Women, who sustain the majority of hip fractures, produce less estrogen when menopause begins. Most people do not know they have osteoporosis until they sustain a fracture.. Another way to help prevent hip fracture is to engage in regular weight-bearing ...
  http://www.nyhq.org/diw/content.asp?PageID=P08957&More=OTH
*  NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Hip Fracture
Preventing a hip fracture is more desirable than treating one. Preventive measures include taking in enough calcium every day. For women past menopause and not taking estrogen, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends 1,500 milligrams (mg) daily. For those taking estrogen, the recommendation is 1,000 mg. Middle-aged men should take 1,000 mg daily.. Women at menopause should consider having a bone density test. A bone density test is used to measure the bone mineral content and thickness of the bone. This measurement can indicate decreased bone mass, a condition in which bones are more brittle and more prone to break or fracture easily. A bone density test is used primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk.. Women, who sustain the majority of hip fractures, produce less estrogen when menopause begins. Most people do not know they have osteoporosis until they sustain a fracture.. Another way to help prevent hip fracture is to engage in regular weight-bearing ...
  http://www.nyhq.org/diw/content.asp?pageid=P08957&language=Chinese