*  Deciduous Trees For Zone 7 Gardens - What Are Some Commonly Planted Deciduous Trees
Selecting deciduous trees for zone 7 is easy, and gardeners can choose from a very long list of beautiful, commonly planted deciduous trees. For examples of zone 7 deciduous trees and suggestions that provide fall color or summer shade, click this article.
  https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/garden-how-to/gardening-by-zone/zone-7/zone-7-deciduous-trees.htm
*  Status and future of the forest health indicators program of the USA | Treesearch
For two decades, the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, has been charged with implementing a nationwide field-based forest health monitoring effort. Given its extensive nature, the monitoring program has been gradually implemented across forest health indicators and inventoried states. Currently, the Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program has initiated forest health inventories in all states, and most forest health indicators are being documented in terms of sampling protocols, data management structures, and estimation procedures. Field data from most sample years and indicators are available on-line with numerous analytical examples published both internally and externally. This investment in national forest health monitoring has begun to yield dividends by allowing evaluation of state/regional forest health issues (e.g., pollution and invasive pests) and contributing substantially to national/international reporting efforts (e.g., National Report on Sustainability ...
  https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38434
*  Forest health monitoring: National status, trends, and analysis 2012 | Treesearch
The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation Monitoring projects funded through the national Forest Health Monitoring Program. Survey data are used to identify geographic patterns of insect and disease activity. Satellite data are employed to detect geographic clusters of forest fire occurrence. Data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the Forest Service are employed to detect regional differences in tree mortality. Relationships are assessed between macrolichen species richness and forest density, forest connectivity, and land cover. Macrolichen data are also used to investigate the effects of precipitation on indices used to develop nitrogen critical loads. Nine ...
  https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/47199
*  Forests | Free Full-Text | Late-Successional and Old-Growth Forests in the Northeastern United States: Structure, Dynamics,...
Restoration of old-growth forest structure is an emerging silvicultural goal, especially in those regions where old-growth abundance falls below the historic range of variability. However, longitudinal studies of old-growth dynamics that can inform silvicultural and policy options are few. We analyzed the change in structure, including stand density, diameter distribution, and the abundance of large live, standing dead, and downed dead trees on 58 late-successional and old-growth plots in Maine, USA, and compared these to regional data from the U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Structural dynamics on the late-successional plots reflected orderly change associated with density-dependent growth and mortality, but dynamics on the old-growth plots were more variable. Some plots experienced heavy mortality associated with beech bark disease. Diameter distributions conformed poorly to a classic exponential distribution, and did not converge toward such a distribution at the plot scale. Although
  http://mdpi.com/1999-4907/4/4/1055/htm
*  tree stand for small tree - 28 images - the clutter removing erythrocyte organizing, tree stand for small tree photo album best...
tree stand for small tree - 28 images - tree stands and small trees, best 28 poinsettia tree stand vintage santa, tree stand for small tree photo album best, tree stand for small tree photo album best, choosing your tree stand site
  http://ridgeharborchristmas.com/tree-stand-for-small-tree.html
*  Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning | BMC Ecology | Full Text
Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity [1]. The income of more than 1.6 billion people depends on forests and sustainable management of forests can contribute to sustainable development, poverty eradication and the achievement of internationally agreed development goals [1, 2]. Despite increasing efforts for sustainable forest management and forest conservation [3], the extent of forest habitat, in particular in the tropics, continues to decrease, mainly by forest conversion to agriculture and land uses related to urban population growth [4, 5]. Between 1980 and 2000 more than half of the new agricultural land across the tropics was obtained by clearing intact forests [6, 7]. Also, many disturbed and secondary forests, which are increasingly important habitat for many forest species [8, 9], are eventually cleared for agricultural purposes.. In the remaining forests and forest fragments, decreasing habitat patch sizes result in ...
  https://bmcecol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6785-11-29
*  Heterogeneity and assessment uncertainties in forest characteristics and biomass carbon stocks: Important considerations for...
The management of forests to store carbon and mitigate climate change has received significant inter- national attention during the last decade. Using in situ data from a 2008-2009 forest inventory field campaign in Sri Lanka, this study describes the structural characteristics and carbon stocks of six natural forest types. This paper has a dual scope: i) to highlight the variation in carbon stored in aboveground biomass within and between forest types and ii) to determine the implications of the allometric equa- tions chosen to calculate biomass carbon stocks. This study concerns work related to climate change interventions, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and other forest-related, performance-based initiatives that require proper monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon stocks, sinks and emissions. The results revealed that forests are heterogeneous in terms of tree density and height-diameter relationships, both between and within the six forest
  http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/publication/241041-heterogeneity-and-assessment-uncertainties-in-forest-characteristics-and-biomass-carbon-stocks-impor
*  "Responses of Deciduous Trees to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: P" by Richard L. Lindroth, Karl K. Kinney et al.
Lindroth, Richard L. et al. 1993. Responses of Deciduous Trees to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Productivity, Phytochemistry, and Insect Performance. Ecology 74 (3): 763-777.. ...
  https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/aspen_bib/2339/
*  Forest management is associated with physiological stress in an old-growth forest passerine | Proceedings of the Royal Society...
We investigated how physiological stress in an area-sensitive old-growth forest passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris), is associated with forest fragmentation and forest structure. We found evidence that the concentrations of plasma corticosterone in chicks were higher under poor food supply in dense, young forests than in sparse, old forests. In addition, nestlings in large forest patches had lower corticosterone levels and a better body condition than in small forest patches. In general, corticosterone levels were negatively related to body condition and survival. We also found a decrease in corticosterone levels within the breeding season, which may have been a result of an increase in food supply from the first to the second broods. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation may decrease the fitness of free-living individual treecreepers.. ...
  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/270/1518/963
*  Geological Control of Floristic Composition in Amazonian Forests
Amazonia contains the largest remaining tracts of undisturbed tropical forest on earth, and is thus critical to international nature conservation and carbon sequestration efforts. Amazonian forests are notoriously difficult to study, however, due to their species richness and inaccessibility. This has limited efforts to produce the accurate, high-resolution biodiversity maps needed for conservation and development. The aims of the research described here were to identify efficient solutions to the problems of tropical forest inventory; to use these methods to identify floristic patterns and their causes in western Amazonia; and propose new means to map floristic patterns in these forests.. Using tree inventories in the vicinity of Iquitos, Peru, I and a colleague systematically evaluated methods for rapid tropical forest inventory. Of these, inventory of particular taxonomic groups, or taxonomic scope inventory, was the most efficient, and was able to capture a majority of the pattern observed ...
  https://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/2978
*  Moderate Water Demand Deciduous Trees - City of Arvada
The City of Arvada Plant List - Moderate Water Demand Deciduous Trees will help you to select drought-tolerant species for your landscaping projects.
  http://arvada.org/city-hall/city-code/plant-list/moderate-water-demand-deciduous-trees
*  Urban forest - Wikipedia
An urban forest is a forest or a collection of trees that grow within a city, town or a suburb. In a wider sense it may include any kind of woody plant vegetation growing in and around human settlements. In a narrower sense (also called forest park) it describes areas whose ecosystems are inherited from wilderness leftovers or remnants. Care and management of urban forests is called urban forestry. Urban forests may be publicly-owned municipal forests, but the latter may also be located outside of the town or city to which they belong. Urban forests play an important role in ecology of human habitats in many ways: they filter air, water, sunlight, provide shelter to animals and recreational area for people. They moderate local climate, slowing wind and stormwater, and shading homes and businesses to conserve energy. They are critical in cooling the urban heat island effect, thus potentially reducing the number of unhealthful ozone days that plague major cities in peak summer months. In many ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_forest
*  Diversidade de grilos (Orthoptera: Grylloidea): Aspectos ecológicos e o metodológicos
Ecological theory has proposed several mechanisms that might hold an effect on species diversity. Amongst so many possibilities, the aim of this thesis was to investigate crickets biodiversity response to forest regeneration time and resource availability as well. To represent the different times of forest recovery, we sampled a chronosequence represented by several forest fragments in different regeneration times. On the first chapter of this thesis, we tested the response of crickets species richness and composition against forest regeneration time. We evaluated percentage of canopy cover and litter depth as environmental variables. Species richness increased asymptotically with forest regeneration time and linearly with canopy cover and litter depth. Furthermore, when tested against forest recovery time, canopy cover had a positive linear relationship while litter depth had an asymptotical increase. Species composition was completely different among sampled forest fragments, with different ...
  http://www.locus.ufv.br/handle/123456789/7861
*  Forests | Free Full-Text | Insights on Forest Structure and Composition from Long-Term Research in the Luquillo Mountains
The science of ecology fundamentally aims to understand species and their relation to the environment. At sites where hurricane disturbance is part of the environmental context, permanent forest plots are critical to understand ecological vegetation dynamics through time. An overview of forest structure and species composition from two of the longest continuously measured tropical forest plots is presented. Long-term measurements, 72 years at the leeward site, and 25 years at windward site, of stem density are similar to initial and pre-hurricane values at both sites. For 10 years post-hurricane Hugo (1989), stem density increased at both sites. Following that increase period, stem density has remained at 1400 to 1600 stems/ha in the leeward site, and at 1200 stems/ha in the windward site. The forests had similar basal area values before hurricane Hugo in 1989, but these sites are following different patterns of basal area accumulation. The leeward forest site continues to accumulate and increase basal
  http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/8/6/204
*  Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Outcomes of Forest Restoration in The Bronx - Society for Ecological Restoration
Planting native trees can revive an ailing forest, but trees alone cannot fight the spread of invasive species. According to a study by the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the USDA Forest Service, continued maintenance is also necessary to meet restoration goals.. In a study recently published by the journal Restoration Ecology, continued research into the outcomes of multiple forest restoration techniques will provide a basis for managers to make informed decisions about the preservation and restoration of our urban landscapes. The study is based on research at Pelham Bay Park in The Bronx. Better known as the home of tough guys and Yankee Stadium, The Bronx is actually the greenest of New York's five boroughs, and Pelham Bay Park is more than three times the size of Central Park. In the late 80s, however, you couldn't see the forest for the vandalism and illegal dumping. Invasive vine species covered the existing canopy and was smothering the mature trees and preventing ...
  http://www.ser.org/news/305433/
*  Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Outcomes of Forest Restoration in The Bronx - Society for Ecological Restoration
Planting native trees can revive an ailing forest, but trees alone cannot fight the spread of invasive species. According to a study by the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the USDA Forest Service, continued maintenance is also necessary to meet restoration goals.. In a study recently published by the journal Restoration Ecology, continued research into the outcomes of multiple forest restoration techniques will provide a basis for managers to make informed decisions about the preservation and restoration of our urban landscapes. The study is based on research at Pelham Bay Park in The Bronx. Better known as the home of tough guys and Yankee Stadium, The Bronx is actually the greenest of New York's five boroughs, and Pelham Bay Park is more than three times the size of Central Park. In the late 80s, however, you couldn't see the forest for the vandalism and illegal dumping. Invasive vine species covered the existing canopy and was smothering the mature trees and preventing ...
  http://www.ser.org/news/305433/page/
*  James L. Chamberlain | People | SRS
Inventory Methods for Non-Timber Forest Products: Methods are lacking to estimate the amount of plant material available for harvest in natural populations. This research focuses on developing knowledge and creating models to predict harvestable biomass based. This requires: 1) undertaking forest-based studies to generate data on plant characteristics; 2) examining relationships between desired organs and measurable plant parts, and; 3) creating models that allow for estimating volumes of the desired organs. This research is leading to knowledge that will significantly improve the inventory of non-timber forest resources.. Forest Inventory Tree Data to Improve Knowledge of Non-Timber Products: A goal of this research is to develop knowledge about the distribution and abundance of NTFPs by using FIA forest inventory data. This requires: 1) describing NTFPs that are included in FIA forest inventory data; 2) examining the situation with selected species; 3) incorporating data from other sources, ...
  https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/staff/scientists/524
*  Secondary forest | LCZO-Data
We report the effects of an invasive tree (Syzygium jambos, Myrtaceace) on species composition, plant diversity patterns, and forest regeneration in primary and secondary forest in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico, including the area in and around the Caribbean National Forest (CNF) and the Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research site (Luquillo LTER). Land use history was reconstructed using aerial photographs from 1936 to 1989 and study sites were categorized into four groups that corresponded to their status in 1936: unforested, young secondary, mature secondary, and primary forests. In randomly selected forest stands in each forest type, we measured the abundance of invasive and native tree species, seedling recruitment for S. jambos as well as soil nutrient pools and tested for the effects of land use history on S. jambos density and diversity. A partial Mantel test was used to control for historical and elevational differences across study sites. The results indicate that ...
  https://www.sas.upenn.edu/lczodata/category/research-paper-keywords/secondary-forest
*  Nestedness of tropical forest fragments | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Tropical forests are becoming increasingly fragmented by the widespread and rapid intensification of anthropogenic activities [1-4]. Formerly extensive tracks of continuous forests now exist as patchworks of isolated remnants scattered across inhospitable landscapes of non-forest habitats. This has resulted in the remaining forest patches supporting increasingly isolated populations of forest-dependent species [5]. Tropical rainforests support the majority of global biodiversity and contain large numbers of endemic species, and so understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation in these areas is crucial to the conservation of biodiversity [6-8].. There is a large literature examining the effects of tropical forest fragmentation on animals [1,9], including vertebrates (e.g. [10-14]) and insects [15-20]. Many previous studies have focused on describing changes in species richness following fragmentation, and have typically assessed the conservation value of forest remnants through the use of ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1582/3265
*  Frontiers | Characterization of Unexplored Deadwood Mycobiome in Highly Diverse Subtropical Forests Using Culture-independent...
The deadwood mycobiome, also known as wood-inhabiting fungi (WIF), are among the key players in wood decomposition, having a large impact on nutrient cycling in forest soils. However, our knowledge of WIF richness and distribution patterns in different forest biomes is limited. Here, we used pyrotag sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to characterize the deadwood mycobiome of two tree species with greatly different wood characteristics (Schima superba and Pinus massoniana) in a Chinese subtropical forest ecosystem. Specifically, we tested (i) the effects of tree species and wood quality properties on WIF OTU richness and community composition; (ii) the role of biotic and abiotic factors in shaping the WIF communities; and (iii) the relationship between WIF OTU richness, community composition and decomposition rates. Due to different wood chemical properties, we hypothesized that the WIF communities derived from the two tree species would be correlated differently with
  http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00574/full
*  Project MUSE - Abstracts, Reviews, and Meetings
Early Recruitment Dynamics in Tropical Restoration. 2013. De La Peña-Domene, M., C. Martinez-Garza and H.F. Howe (Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (m/c 066), Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA, hfhowe@uic.edu). Ecological Applications 23(5):1124-1134.. Deforestation and fragmentation of tropical forests threatens native biodiversity and heightens the importance of accelerated forest restoration on abandoned lands. The majority of tropical rain forest trees and shrubs are animal-dispersed, but abandoned pastures are mostly colonized by wind-dispersed species due to lack of animal activity in these denuded landscapes. In this study, De La Peña-Domene and colleagues tested woody vegetation recruitment in recently abandoned pasture plots protected from cattle graze and either left to natural secondary succession or planted with native trees (assisted succession). Plots planted with native trees provided heterogeneous habitat conditions and recruited more ...
  http://muse.jhu.edu/article/524505
*  StoryORCA's tree seedling program | Lakefield Herald
ORCA Launches tree seedling program. March 03, 2017. Otonabee Conservation has launched a new stewardship program to help landowners who want to plant trees on their property. The Tree Seedling Program is available to farm and rural landowners within the Otonabee Region watershed and offers a wide selection of native tree and shrub species.. "Trees are an important part of our work in maintaining a healthy and resilient natural environment. Trees and forests protect water quality in our rivers and streams. They provide habitat for birds and other wildlife and they add to the health of our communities by purifying the air and enhancing the environment that surrounds us," explains Meredith Carter, Manager of the Watershed Management Program at Otonabee Conservation. "Planting trees this spring season can also be a celebratory activity to mark the 150th anniversary of our province and our nation," says Carter.. Landowners can choose seedlings from a variety of coniferous and deciduous trees and ...
  http://lakefieldherald.com/orca-s-tree-seedling-program.html
*  Carbon accounting
Canada's forest carbon reporting system is called the National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (NFCMARS). Its purpose is to estimate forest carbon stocks, changes in carbon stocks, and emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Canada's managed forests. NFCMARS is designed to estimate past changes in forest carbon stocks-i.e., from 1990 to the present (monitoring)-and to predict, based on scenarios of future disturbance rates and management actions, changes in carbon stocks in the next two to three decades (projection).. The system integrates information-such as forest inventories, temporary and permanent sample plots, statistics on fires and insects, and systems quantifying forest growth and yield-into a modeling framework incorporating the best available information and scientific understanding of the ecological processes involved in forest carbon cycling.. The national forest carbon monitoring, accounting and reporting system. ...
  http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/forests/climate-change/carbon-accounting/13087
*  Disentangling structural patterns of natural forest fragments in a savanna matrix in the eastern Brazilian Amazon | Amazon Tree...
Amaral et al 2017. Acta Amazonica 47: 111 - 122. DOI: 10.1590/1809-4392201601923. Natural fragments are an important source of richness for the management and conservation of a local flora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fragmentation on the structure and composition of the plant communities of forest fragments (FF) in Alter do Chão, eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The study sample consisted of 25 FF and nine continuous forest (CF) sites. We compared plant density and species richness between site categories by t-tests, analyzed the differences in composition by cluster analysis, and assessed the effect of fragment size and distance to CF on the basal area and diameter of FF assemblages by linear regression. Individual trees and shrubs with DBH ≥1.27 cm were measured in 2x250 m plots. 17,078 individuals were recorded - 75.32% in FF and 24.68% in CF, comprising 475 species, 216 genera and 64 families. Myrtaceae and Fabaceae were the most abundant families in both FF and ...
  http://atdn.myspecies.info/node/2463
*  Size-resolved dry deposition velocities of particles with diameters 0.25-0.45 μm to a tropical rain forest
The main goal of this thesis was to investigate primary biogenic aerosol emission from the Amazon rain forest through measurements of vertical turbulent aerosol number fluxes. In addition, the particle dry deposition sink has been analysed and quantified, and is also compared with the dry deposition sink at a boreal forest site.. The total aerosol number flux of particles with diameter larger than 10 nm was dominated by downward fluxes at the rain forest site, even in the most pristine conditions in the wet season. This is an indication that the primary biogenic aerosol number source is small when considering the total particle size spectrum. However, size resolved aerosol number fluxes indicated net emission for particles with dry diameter 0.5-2.5 μm in clean conditions. These emission fluxes are likely explained by a primary biogenic aerosol source from the rain forest and seemed to be best correlated with horizontal wind speed, peaking during afternoon. Even though there are few particles in ...
  http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:310935