*  Effects of protein kinase C activators on phorbol ester-sensitive and -resistant EL4 thymoma cells. : Carcinogenesis - oi
Phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 murine thymoma cells respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate with activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, synthesis of interleukin-2, and death, whereas phorbol ester-resistant variants of this cell line do not exhibit these responses. Additional aspects of the resistant phenotype were examined, using a newly-established resistant cell line. Phorbol ester induced morphological changes, ERK activation, calcium-dependent activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), interleukin-2 synthesis, and growth inhibition in sensitive but not resistant cells. A series of protein kinase C activators caused membrane translocation of protein kinase C's (PKCs) alpha, eta, and theta in both cell lines. While PKC eta was expressed at higher levels in sensitive than in resistant cells, overexpression of PKC eta did not restore phorbol ester-induced ERK activation to resistant cells. In sensitive cells, PKC ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/carcin/18.9.1817
*  Fra-2-positive Autoregulatory Loop Triggered by Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Fra-2 Phosphorylation Sites by MAPK...
We reported previously that activation of endogenous activator protein 1 (AP-1) in chicken embryo fibroblasts is essential for the cellular transformation induced by v-src, and we further showed that the activation of AP-1 is accompanied by elevation of Fra-2 and c-Jun expression and also high-level phosphorylation of Fra-2 by activated endogenous extracellular signal-regulated kinase [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)]. Here, we report that the transcriptional activity of Fra-2/c-Jun heterodimer was greatly enhanced by cotransfecting a constitutively active mutant of MEK1 gene (MEK-DD) into F9 cells, indicating that Fra-2 was converted into an active transactivator after phosphorylation by MAPK. High-level expression of MEK-DD alone was sufficient to induce clear cellular transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts, which caused constitutive activation of endogenous MAPK, hyperphosphorylation of Fra-2, and elevation of fra-2 and c-jun gene ...
  http://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/10/5/333
*  Pleiotropic coupling of G protein-coupled receptors to the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade : role of focal adhesions...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)initiate Ras-dependent activation of the Erk 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by stimulating recruitment of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors to the plasma membrane. Both integrin-based focal adhesion complexes and receptor tyrosine kinases have been proposed as scaffolds upon which the GPCR-induced Ras activation complex may assemble. Using specific inhibitors of focal adhesion complex assembly and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, we have determined the relative contribution of each to activation of the Erk 1/2 cascade following stimulation of endogenous GPCRs in three different cell types. The tetrapeptide RGDS, which inhibits integrin dimerization, and cytochalasin D, which depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton, disrupt the assembly of focal adhesions. In PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells, both agents block lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)- and bradykinin-stimulated Erk 1/2 phosphorylation, ...
  https://repository.uantwerpen.be/link/irua/121601
*  Phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in platelets is mediated by multiple stress-activated protein kinase pathways -...
Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) are stimulated by cell damaging agents as well as by physiological receptor agonists. In this study we show that human platelets contain the isoforms SAPK2a, SAPK2b, SAPK3 and SAPK4 as determined by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. All four kinases were activated in thrombin-stimulated platelets whereas only SAPK2a and SAPK2b were significantly stimulated by collagen. All four isoforms were able to phosphorylate wild-type human cPLA2in vitro, although to different extents, but not cPLA2 mutants that had Ser505 replaced by alanine. Phosphorylation at Ser505 was confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping using microbore HPLC. SAPK2a and 42-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase incorporated similar levels of phosphate into cPLA2 relative to the ability of each kinase to stimulate phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. SAPK2b and SAPK4 incorporated less phosphate, and cPLA2 was a poor substrate for SAPK3. The inhibitor of SAPK2a and SAPK2b, SB 202190, ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00722.x/abstract?globalMessage=0
*  The beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mediates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation via assembly of a multi-receptor...
Maudsley S., Pierce K.L., Zamah A.M., Miller W.E., Ahn S., Daaka Y., Lefkowitz R.J., Luttrell L.M.. Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate MAP kinases by stimulating tyrosine kinase signaling cascades. In some systems, GPCRs stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation by inducing the "transactivation" of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). The mechanisms underlying GPCR-induced RTK transactivation have not been clearly defined. Here we report that GPCR activation mimics growth factor-mediated stimulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with respect to many facets of RTK function. beta(2)-Adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) stimulation of COS-7 cells induces EGFR dimerization, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and EGFR internalization. Coincident with EGFR transactivation, isoproterenol exposure induces the formation of a multireceptor complex containing both the beta(2)AR and the "transactivated" EGFR. beta(2)AR-mediated EGFR ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/citations/10734107
*  Abstract 1299: Parallel Activation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism with Increased Cardiac Energy Expenditure is Not...
An abrupt increase in cardiac power activates NADH generation, MVO2 and ATP re-synthesis so fast that [ATP] and [ADP] do not change. Computer simulations predict that this response requires simultaneous activation of dehydrogenases (DH) in the mitochondria (mito) and cytosol in parallel with greater ATP hydrolysis, and an increased NADH/NAD+ ratio to drive ETC flux. We tested the hypothesis that 1) an abrupt transition from low to high workload increases NADH/NAD+ in the cytosol and mito, and 2) this response is so robust it does not require an increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Pigs were subjected sham treatment, or 5 mins of dobutamine+aortic constriction (n=8/group). There was a ~3-fold increase in MVO2, LV power, and FAO, no change in [ATP] or [ADP], but a 50% depletion of [glycogen] and activation of the mito enzyme pyruvate DH (26±5% to 69±9% activation), and a 50% increase in tissue NADH/NAD+. Computer simulations with parallel ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/114/Suppl_18/II_245.4
*  The C-terminal, third conserved motif of the protein activator PACT plays an essential role in the activation of double...
One of the key mediators of the antiviral and antiproliferative actions of interferon is double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). PKR activity is also involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis and signal transduction. We have recently identified PACT, a novel protein activator of PKR, as an important modulator of PKR activity in cells in the absence of viral infection. PACT heterodimerizes with PKR and activates it by direct protein-protein interactions. Endogenous PACT acts as an activator of PKR in response to diverse stress signals, such as serum starvation and peroxide or arsenite treatment, and is therefore a novel, stress-modulated physiological activator of PKR. In this study, we have characterized the functional domains of PACT that are required for PKR activation. Our results have shown that, unlike the N-terminal conserved domains 1 and 2, the third conserved domain of PACT is dispensable for its binding of double-stranded RNA and inter action with PKR. ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/366/1/175
*  MP1: A MEK Binding Partner That Enhances Enzymatic Activation of the MAP Kinase Cascade | Science
Signal transduction is controlled both by regulation of enzyme activation and by organization of enzymatic complexes with nonenzymatic adapters, scaffolds, and anchor proteins. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade is one of several evolutionarily conserved mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades important in the regulation of growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. A two-hybrid screen was conducted to identify nonenzymatic components of this signaling cascade that might be important in regulating its activity. A protein called MP1 (MEK Partner 1) was identified that bound specifically to MEK1 and ERK1 and facilitated their activation. When overexpressed in cultured cells, MP1 enhanced activation of ERK1 and activation of a reporter driven by the transcription factor Elk-1. Expression of MP1 in cells increased binding of ERK1 to MEK1. MP1 apparently functions as an adapter to enhance the efficiency ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/281/5383/1668
*  Dimerization of B type PDGF receptors occurs after ligand binding and is closely associated with receptor kinase activation
article{e8c400f1-74f4-489a-a3a4-2f5082e41b33, author = {Heldin, Carl-Henrik and Ernlund, Agneta and Rorsman, Charlotte and Rönnstrand, Lars}, issn = {1083-351X}, language = {eng}, number = {15}, pages = {8905--8912}, publisher = {ASBMB}, series = {Journal of Biological Chemistry}, title = {Dimerization of B type PDGF receptors occurs after ligand binding and is closely associated with receptor kinase activation}, volume = {264}, year = {1989 ...
  https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1781857
*  Plus it
Concepts regarding the controls and consequences of PKD1-Ser738/Ser742 (activation loop) phosphorylation are based largely on early studies that used an anti-PKD1-Ser(P)738/Ser(P)742 PSSA (from Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA) and showed that PMA increases PKD1 activation loop phosphorylation in many cell types via a mechanism that requires nPKC isoform activity (PKCδ, PKCε, PKCη, and/or PKCθ). In vitro kinase assays showing direct phosphorylation of the PKD1 activation loop by certain nPKC isoforms also have been published (Brändlin et al., 2002). However, there is recent evidence that the Cell Signaling Technology anti-PKD1-Ser(P)738/Ser(P)742 PSSA primarily recognizes PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser738 and that PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser742 can be tracked with a different PSSA (commercially available from Abcam Inc., Cambridge, MA). Experiments that use a combined approach with these two PSSAs expose differences in the controls and consequences of ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/81/3/284
*  Plus it
The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) make up one family of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), along with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and p38 (1). The JNK proteins, also known as stress-activated protein kinases (stress activated protein kinases), include JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, which are encoded by three different genes. JNK1 and JNK2 are ubiquitously expressed and each has four splice isoforms whose expression levels vary among different cell types and environmental conditions. In contrast, JNK3 is abundant in a limited number of tissues, including brain, testis, and heart, although wider expression of JNK3 has been implicated in recent studies. JNK is highly responsive to a variety of extracellular stimuli, including a wide range of inflammatory cytokines (2). Signals transmitted from membrane receptors activate MKK4 and MKK7, which then activate JNK via dual phosphorylation on the ThrProTyr (TPY) motif. MKK7 is highly specific for JNK, whereas MKK4 also activates p38 ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/70/8/3080
*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Requirements for distinct steps of phospholipase C gamma 2 regulation, membrane-raft...
Requirements for distinct steps of phospholipase C gamma 2 regulation, membrane-raft-dependent targeting and subsequent enzyme activation in B-cell signalling. Studies of PLCgamma (phospholipase Cgamma) have identified a number of regulatory components required for signalling; however, molecular mechanisms and the relationship between events leading to translocation and an increase of substrate hydrolysis have not been well defined. The addition of a membrane-targeting tag to many signal transducers results in constitutive activation, suggesting that these processes could be closely linked and difficult to dissect. The present study of PLCgamma2 regulation by cross-linking of the BCR (B-cell antigen receptor) or H2O2 stress in DT40 B-cells, demonstrated that the membrane targeting is a separate step from further changes that result in enzyme activation and substrate hydrolysis. Furthermore. we have defined the roles of ...
  http://publications.icr.ac.uk/1596/
*  A Polymerization Switch for Yan | Science Signaling
In Drosophila, alleviation of transcriptional repression by Yan involves phosphorylation of Yan by the mitogen-activated protein kinase Rolled in response to receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Yan and another protein known as Mae both contain SAM domains, and Mae binds both Yan and Rolled to somehow facilitate the phosphorylation event. Qiao et al. used various methods to show that the SAM domain of Yan forms a polymer structurally similar to that formed by the human ortholog TEL, which has been crystallized. The structure of the Yan SAM polymer was modeled based on the TEL monomer crystal. Point mutations that disrupted self-association of the Yan SAM domain also blocked the ability of Yan (when mutated in the context of the full-length protein) to inhibit transcription of a reporter gene. These polymerization-defective Yan mutants did, however, bind DNA, which suggests that polymerization is required for the repressive activity. In vitro, the SAM domain of Mae bound the SAM domain of Yan ...
  http://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2004/243/tw270
*  anti-Fructose 6 Phosphate Kinase antibody [C1C3] | GeneTex
Fructose 6 Phosphate Kinase antibody [C1C3] (phosphofructokinase, muscle) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Fructose 6 Phosphate Kinase pAb (GTX111597) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
  http://www.genetex.com/Fructose-6-Phosphate-Kinase-antibody-C1C3-GTX111597.html
*  SPRED3 - Wikipedia
Sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 3 also known as Spread-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRED3 gene. Spread-3 is a member of the Sprouty (see SPRY1/SPRED) family of proteins that regulate growth factor-induced activation of the MAP kinase cascade. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000188766 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037239 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: sprouty-related". Nonami A, Kato R, Taniguchi K, Yoshiga D, Taketomi T, Fukuyama S, Harada M, Sasaki A, Yoshimura A (December 2004). "Spred-1 negatively regulates interleukin-3-mediated ERK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in hematopoietic cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (50): 52543-51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M405189200. PMID 15465815. Kato R, Nonami A, Taketomi T, Wakioka T, Kuroiwa A, Matsuda Y, Yoshimura A (March 2003). "Molecular cloning of mammalian Spred-3 which suppresses ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPRED3
*  Phosphoinositides in Subcellular Targeting and Enzyme Activation
Trouvez tous les livres de Stenmark, Harald (ed.) - Phosphoinositides in Subcellular Targeting and Enzyme Activation. Sur eurolivre.fr,vous pouvez commander des livres anciens et neufs.COMPARER ET acheter IMMÉDIATEMENT au meilleur prix. 9783540009504
  https://www.eurolivre.fr/livre/isbn/9783540009504.html
*  AID 632436 - Inhibition of acid-induced matriptase activation in human 184A1N4 cells assessed as decrease in 120 kDa enzyme-HAI...
BioAssay record AID 632436 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of acid-induced matriptase activation in human 184A1N4 cells assessed as decrease in 120 kDa enzyme-HAI-1 complex using mAb M24 at 5 uM after 30 mins by Western blotting relative to untreated control.
  https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/632436
*  Recombinant Anti-Cdc7 Kinase antibody [EPR4730] (ab108332) | Abcam
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Cdc7 Kinase antibody [EPR4730] validated for WB, Flow Cyt and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 1 publication and 1…
  http://www.abcam.com/cdc7-kinase-antibody-epr4730-ab108332.html
*  Anti-Glycerol kinase antibody (ab70029) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Glycerol kinase antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mouse. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to…
  http://www.abcam.com/glycerol-kinase-antibody-ab70029.html?productWallTab=Abreviews
*  Western blot analysis of the c-Met/PI3K/AKT activation | Open-i
Western blot analysis of the c-Met/PI3K/AKT activation and GRP78 expression in A549 cells.A549 cells were cultured in the condition as described above and the r
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4482748_pone.0129593.g003&req=4
*  S100A8 Production in CXCR2-Expressing CD11b+Gr-1high Cells Aggravates Hepatitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat and High-Cholesterol...
It has been suggested that S100A8 acts as an endogenous activator of the immune response (6). S100A8 expression is strongly upregulated in various inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, vasculitis, and cancer (5). NAFLD has been increasingly recognized as an inflammatory disease as well as a metabolic disease (4). However, the involvement of S100A8 in the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated that S100A8 expression was remarkably increased in the livers of HFHCD-fed mice that developed steatohepatitis. We also demonstrated that S100A8 protein was significantly more expressed in the liver tissues of patients with NASH than in those of patients with NAFL. These results suggested that S100A8 was associated with the development of NAFLD. Furthermore, we demonstrated that S100A8 was primarily produced in the myeloid lineage cell population, CD11b+Gr-1high cells in the liver leukocytes of both ND- and HFHCD-fed ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/196/1/395
*  Comparison of dietary triacylglycerol oil and diacylglycerol oil in protein kinase C activation. | Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shinichi Meguro, Noriko Osaki, Koji Onizawa, Noriyuki Yajima, Tadashi Hase, Noboru Matsuo, Ichiro Tokimitsu].
  https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/17306914
*  Nigericin for generating a caspase-1 activation response.
In pyroptosis experiments, nigericin can be used as a positive control to generate a robust caspase-1 activation response in a variety of cell lines.
  https://immunochemistry.com/product/nigericin/
*  Activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by H2O2 is require | Open-i
Activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by H2O2 is required for the proper development of β-cells. (a) E13.5 rat pancreases were cultured for 0, 5, or 15 min wi
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4237262_cddis2014441f7&req=4