*  Short DNA sequence patterns accurately identify broadly active human enhancers | BMC Genomics | Full Text
We analyzed the contribution of DRMs and other short DNA sequence motifs to the activity patterns of human enhancers across hundreds of cellular contexts. In contrast to the model proposed in Drosophila [16], GC DRMs were enriched in broadly active enhancers compared to both the genomic background and context-specific enhancers, while TA DRMs were depleted. Using an unbiased machine learning framework, we found that DRM occurrence patterns were only weakly predictive of broadly active human enhancers (ROC AUC ranging from 0.55 to 0.61). However, a classifier trained on the occurrence of all possible 6-bp sequences very accurately distinguished broadly active human enhancers from the genomic background (ROC AUC = 0.93), GC-matched background regions (ROC AUC = 0.87), and context-specific enhancers (ROC AUC = 0.87). Furthermore, 6-mers highly predictive of broad activity tended to be GC-rich, while those with ...
  https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-017-3934-9
*  Genetic variation within enhancers | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
As discussed above, a single SNP can affect not only the binding of the TF whose motif is altered, but also binding of additional TFs that are recruited in cis to the same enhancer. Given the cooperative principles governing enhancer activity [2,5,9], a single SNP, therefore, has the potential to alter the overall enhancer state, as reflected by changes in TF binding, nucleosomal occupancy and histone modifications typical of active enhancers. We will hereafter refer to genetic variants that measurably affect enhancer states as enhancer-SNPs (eSNPs). eSNPs represent only a small subset of genetic variation within enhancers, because these polymorphisms not only have to affect DNA recognition of a TF critical for enhancer activity, but this occupancy change must not be compensated for by other factors or additional binding sites for the same ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/368/1620/20120360
*  Exons Encode Enhancers | Science
Transcription factor binding to enhancer elements is critical for proper gene regulation. Enhancers are often found in noncoding sequences in close proximity to the gene that they regulate and sometimes even on another chromosome; however, whether they are also found in exons, the coding regions of DNA, is unclear. Birnbaum et al. analyzed 25 mouse and human enhancer-associated ChIP-seq data sets in order to identify enhancer peaks that overlap exons and found regulatory transcription factor binding to exonic regions. In fact, in mice, roughly 7% of enhancer peaks overlapped coding exons. Mutation of these elements in zebrafish and mouse enhancer assays showed that although exonic sequences are necessary, they are not sufficient for full enhancer function. Absence of an exon-encoded enhancer, however, did have functional consequences. Thus, ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/336/6079/277.1
*  Specificity of CNS and PNS regulatory subelements comprising pan-neural enhancers of the deadpan and scratch genes is achieved...
The Drosophila pan-neural genes deadpan (dpn) and scratch (scrt) are expressed in most or all developing neural precursor cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). We have identified a cis-acting enhancer element driving full pan-neural expression of the dpn gene which is composed of independent CNS- and PNS-specific subelements. We have also identified CNS- and PNS-specific subelements of the scrt enhancer. Deletion analysis of the dpn and scrt PNS-specific subelements reveals that PNS specificity of these two evolutionarily unrelated enhancers is achieved in part by repression of CNS expression. We discuss the implications of the striking organizational similarities of the dpn, scrt, and sna pan-neural enhancers.. ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/121/11/3549
*  Global transcriptome analysis and enhancer landscape of human primary T follicular helper and T effector lymphocytes | Blood...
Tfh cells are necessary for B-cell maturation into memory and long-lived plasma cells in GCs of B-cell follicles.93 They provide signals to cognate B cells via CD40 ligand, PD-1, and cytokines, including IL-21 and IL-4, promoting B-cell proliferation and affinity maturation within the GC.94⇓⇓⇓-98 Tfh cell development requires the transcription factors Achaete-scute complex homolog 2 (ASCL2) and BCL6, leading to expression of transcripts important for their function, while repressing activation of genes, among them Blimp1 (PRDM1), critical for development of other Th subsets.5,8,9 ASCL2 and BCL6 upregulation also promotes expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5 necessary for Tfh cell entry into the B-cell follicle following a gradient of its ligand CXCL13.10,11 Genes encoding these proteins were all highly expressed in the Tfh cells we isolated from tonsils.. Our integrative analyses also revealed that several of these genes were associated with Tfh cell type-specific enhancers, ...
  http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/124/25/3719?sso-checked=true
*  Enhancer sequence | Article about enhancer sequence by The Free Dictionary
Looking for enhancer sequence? Find out information about enhancer sequence. in mathematics, ordered set of mathematical quantities called terms. A sequence is said to be known if a formula can be given for any particular term using... Explanation of enhancer sequence
  https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/enhancer+sequence
*  Switch recombination and somatic hypermutation are controlled by the heavy chain 3′ enhancer region | JEM
Several lines of work suggest that the 3′ enhancer region would control CSR. Chromatin interactions between heavy chain genes and HS1,2 suggest functional interactions (Wuerffel et al., 2007). Deletions or replacements of individual hypersensitive regions (Cogné et al., 1994; Manis et al., 1998; Seidl et al., 1999) implicate the 3′ regulatory locus in CSR. Additionally, insertions of foreign sequence in the locus also affect CSR, possibly by disrupting interactions between enhancer elements (Seidl et al., 1999). However, any conclusions are complicated by the fact that clean deletion of single elements reveals only a minimal phenotype (Manis et al., 1998; Seidl et al., 1999; Vincent-Fabert et al., 2009). Deletion of both HS3B and HS4 (Pinaud et al., 2001) from the germline demonstrates a role in CSR to some heavy chain genes. To pursue the role of the 3′ enhancer region, over the last 10 yr, several laboratories have ...
  http://jem.rupress.org/content/206/12/2613
*  Buy fuel performance enhancer - fuel performance enhancer on sale
Buy fuel performance enhancer from fuel performance enhancer manufacturer, 6014 fuel performance enhancer manufacturers & fuel performance enhancer suppliers from China.
  http://www.burrillandco.com/buy-fuel-performance-enhancer
*  The enhancer and promoter landscape of human regulatory and conventional T-cell subpopulations | Blood Journal
CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ human regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Here, we describe the promoterome of CD4+CD25highCD45RA+ naïve and CD4+CD25highCD45RA-memory Tregs and their CD25- conventional T-cell (Tconv) counterparts both before and after in vitro expansion by cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) adapted to single-molecule sequencing (HeliScopeCAGE). We performed comprehensive comparative digital gene expression analyses and revealed novel transcription start sites, of which several were validated as alternative promoters of known genes. For all in vitro expanded subsets, we additionally generated global maps of poised and active enhancer elements marked by histone H3 lysine 4 monomethylation and histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation, describe their cell type-specific motif signatures, and evaluate the role of candidate transcription factors STAT5, FOXP3, RUNX1, and ETS1 in both Treg- and Tconv-specific enhancer ...
  http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/early/2014/02/27/blood-2013-02-486944?sso-checked=true
*  Purifying selection in deeply conserved human enhancers is more consistent than in coding sequences.
Comparison of polymorphism at synonymous and non-synonymous sites in protein-coding DNA can provide evidence for selective constraint. Non-coding DNA that forms part of the regulatory landscape presents more of a challenge since there is not such a clear-cut distinction between sites under stronger and weaker selective constraint. Here, we consider putative regulatory elements termed Conserved Non-coding Elements (CNEs) defined by their high level of sequence identity across all vertebrates. Some mutations in these regions have been implicated in developmental disorders; we analyse CNE polymorphism data to investigate whether such deleterious effects are widespread in humans. Single nucleotide variants from the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Projects were mapped across nearly 2000 CNEs. In the 1000 Genomes data we find a significant excess of rare derived alleles in CNEs relative to coding sequences; this pattern is absent in HapMap data, apparently obscured by ascertainment bias. ...
  https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/6559
*  The ABC of the BX-C: the bithorax complex explained | Development
How can the various enhancers in a cis-regulatory region be coordinately regulated? Two complementary observations (coming from enhancer trap studies and from boundary mutations) have provided compelling evidence that the cis-regulatory regions of the BX-C are organized into parasegment-specific chromosomal domains.. In Drosophila, transgenic animals are generally made using P-element transposons. These transposons insert throughout the genome in a fairly random fashion. If these P-elements contain a basal promoter and a reporter gene, they often respond to nearby enhancer elements. The technique of using P-elements with reporter genes to get a read-out of the enhancers in the vicinity of a P-element insertion is called enhancer trapping (O'Kane and Gehring, 1987). Fig. 5 shows the insertion sites of several enhancer trap transposons that have landed within ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/133/8/1413
*  The Cd4 Proximal Enhancer Inhibits Cd4-Cd8 Association( | Open-i
The Cd4 Proximal Enhancer Inhibits Cd4-Cd8 Association(A) Flow cytometry analysis of wild-type and Cd4 PE-deficient thymocytes (Cd4 PE Δ/Δ).(B) Cd4-Cd8 associ
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3101577_gr5&req=4
*  Sex enhancer Manufacturers & Suppliers, China sex enhancer Manufacturers & Factories
sex enhancer manufacturer/supplier, China sex enhancer manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese sex enhancer manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com.
  http://www.made-in-china.com/manufacturers/sex-enhancer.html
*  Biophilia: January 2015
A recent paper conducted a tour de force of anatomy, tracing every single neuron going to and from the mushroom body. The technique they used to do this is interesting in itself, called an "enhancer trap". Fly researchers have been generating a vast number of "lines", or inbred fly mutants, by inserting a two bits of DNA from yeast cells. The first is the gene encoding a transcription activator, GAL4. This is induced to jump randomly in the fly genome, hoping that lands downstream of the regulatory region of an endogenous gene, i.e. its enhancer or promoter. The second bit is a binding site for this GAL4 protein, linked to a gene that expresses some useful marker, typically a fluorescent protein like GFP. Since the yeast GAL4 protein works just fine to activate RNA transcription and gene expression in flies, the end result is that GFP gets expressed in reponse to a single enhancer somewhere else in the genome. Indeed researchers try to "saturate the genome", ...
  https://biophilic.blogspot.com/2015_01_01_archive.html
*  All Star Enhancer Ring [SE145903] - Stretchy & Adjustable
ALL STAR ENHANCER RING (SE145903) by Swedish Erotica - Lovemaking essential! All Star Enhancer Ring is a pliable and super stretchy enhancer ring is designed for comfort and sturdy support. Safe and pure for body and...
  http://www.discreet-romance.com/star-enhancer-ring-adult-sex-toys-41135.html
*  Cell Signaling Pathway Profiling
The Pathway Profiling Systems provide a means to assess signal transduction pathway activation in vivo. These systems consist of sets of vectors that each contain a distinct cis-acting enhancer element upstream of a reporter gene.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Fluorescent_Proteins_and_Reporters/Signal_Transduction/Pathway_Profiles?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=81RZor0WEE8Aukt33rXK996Kx5&PEBCL1_pses=ZG58C75328920829FD60019F5C354F288DE5B033B7EF88451DD5067B3C5B392CFBF013DAC8A0BF004365053A32E1B38B1E25974EEDD4499011
*  Cell Signaling Pathway Profiling
The Pathway Profiling Systems provide a means to assess signal transduction pathway activation in vivo. These systems consist of sets of vectors that each contain a distinct cis-acting enhancer element upstream of a reporter gene.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Fluorescent_Proteins_and_Reporters/Signal_Transduction/Pathway_Profiles?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=DI6vUPaz2gXQ3oHaQqK8V6qX:S&PROD_pses=ZG6A92B82D7D851EDAC72E580CBD346D9A8A7D8D3D87286A3EB8F652F40CAEDD29DB94E5CA92E3F61FF0D9F1F8A5D383C4806DBD9E5759F38C
*  Cell Signaling Pathway Profiling
The Pathway Profiling Systems provide a means to assess signal transduction pathway activation in vivo. These systems consist of sets of vectors that each contain a distinct cis-acting enhancer element upstream of a reporter gene.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Fluorescent_Proteins_and_Reporters/Signal_Transduction/Pathway_Profiles?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=Euv2EbS-MW_iYSUbndBVBbAS:S&PROD_pses=ZG34EDC08DF88958EDEFD36550D7EAD2D96402857FC1E5925D465299EDBA3F3BBBA3D24C4DEDBC9D5F5563CF32CE2D80E94211E219DF38072D
*  Cell Signaling Pathway Profiling
The Pathway Profiling Systems provide a means to assess signal transduction pathway activation in vivo. These systems consist of sets of vectors that each contain a distinct cis-acting enhancer element upstream of a reporter gene.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Fluorescent_Proteins_and_Reporters/Signal_Transduction/Pathway_Profiles?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=H6WINv3oMNHo-1rdKAu67vEN:S&PROD_pses=ZG92A91215BB4ED15C829873696A7DF83D89B50F0AAD6D14F11561637494F483C919383F921CB5D4AE3877BCFBAF7ED6001428EAAA64DED54A
*  Cell Signaling Pathway Profiling
The Pathway Profiling Systems provide a means to assess signal transduction pathway activation in vivo. These systems consist of sets of vectors that each contain a distinct cis-acting enhancer element upstream of a reporter gene.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Fluorescent_Proteins_and_Reporters/Signal_Transduction/Pathway_Profiles?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=HhEN2mZiDwBKdTvtSBQA06vB:S&PROD_pses=ZGCFB4CCE6DB1DC58C0017CD0835AF1BC42FABB348EE325A428B360333426C14D497AAD1AA1C7EA8EC8534912F66A09469EF6114D09F1323A9
*  Cell Signaling Pathway Profiling
The Pathway Profiling Systems provide a means to assess signal transduction pathway activation in vivo. These systems consist of sets of vectors that each contain a distinct cis-acting enhancer element upstream of a reporter gene.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Fluorescent_Proteins_and_Reporters/Signal_Transduction/Pathway_Profiles?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=YrfIKMTFy3yt2iKQRDOnBHlu:S&PROD_pses=ZG3AEF3BD0DB490A6FAF7582D181C4842AAB106A1F9CD2EDFC0DCA8EEA806CDD34FDE69286F156455BFEB794AC502E4088E17D590021A7B794
*  Cell Signaling Pathway Profiling
The Pathway Profiling Systems provide a means to assess signal transduction pathway activation in vivo. These systems consist of sets of vectors that each contain a distinct cis-acting enhancer element upstream of a reporter gene.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Fluorescent_Proteins_and_Reporters/Signal_Transduction/Pathway_Profiles?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=oCHiP7YT3XWVTLUF8-dL1rut:S&PROD_pses=ZG906EF0847B0E42E4D343B951F682D8066776EBF075765B2D5511AE709FB62FE23AEB77F9176110792432C5004ED1F9C96519AC6F436D8241
*  Cell Signaling Pathway Profiling
The Pathway Profiling Systems provide a means to assess signal transduction pathway activation in vivo. These systems consist of sets of vectors that each contain a distinct cis-acting enhancer element upstream of a reporter gene.
  http://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Fluorescent_Proteins_and_Reporters/Signal_Transduction/Pathway_Profiles?sitex=10020:22372:US&PROD=xESUX_9er6IyYP7eyrToLcVn:S&PROD_pses=ZG966C43F8BDAB042B9697AD8DCAECFBBA018B7A2A984D3421EECB22DA6CEED3E3FA31949BF104D2E81B1750CA603A2CA7ED7E0A3326076F6C
*  Identification of an enhancer sequence in a PstI clone of IR36 genomic DNA
Chaudhuri, R.K.; Prasad, M.; Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Chaudhuri, I.; Mitra, A., 1996: Identification of an enhancer sequence in a PstI clone of IR36 genomic DNA
  https://eurekamag.com/research/002/863/002863303.php
*  CSHL Library
The Kb Enhancer Motifs in Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus Type-1 and Simian Virus-40 Recognize Different Binding Activities in Human Jurkat and H9 T-Cells - Evidence for Nf-Kb-Independent Activation of the Kb Motif ...
  http://libfe.cshl.edu/cshlpublications/holdings.php?type=authorf&criteria=Franza,%20B.%20R.&boolean=FALSE