*  Uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour is an immunohistochemically polyphenotypic neoplasm which exhibits...
... type I were typical endometrial stromal neoplasms with focal areas with a sex cord‐like pattern; in type II tumours, the sex ... An origin from displaced gonadal sex cord cells is also a possibility but EMA positivity is against this theory. As discussed, ... and CD99 expression in sex cordstromal tumors and endometrioid ovarian carcinomas resembling sex cordstromal tumors. Hum ... Uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour exhibiting positivity with sex cord markers α inhibin (A), calretinin (B), ...
*  Primary Retroperitoneal Extraovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor: A Case Report
... the ectopic gonadal stromal tissue is believed to be responsible for the histogenesis of extraovarian sex-cord stromal tumors [ ... endometrial stromal sarcoma, carcinoid, malignant melanoma, intraabdominal desmoplastic small-cell tumor) [7]. The use of a ... Gross and microscopic features failed to differentiate between carcinoid tumor and sex-cord stromal tumor of granulosa cell ... The influence of mesonephros in the origin of the sex cord explains why the sites of extraovarian sex-cord stomal tumors are ...
*  J K Chan
sex cord gonadal stromal tumors*neoplasm staging*glandular and epithelial neoplasms*seer program*papillary carcinoma*sarcoma* ... endometrial neoplasms*survival analysis*germ cell and embryonal neoplasms*uterine hemorrhage*proportional hazards models* ... Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--an analysis of 376 women. Mallory Zhang. ... Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis. John K Chan. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C04) - Wikipedia
... sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors MeSH C04.557.475.750.656 --- granulosa cell tumor MeSH C04.557.475.750.751 --- luteoma MeSH ... endometrial stromal tumors MeSH C04.588.945.418.948.585.374.500 --- sarcoma, endometrial stromal MeSH C04.588.945.418.948.850 ... rhabdoid tumor MeSH C04.557.435.775 --- sarcoma, endometrial stromal MeSH C04.557.435.850 --- thymoma MeSH C04.557.450.550 --- ... mixed tumor, malignant MeSH C04.557.435.530 --- mixed tumor, mesodermal MeSH C04.557.435.540 --- mixed tumor, mullerian MeSH ...
*  Ovarian cancer - Wikipedia
... they can cause or occur at the same time as endometrial cancer or breast cancer. Other sex-cord/stromal tumors present with ... a mutation known for its role in gastrointestinal stromal tumor. People with an XY karyotype and ovaries (gonadal dysgenesis) ... Symptoms of sex cord-stromal tumors produce hormones that can affect the development of secondary sex characteristics. Sex cord ... Granulosa cell tumors are the most common sex-cord stromal tumors, making up 70% of cases, and are divided into two histologic ...
*  Paediatric ovarian tumours and their associated cancer susceptibility syndromes | Journal of Medical Genetics
SEX CORD-STROMAL TUMOURS (SCST). Juvenile granulosa cell tumour. General aspects. Juvenile granulosa cell tumours (JGCTs) ( ... Gonadal tumor in Frasier syndrome: a review and classification. Cancer Prev Res 2015;8:271-6.doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0415 ... The differential diagnosis may include a wide range of neoplasms, including AGCT, JGCT, germ cell tumours, endometrial stromal ... Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems. ...
*  Books by Subject - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine
Germ Cell and Sex Cord Stromal Tumors: Clinical Introduction -- Pathology of Germ Cell Tumors -- Sex Cord Stromal Tumors of the ... Endometrial epithelial neoplasms -- Nonepithelial tumors of uterine corpus -- Gestational trophoblastic disease -- Tumors of ... Gonadal dysgenesis: ovarian function and reproductive health in Turner syndrome / Paul Saenger and David Rodriguez-Buritica -- ... Malignant germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors in adults and children / Jubilee Brown and David M. Gershenson -- 29. ...
*  Cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms - WOW.com
Sex cord-gonadal stromal. *Leydig cell tumour. *Sertoli cell tumour. *Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour ... Endometrioid tumor. *Uterine papillary serous carcinoma. *Clear cell carcinoma. *Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia ... Tumors: female urogenital neoplasia (C51-C58/D25-D28, 179-184/218-221) ...
*  Dysgerminoma - WOW.com
Sex cord-gonadal stromal. *Leydig cell tumour. *Sertoli cell tumour. *Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour ... Endometrioid tumor. *Uterine papillary serous carcinoma. *Clear cell carcinoma. *Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia ... A tumor of the identical histology but not occurring in the ovary may be described by an alternate name: seminoma in the testis ... A dysgerminoma is a type of germ cell tumor;[1] it usually is malignant and usually occurs in the ovary. ...
*  Brenner tumour - WOW.com
Sex cord-gonadal stromal. *Leydig cell tumour. *Sertoli cell tumour. *Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour ... Endometrioid tumor. *Uterine papillary serous carcinoma. *Clear cell carcinoma. *Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia ... Brenner tumors are an uncommon subtype of the surface epithelial-stromal tumor group of ovarian neoplasms. The majority are ... without the characteristic stromal/epithelial pattern of a Brenner tumour.. Eponym. It is named for Fritz Brenner (1877-1969), ...
*  FOXL2 gene | Cancer Genetics Web
Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors. *Childhood Cancer. *Up-Regulation. *Single Nucleotide Polymorphism ... A total of 546 tumours (205 cervical, 227 endometrial, 89 ovarian, and 25 vulvar carcinomas) were used to test and validate our ... Here we demonstrate that factors elaborated by malignant stromal cells can induce Luminal tumor cells proliferation and promote ... Moreover since BRCA1 tumors and sporadic triple negative (TN) breast tumors share similarities regarding clinical outcomes and ...
*  Endocrine Immune Interactions in the Host-Parasite Relationship: Steroid Hormones as Immune Regulators in Parasite Infections ...
Additionally, E2 inhibits MCP-1 expression in endometrial stromal cells by controlling endometrial macrophage migration [57]. ... Pregnancy and tumor. Am J Reprod Immunol 64: 77-86.. *Klein SL (2004) Hormonal and immunological mechanisms mediating sex ... 2006) Involvement of gonadal steroids and gamma interferon in sex differences in response to blood-stage malaria infection. ... 2008) Effect of 17beta-estradiol on signal transduction pathways and secondary damage in experimental spinal cord trauma. Shock ...
*  International Classification of Diseases for Oncology - Wikipedia
NOS Sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor, NOS Testicular/ovarian stromal tumor M8591/1 Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor, incompletely ... NOS Endometrial sarcoma, NOS Endometrial stromal sarcoma, high grade M8931/3 Endometrial stromal sarcoma, low grade ... differentiated M8592/1 Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor, mixed forms M8593/1 Stromal tumor with minor sex cord elements M8600/0 ... benign M9835/1 Stromal tumor, NOS M8935/3 Stromal sarcoma, NOS M8936/0 Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, benign GIST, benign ...
*  XIX - Female Genital System and the Breast Flashcards by Ian Argel | Brainscape
Biomarker useful for identifying granulosa an other sex cord-stromal tumors, and monitoring treatment. ... cystically dilated endometrial glands, with single layer of endometrial cells (B) crowded branched endometrial glands, with ... Which of the following tumors is most responsive to chemotherapy? (A) gonadal choriocarcinoma (B) gestational choriocarcinoma ( ... Sex cord tumor seen as small, gray to yellow-brown, and solid lesions. May resemble development of testis with tubules, or ...
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Richard Kline (Translated to Norwegian)
The more common sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa stromal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and ... Phase III Trial of Doxorubicin Plus Cisplatin with or Without Paclitaxel Plus Filgrastim in Advanced Endometrial Carcinoma: a ... female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social ... and sex cord-stromal tumors. Nonneoplastic conditions of the ovary that may present as adnexal masses include the following, ...
*  Germ cell tumor | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors | Reviewers |...
Sex cord-. gonadal stromal. * Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour * Sertoli cell tumour * Leydig cell tumour ... Endometrioid tumor * Uterine papillary serous carcinoma * Clear cell carcinoma * Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia ... A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells. Germ cell tumors can be cancerous or non-cancerous tumors. Germ ... Tumor marker Embryonal carcinoma 9070/3 20-30 Malignant Poorly differentiated, pleomorphic cells in cords, sheets, or papillary ...
*  WNT4 - Wikipedia
XY Complete Gonadal Dysgenesis OMIM entries on 46,XY Disorder of Sex Development and 46,XY Complete Gonadal Dysgenesis This ... For example, it regulates endometrial stromal cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. These processes are all ... Moreover, there is delay in sex cord formation. These issues are usually compensated for at birth. WNT4 also interacts with ... "WNT-4 mRNA expression in human adrenocortical tumors and cultured adrenal cells". Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes - Wikipedia
PIK3CA Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, somatic; 606764; KIT Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, somatic; 606764; PDGFRA Gaucher ... SRY 46XY complete gonadal dysgenesis; 233420; DHH 46XY complete gonadal dysgenesis; 400044; SRY 46XY gonadal dysgenesis, ... ICK Endometrial cancer; 608089; MLH3 Endometrial cancer, familial; 608089; MSH6 Endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency; ... with vocal cord paresis; 607706; GDAP1 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate 3; 607791; MPZ Charcot-Marie-Tooth ...
*  Neurosecretory cell | definition of neurosecretory cell by Medical dictionary
2. A large multinucleated (40-60 nuclei) tumor cell characteristic of certain bone and tendon tumors. ... A somatic motor neuron that has its cell body in the ventral (anterior) horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord; its axon ... Arias-Stella cells columnar cells in the endometrial epithelium which have a hyperchromatic enlarged nucleus and which appear ... An enlarged and vacuolated basophil cell seen in the pituitary in gonadal insufficiency or following castration. ...
*  BGDB Sexual Differentiation - Sex Determination - Embryology
testis cord - (sex cord) The embryonic precursor of the seminiferous tubule. These form embryonically initially as a complex ... Dagmar Wilhelm, Stephen Palmer, Peter Koopman Sex determination and gonadal development in mammals. Physiol. Rev.: 2007, 87(1); ... WAGR - Wilms' tumor-aniridia-genitourinary malformations-mental retardation. a No mutations in human sexual disorders ... uterine gland - (endometrial gland) The simple tubular glands formed by invagination of the uterine endometrium (a columnar ...
*  Global Library of Women's Medicine - Benign Neoplasms of the Ovary, Fallopian Tube, and Parovarian Region - DOI 10.3843/GLOWM...
The sex cord stromal tumors (i.e., granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors) occur in both benign and malignant ... Bleeding and endometrial hyperplasia may be the problem that brings a patient to a physician, and endometrial cancer has been ... Witschi E: Migration of the germ cells of human embryos from the yolk sac to the primitive gonadal folds. Contrib Embryol 32: ... Roth LM: Sex cord-stromal and lipid cell tumors of the ovary. In Fox H (ed): Haines and Taylor Obstetrical and Gynecological ...
*  Most recent papers with the keyword Gynecological endocrinology | Read by QxMD
... and ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, individuals with pathogenic germline DICER1 ... DSD are congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. Facilities providing ... METHODS: In a cross section study a total of 20 endometrial samples were collected from 10 patients with PCOS and 10 ovulatory ... Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that excessive endometrial proliferation in PCOS may be partly related to abnormalities ...
*  Pharmacology definition - Succinylcholine - Medical Zone
Pathology definition - Ovarian Tumor ( Surface Epithelium Origin) * Pathology definition - Ovarian Tumor ( Sex Cord Stromal ... Pathology definition - Testicular Sex Cord- Gonadal Stroma Tumors * Pathology definition - Hydatidiform Mole ... Symptom Checker - Endometrial Cancer * Symptom Checker - Freckles * Symptom Checker - Epicondylitis * Symptom Checker - ... Surgery Definition - What are the types of benign liver tumors? * Surgery Definition - What are the symptoms and signs of ...
*  Differential Diagnosis of Axillary Erythematous Rash - Medical Zone
Pathology definition - Ovarian Tumor ( Surface Epithelium Origin) * Pathology definition - Ovarian Tumor ( Sex Cord Stromal ... Pathology definition - Testicular Sex Cord- Gonadal Stroma Tumors * Pathology definition - Hydatidiform Mole ... Symptom Checker - Endometrial Cancer * Symptom Checker - Freckles * Symptom Checker - Epicondylitis * Symptom Checker - ... Surgery Definition - What are the types of benign liver tumors? * Surgery Definition - What are the symptoms and signs of ...
*  Immunohistochemical study of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors, including staining with anti-inhibin antibody. - The Christie...
Inhibin is a peptide hormone produced by ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli cells. Ovarian granulosa cell and other sex cord-stromal tumors usually exhibit positive immunohistochemical staining with antiinhibin antibodies, and this may be valuable in differentiating these neoplasms from histologic mimics. In the present study, we investigated the immunohistochemical staining of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors using antiinhibin. Immunostaining with CAM5.2, vimentin, S-100 protein, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) also was performed because few studies have investigated in detail the immunophenotype of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Fifteen of 16 Leydig cell ...
*  Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Bleomycin Sulfate, Etoposide Phosphate, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced or...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To assess the activity of paclitaxel and carboplatin with respect to progression free survival (using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin [BEP] as a reference) for newly diagnosed advanced or recurrent chemonaive ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To estimate the toxicity of paclitaxel and carboplatin, and bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin in this patient population.. II. To estimate overall survival for paclitaxel and carboplatin relative to that of BEP.. III. To evaluate response rate in the subset of patients with measurable disease.. TERTIARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To collect fixed and/or frozen tumor tissue for future translational research studies.. II. To explore the utility of inhibin A and inhibin B as prognostic and predictive biomarkers for ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and to examine ...
*  Testicular sex cord-stromal tumor in a boy with 2q37 deletion syndrome | BMC Medical Genomics | Full Text
This study provides novel insight into the genotype-phenotype correlations of the rare chromosomal disorder del2q37 syndrome. First, this case manifests typical clinical features of del2q37 syndrome, while the phenotypic presentation because of the 1p36 duplication was less evident except for intelligence disability [18]. This finding suggests that haploinsufficiency of the genes at 2q37, rather than the segmental duplications of 1p36 or 20p12, shows dominant effects on the phenotypic presentation. Specific gene functions of GPCPD1 and the duplication of 20p12 remain to be clarified, structural variations at 20p14.3, wherein this gene is located, were identified in healthy individuals of Korean ethnicity [19]. Therefore, the 20p14.3 duplication spanning the GPCPD1 locus was unlikely to alter the phenotype of del2q37 syndrome and to produce the carcinogenic condition. While the present case did not show profound phenotype of intellectual disability compared to other cases in the literature, we ...
*  ClinMed International Library
Uterine tumour resembling an ovarian sex cord tumour (UTROSCT) is a rare neoplastic lesion. It has been described for the first time in 1945 by Morehead.
*  Combined comparative genomic hybridization and transcriptomic analyses of ovarian granulosa cell tumors point to novel...
Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumors, and account for more than 5% of ovarian cancers [1]. Two different forms, juvenile and adult, have been described based on the age of onset and histopathological features [2]. GCTs tend to be low-grade malignancies, but can recur up to 40 years after primary tumor resection [3]. Various studies have revealed that a somatic mutation leading to the p.C134W substitution in the transcription factor FOXL2 appears in , 95% of adult-type GCTs [4].. Transactivation studies have suggested that the p.C134W mutation could perturb the functional interaction between FOXL2 with SMAD3 [5] and FOXL2 activity in other systems [6]. This variant is also deficient in its ability to promote apoptosis [7] and displays a mild loss-of-function on targets involved in cell cycle and DNA-damage repair [8].. We have recently performed a transcriptomic ...
*  Granulosa-Theca Cell Tumors Follow-up: Further Outpatient Care, Inpatient & Outpatient Medications, Transfer
Three major types of ovarian neoplasms are described, with epithelial cell tumors (>70%) comprising the largest group of tumors. Germ cell tumors occur less frequently (20%), while sex cord-stromal tumors make up the smallest proportion, accounting for approximately 8% of all ovarian neoplasms.
*  Ovarian fibroma - Wikipedia
The ovarian fibroma, also fibroma, is a benign sex cord-stromal tumour. Ovarian fibromas represent 4% of all ovarian neoplasms. They tend to occur mostly during perimenopause and postmenopause, the median age having been reported to be about 52 years, and they are rare in children. Lesions tend to be asymptomatic. If symptoms are present, the most common one is abdominal pain. On gross pathology, they are firm and white or tan. On microscopic examination, there are intersecting bundles of spindle cells producing collagen. There may be thecomatous areas (fibrothecoma). The presence of an ovarian fibroma can cause ovarian torsion in some cases. Diagnosis is usually made by ultrasonography showing a solid ovarian lesion, or, on some occasions, mixed tumors with solid and cystic components. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can also be used to diagnose fibromas. In a series of 16 patients, 5 (28%) showed ...
*  Thecoma - Wikipedia
Thecomas or theca cell tumors are benign ovarian neoplasms composed only of theca cells. Histogenetically they are classified as sex cord-stromal tumours. They are typically estrogen-producing and they occur in older women (mean age 59; 84% after menopause). (They can, however, appear before menopause.) 60% of patients present with abnormal uterine bleeding, and 20% have endometrial carcinoma. Grossly, the tumour is solid and yellow. Grossly and microscopically, it consists of the ovarian cortex. Microscopically, the tumour cells have abundant lipid-filled cytoplasm. Okada I, Nakagawa S, Takemura Y, et al. (October 2004). "Ovarian thecoma associated in the first trimester of pregnancy". J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res. 30 (5): 368-71. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0756.2004.00212.x. PMID 15327450 ...
*  Androblastomas - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
A sex cord-gonadal stromal Tumor consists of Leydig Cells; Sertoli Cells; and Fibroblasts in varying proportions and degree of differentiation. Most such Tumors produce Androgens in the Leydig Cells, formerly known as androblastoma or arrhenoblastoma. Androblastomas occur in the Testis or the Ovary causing precocious masculinization in the males, and defeminization, or Virilization (Virilism) in the females. In some cases, the Sertoli Cells produce Estrogens ...
*  Patent US5885294 - Apparatus and method for anchoring a cord-like element to a workpiece - Google Patents
A novel system and method for anchoring a suture or other cord-like element to a bone or other workpiece. The system comprises a drill for forming an undercut hole in a bone or other workpiece, an anchor for securing a suture or other cord-like element in the undercut hole in the bone or other workpiece, and an inserter for deploying the anchor in the undercut hole in the bone or other workpiece.
*  Single cell triggers fibroid uterine tumor - UPI.com
U.S. researchers say they've identified the molecular trigger of fibroid uterine tumors -- a single stem cell develops a mutation and grows uncontrollably.
*  Treatment of Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors - Pediatric Spinal Cord Tumors
Surgery is performed to remove or reduce the size of the tumor and alleviate the pressure ont he spinal column caused by the tumor.
*  Spinal cord tumors: new views and future directions.
Spinal cord tumors are uncommon neoplasms that, without treatment, can cause significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. The historic classification of spine tumors is based on the use of myelography with 3 main groups: (1) extramedullary extradu
*  Vocal Cord Tumor: Risk Factors
Another name for Vocal Cord Tumor is Laryngeal Cancer. Risk factors for laryngeal cancer include: * Age over 50 * Alcohol abuse * Chewing tobacco * Gastroesophageal ...
*  Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children
Whether your child has just been diagnosed with a brain or spinal cord tumor, is going through treatment, or is trying to stay well after treatment, this detailed guide can help you find the answers you need.
*  Key Statistics for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
The American Cancer Society's most recent estimates and statistics for brain and spinal cord tumors in the United States are located here.
*  Targeted Therapy for Adult Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
Targeted drugs work differently on brain and spinal cord tumors than standard chemotherapy drugs. They often have less severe side effects. Learn more here.
*  Rehabilitation for Spinal Cord Tumors | Pelisyonkis Langone Health- pelisyonkis.info
Pelisyonkis Langone rehabilitation experts use medication and physical and occupational therapy to help people recover from spinal cord tumors. Read more.
*  Research - Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre
The oncogenic roles of DICER1 RNase IIIb domain mutations in ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors." Wang Y, Chen J, Yang W, Mo F, Senz J, Yap D, Anglesio MS, Gilks B, Morin GB, Huntsman DG. Neoplasia. 2015 Aug;17(8):650-60.. "MEF2B mutations in non-Hodgkin lymphoma dysregulate cell migration by decreasing MEF2B target gene activation." Pon JR, Wong J, Saberi S, Alder O, Moksa M, Grace Cheng SW, Morin GB, Hoodless PA, Hirst M, Marra MA. Nat Commun. 2015 Aug 6;6:7953. "Cancer-associated somatic DICER1 hotspot mutations cause defective miRNA processing and reverse-strand expression bias to predominantly mature 3p strands through loss of 5p strand cleavage." Anglesio MS, Wang Y, Yang W, Senz J, Wan A, Heravi-Moussavi A, Salamanca C, Maines-Bandiera S, Huntsman DG, Morin GB. J Pathol. 2013 Feb;229(3):400-9.. "Interaction of cyclin-dependent kinase 12/CrkRS with cyclin K1 is required for the phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II." Cheng SW, Kuzyk MA, Moradian A, Ichu TA, ...
*  Ovarian Dysgerminomas: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
The 3 major types of ovarian tumors are epithelial, sex cord, and germ cell. Epithelial cell tumors represent the majority of all ovarian neoplasms (82%).
*  What Happens After Treatment for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?
After treatment, the main concerns for most families are the immediate and long-term effects of the tumor and its treatment, and concerns about the tumor still being present or coming back.
*  UC Davis participates in leading-edge research on fibroid treatment
UC Davis Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology researchers are participating in a University of California-wide clinical trial to test the long-term efficacy of ablating uterine fibroids ― benign non-cancerous uterine tumors ― using high-frequency radio waves that heat, shrink and kill the fibroid tissues during minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery.
*  Doctors and Staff
Johns Hopkins doctors are experts in the treatment and care of children with brain and spinal cord tumors, providing the most effective and safest treatment available.