*  Novel PVA/La2Ce2O7 hybrid nanocomposite membranes for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are electrochemical devices that show the highest power densities compared to the other type of fuel cell. In this work, nanocomposite membranes used for proton exchange membrane fuel cells as poly(vinyl alcohol)/La2Ce2O7 (PVA-LC) with the aim of increasing the water uptake and proton conductivity. Glutaraldehyde (GA) was used as cross linking agent of PVA matrix. PVA-LC nanocomposite membranes have been prepared with solutions casting method. The significant improvement has been achieved via the synergetic combination of organic and inorganic phases. Nanocomposite membranes were structurally, morphologically and electrochemically considered by FTIR, SEM and ELS, respectively. The results exhibited that the proton conductivity and the water uptake of the nanocomposite membranes were higher than that of the PVA membrane. PVA-LC nanocomposite membranes containing 4 wt.% of La2Ce2O7 nanoparticles displayed a high proton conductivity (0.019 S/cm). The ...
  http://ijhfc.irost.ir/article_52_0.html
*  ECONOMIZATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | SBIR.gov
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS OFFER MANY ADVANTAGES OVER STANDARD POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEMS, INCLUDING FULL CYCLE EFFICIENCIES OF 60%, A WIDE RANGE OF USABLE FUELS, AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND COMBUSTION WITH VERY LOW NOX EMISSIONS. HOWEVER, PROBLEMS SUCH AS COST AND LOW PERFORMANCE MUST BE RESOLVED. THIS PHASE I PROJECT CONCERNS THE DEVELOPMENT A PLANAR, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL WITH A UNITIZED BIOPOLAR DESIGN USING LOW RESISTIVITY, THIN, SOLID OXIDE FILMS PRODUCED BY REACTIVE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING. THE CELLS UTILIZE LOW COST FLOW FIELD MATERIALS AND ARE CAPABLE OF OPERATING DIRECTLY ON NATURAL GAS AND AIR AS REACTANTS. THESE FEATURES REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS AND SYSTEM COMPLEXITY AS WELL AS ALLOW OPERATION AT TEMPERATURES OF ABOUT 700 DEGREES CENTIGRADE. THE PHASE I PROGRAM TESTS TWO DIFFERENT LOW COST FLOW FIELDS: GRAPHITE PAPER AND NICKEL FELT. THE PROGRAM COMPARES PERFORMANCE OF THESE CELLS TO PERFORMANCE DATA OBTAINED UNDER A NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) SOFC ...
  https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/88395
*  Patent US5908713 - Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells - Google Patents
A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US5908713?dq=6008737
*  Can solid oxide fuel cells change transportation? | HowStuffWorks
Can solid oxide fuel cells change transportation? Keep reading to learn about solid oxide fuel cells and how they can change transportation.
  https://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency/fuel-saving-devices/solid-oxide-fuel-cells-change-transportation.htm
*  Patente US8309270 - Solid oxide fuel cell systems with improved gas channeling and heat exchange - Google Patentes
The present teachings relate to solid oxide fuel cell systems featuring a novel design that provides improved thermal management of the system. The solid oxide fuel cell systems disclosed include gas channeling features that regulate the temperature of local areas of the system and protect thermal-sensitive current collection elements.
  http://www.google.es/patents/US8309270
*  Wiley: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Modeling - Fengge Gao, Benjamin Blunier, Abdellatif Miraoui
Introduction ix. Nomenclature xiii. Part 1: State of the Art: Of Fuel Cells Modeling 1. Chapter 1. General Introduction 3. 1.1. What is a fuel cell? 3. 1.2. Types of fuel cells 5. Chapter 2. PEMFC Structure 13. 2.1. Bipolar plates 15. 2.2. Membrane electrode assembly 16. Chapter 3. Why Model a Fuel Cell? 21. 3.1. Advantages of modeling and simulation 22. 3.2. Complex system modeling methods 23. 3.3. Modeling goals 26. Chapter 4. How Can a Fuel Cell be Modeled? 31. 4.1. Space dimension: 0D, 1D, 2D, 3D 31. 4.2. Temporal behavior: static or dynamic 32. 4.3. Type: analytical, semi-empirical, empirical 33. 4.4. Modeled areas: stack, single cell, individual layer 34. 4.5. Modeled phenomena 35. Chapter 5. Literature Models Synthesis 37. 5.1. 50 models published in the literature 37. 5.2. Model classification 42. Part 2: Modeling of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell 47. Chapter 6. Model Structural and Functional Approaches 49. Chapter 7. Stack-Level Modeling 53. 7.1. Electrical domain 53. 7.2. ...
  http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1848213395.html
*  Enhanced performance of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with gas diffusion...
Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) prepared by a novel automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation (ACSUI) technique are investigated for improving the performance of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The physical properties of the GDEs are characterized by pore size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with the GDEs are evaluated and analyzed by polarization curve, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Effects of PTFE binder content, PA impregnation and heat treatment on the GDEs are investigated to determine the optimum performance of the single cell. At ambient pressure and 160 o C, the maximum power density can reach 0.61 W cm-2, and the current density at 0.6 V is up to 0.38 A cm-2, with H /air and a platinum loading of 0.5 mg cm-2 on both electrodes. The MEA with the GDEs shows good ...
  http://repository.uwc.ac.za/handle/10566/3372
*  Joint Particle Filters Prognostics for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Power Prediction at Constant Current Solicitation -...
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are promising energy converters, but still suffer from a short life duration. Applying Prognostics and Health M
  http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7174573/?reload=true
*  Global Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Industr
The Global Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Industry 2015 Market Research Report is a professional - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
  https://www.bharatbook.com/consumer-electronics-market-research-reports-668259/global-proton-exchange-membrane-fuel-cells2.html
*  Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application. | RTI
Gong, M., Liu, X., Trembly, J., & Johnson, C. (2007). Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application. Journal of Power Sources, 168(2), 289 - 298 ...
  https://www.rti.org/publication/sulfur-tolerant-anode-materials-solid-oxide-fuel-cell-application-0
*  Energies | Free Full-Text | Modeling of Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fueled with Syngas
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with proton conducting electrolyte (H-SOFCs) are promising power sources for stationary applications. Compared with other types of fuel cells, one distinct feature of SOFC is their fuel flexibility. In this study, a 2D model is developed to investigate the transport and reaction in an H-SOFC fueled with syngas, which can be produced from conventional natural gas or renewable biomass. The model fully considers the fluid flow, mass transfer, heat transfer and reactions in the H-SOFC. Parametric studies are conducted to examine the physical and chemical processes in H-SOFC with a focus on how the operating parameters affect the H-SOFC performance. It is found that the presence of CO dilutes the concentration of H2, thus decreasing the H-SOFC performance. With typical syngas fuel, adding H2O cannot enhance the performance of the H-SOFC, although water gas shift reaction can facilitate H2 production.
  http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/7/7/4381
*  Ce-0.8(SmZr)(0.2)O-2-carbonate nanocomposite electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell
A nanocomposite Zr/Sm-codoped ceria electrolyte coated with K2CO3/Na2CO3 was synthesized by a coprecipitation method. The electrochemical study of the two-phase nanocomposite electrolytes with carbonate coated on the doped ceria shows high oxygen ion mobility at low temperatures (300-600 degrees C). The interface between the two constituent phases was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Ionic conductivities were also measured with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of composite electrolyte were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fuel cell power density is 700 mW cm(-2), and an open-circuit voltage of 1.00 V is achieved at low temperatures (400-550 degrees C). This codoped approach with a second phase provides a good indication regarding overcoming the challenges of solid oxide fuel cell technology.. ...
  http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:713412
*  Patente US7767329 - Solid oxide fuel cell with improved current collection - Google Patentes
A solid oxide fuel cell comprises a plurality of tubes, each having an anode, electrolyte and cathode. Anode and cathode current collectors are mounted on the tubes. The anode current collector electrically connects to the anode and can have a contact with the anode. The cathode current collector electrically connects to the cathode and can have a contact with the cathode. An electrically conductive sealant may be positioned between the anode of one tube and the cathode current collector of another tube.
  http://www.google.es/patents/US7767329?hl=es
*  Integration design of membrane electrode assemblies in low temperature solid oxide fuel cell
In this paper, an integration design of membrane electrode assemblies in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) is accomplished by using a mixed ionic-electronic conductor. The mixed ionic-electronic conductor is a composite material, LiNiCuZn oxides, Gd2O3 and Sm-doped CeO2 composited with Na2CO3 (LiNiCuZn oxides-NGSDC), which consists of ionic conductor, n-type and p-type semiconductors. The multi-phase composite material can also be used in single layer fuel cell (SLFC) to replace single-phase materials. A SLFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides-NSGDC composite exhibits an OCV of 1.05 V and maximum power density of 800 mW cm-2, which is comparable to the cell performance of conventional LTSOFCs and much higher than that of SLFC reported before. The reasons leading to the good performance are porous structure of electrode and the matching of ionic conductor and semiconductor.. ...
  http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:586437
*  Aldrich Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications | Sigma-Aldrich
In Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), the cathode and the anode are made from porous ceramic materials and the electrolyte consists of a dense oxygen ion conducting ceramic. This allows SOFCs to operate at high temperatures around 1,000°C (1,830°F) and to reform hydrocarbons internally, thus enabling the use of natural gas or reformed diesel as fuel.1. The high-temperature operation places rigorous durability requirements on cell components. Therefore development of low-cost materials with high durability at high temperatures is the key technical challenge for SOFC technology.2. Aldrich Materials Science offers a variety of materials that can be used for the preparation of cathodes, anodes and electrolytes for SOFC applications. Our product portfolio includes a variety of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM), Gadolinium doped Ceria (GDC) and other ceramic materials specifically designed for SOFC applications.. For complete list of our fuel cell materials and ...
  https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/material-matters/aldrich-materials.html
*  Modelling of a Biomass Gasification Plant Feeding a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine System - DTU Orbit
A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the other in a combined SOFC and micro gas turbine (MGT) arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has been developed and calibrated against published data from Topsoe Fuel Cells A/S (TOFC) and Risø National Laboratory. The modelled gasifier is based on an up scaled version of the demonstrated low tar gasifier, Viking, situated at the Technical University of Denmark. The MGT utilizes the unconverted syngas from the SOFC to produce more power as well as pressurizing the SOFC bettering the electrical efficiency compared to operation with the SOFC alone - from η_el=36.4% to η_el=50.3 ...
  http://orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/modelling-of-a-biomass-gasification-plant-feeding-a-hybrid-solid-oxide-fuel-cell-and-micro-gas-turbine-system
*  Patent US7255956 - Environmentally tolerant anode catalyst for a solid oxide fuel cell - Google Patents
A solid oxide fuel cell includes a cathode, a solid ceramic electrolyte, and an anode comprising a cermet containing an environment tolerant catalyst, such as a fuel starvation and/or a sulfur tolerant catalyst.
  http://www.google.com/patents/US7255956?dq=6289460
*  Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES
The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure-including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions-are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here in this paper, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and ...
  https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1340378-effect-ni-content-morphological-evolution-ni-ysz-solid-oxide-fuel-cell-electrodes
*  Combustion synthesis of Gd3+ doped nanoceria electrolyte and its composite electrodes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells
Abstract In this work, we present our attempts on the the processing of nano ceramic electrolyte and electrodes (anode and cathode) materials for low temperature grade solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFC). The studies on the processing parameters and heat treament were discussed. The phase identification, morphology and electrical properties were also studied. Part I: Combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria and nano grained dense ceria electrolyte by convencional solid-state route and its sintering characteristics studies were attempted. Accordingly, Gd3+ doped nanocrystalline ceria (GDC - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) was prepared by nitrate-fuel combustión technique followed by calcination at 700°C for 2h. The nanopowders were uni-axially pressed into cylindrical discs followed by sintering at 1200°C for 2h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrsoscopy analyses resulted in the gadolinium oxide was completely disolved into ceria solid solution with single phase fluorite structure ...
  http://www.techconnectworld.com/Nanotech2011/a.html?i=1176
*  Microstructural analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell anode using focused ion beam techniques coupled with electrochemical...
Shearing, PR, Cai, Q, Golbert, JI, Yufit, V, Adjiman, CS and Brandon, NP (2010) Microstructural analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell anode using focused ion beam techniques coupled with electrochemical simulation ...
  http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/803927/
*  Solid oxide fuel cells getting closer to ... ( A technology meeting energy and cli...)
...A technology meeting energy and climate challenges ...The solid oxide fuel cell is a technology for more efficient power pro...The SOFC technology will help meet Danish energy and climate policy go...Research and industry in a fruitful collaboration ...,Solid,oxide,fuel,cells,getting,closer,to,the,market,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Solid-oxide-fuel-cells-getting-closer-to-the-market-14226-1/
*  Global Failure Criteria for Positive/Electrolyte/Negative Structure of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Journal Article) | SciTech...
Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of various layers in the positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly. In this paper, the global relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures ...
  https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/964221
*  Eggshell membrane-templated synthesis of highly crystalline perovskite ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells
Dong, Dehua and Wu, Yuzhou and Zhang, Xinyi and Yao, Jianfeng and Huang, Yi and Li, Dan and Li, Chun-Zhu and Wang, Huanting. 2011. Eggshell membrane-templated synthesis of highly crystalline perovskite ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 21 (4): pp. 1028-1032 ...
  https://espace.curtin.edu.au/handle/20.500.11937/45573
*  Proceedings of the ... International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - S. C. Singhal, SOFC Society of Japan - Google Books
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Proceedings_of_the_International_Symposi.html?id=DuxSAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareProceedings of the ... International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ...
  https://books.google.com/books?id=DuxSAAAAMAAJ&q=chromite&dq=related:ISBN047029163X&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en