*  Candida albicans - Wikipedia
Shapiro, R. S.; Robbins, N.; Cowen, L. E. (2011). "Regulatory Circuitry Governing Fungal Development, Drug Resistance, and ... Small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO) is characterized by the presence of excessive number of fungal organisms in the small ... The most used selection markers in C. albicans are the CaNAT1 resistance marker (confers resistance against nourseothricin) and ... www.cdc.gov/fungal/antifungal-resistance.html Sellama A, Whiteway M (2016). "Recent advances on Candida albicans biology and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candida_albicans
*  Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase - Wikipedia
Prolonged use of azoles as antifungals has resulted in the emergence of drug resistance among certain fungal strains (Becher et ... "Efflux-mediated Antifungal Drug Resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009, 22:291- 321 cytochrome P-450 CYP51 at the US National ... "Fungal Cytochrome P450 Sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) and Azole Resistance in Plant and Human Pathogens." Applied Microbiology ... 1987, 36:229-235 Vanden Bossche H, Dromer F, Improvisi I, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH, Sanglard D. "Antifungal Drug Resistance in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanosterol_14_alpha-demethylase
*  Biofilm - Wikipedia
2001). "Biofilm Formation by the Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans: Development, Architecture, and Drug Resistance". Journal of ... Biofilms of fungal origin are important aspects of human infection and fungal pathagenicity, as the fungal infection is more ... In the environment, fungal biofilms are an area of ongoing research. One key area of research are fungal biofilms on plants. ... the biofilm does have greater resistance to antimicrobials. This resistance to antibiotics in both stationary-phase cells and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofilm
*  Fungal prion - Wikipedia
Suzuki G, Shimazu N, Tanaka M (2012). "A Yeast Prion, Mod5, Promotes Acquired Drug Resistance and Cell Survival Under ... A fungal prion is a prion that infects fungal hosts. Fungal prions are naturally occurring proteins that can switch between ... Fungal prions have provided a model for the understanding of disease-forming mammalian prions. Study of fungal prions has led ... These fungal prions are generally considered benign, and in some cases even confer a selectable advantage to the organism. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungal_prion
*  Allicin - Wikipedia
Allicin has been studied for its potential to treat various kinds of multiple drug resistance bacterial infections, as well as ... viral and fungal infections in vitro, but as of 2016, the safety and efficacy of allicin to treat infections in people was ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allicin
*  Antimicrobial resistance - Wikipedia
Xie, J. L.; Polvi, E. J.; Shekhar-Guturja, T; Cowen, L. E. (2014). "Elucidating drug resistance in human fungal pathogens". ... Resistance to recently developed drugs such as artemisinin has also been reported. The problem of drug resistance in malaria ... Drug resistance has "become a major concern". The phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance caused by overuse of antibiotics was ... The WHO defines antimicrobial resistance as a microorganism's resistance to an antimicrobial drug that was once able to treat ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_resistance
*  Setosphaeria rostrata - Wikipedia
Melanin production has also been associated with drug resistance to polyenes and echinocandins but not to azoles, which is why ... "Insights into fungal pathogenesis from the iatrogenic epidemic of Exserohilum rostratum fungal meningitis". Fungal Genetics and ... "Insights into fungal pathogenesis from the iatrogenic epidemic of Exserohilum rostratum fungal meningitis". Fungal Genetics and ... The β-D-glucan assay detects (1,3)-β-D-glucan, a major component of many fungal cell walls released during cell growth. In the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setosphaeria_rostrata
*  Fluconazole - Wikipedia
Fungal resistance to drugs in the azole class tends to occur gradually over the course of prolonged drug therapy, resulting in ... Development of resistance to one azole in this way will confer resistance to all drugs in the class. Another resistance ... The full spectrum of fungal susceptibility and resistance to fluconazole can be found in the TOKU-E's product data sheet. ... C. glabrata develops resistance by up regulating CDR genes, and resistance in C. krusei is mediated by reduced sensitivity of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluconazole
*  Dysidea arenaria - Wikipedia
... was reported as a rare example of a molecule capable of reversing multidrug efflux-mediated fungal resistance to the drug ... "Reversal of Fluconazole Resistance in Multidrug Efflux-Resistant Fungi by the Sponge Sterol 9α,11α-Epoxycholest-7-ene-3β,5α,6α, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysidea_arenaria
*  Transcriptomics technologies - Wikipedia
"Drug resistance. Population transcriptomics of human malaria parasites reveals the mechanism of artemisinin resistance". ... Investigation of gene expression during biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans revealed a co-regulated set ... Transcriptomic profiling also provides crucial information on mechanisms of drug resistance. Analysis of over 1000 Plasmodium ... Suzuki S, Horinouchi T, Furusawa C (December 2014). "Prediction of antibiotic resistance by gene expression profiles". Nature ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcriptomics_technologies
*  Skin flora - Wikipedia
see Drug resistance) Skin flora do not readily pass between people: 30 seconds of moderate friction and dry hand contact ... It is important to note that the human skin is host to numerous bacterial and fungal species, some of which are known to be ... The study showed a large fungal diversity across the body, the richest habitat being the heel, which hosts about 80 species of ... Oyeka CA, Ugwu LO (2002). "Fungal flora of human toe webs". Mycoses. 45 (11-12): 488-91. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0507.2002.00796.x. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin_flora
*  Terconazole - Wikipedia
It is still used as a treatment in cases of resistance to other drugs. Terconazole is approved to treat vulvovaginal ... Previously, all triazole based drugs targeted fungal infections related to plants from Candida species. Since creation, ... The drug was infused into the bloodstream and could cause kidney damage and other side effects. The first azole compounds were ... Triazole based drugs came shortly after and quickly gained popularity due to its broader spectrum of antifungal activity and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terconazole
*  Aspergillus terreus - Wikipedia
... the fallback drug for serious fungal infections. However, some newer drugs, such as voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin ... Although less frequently seen in clinical samples, A. terreus displays evidence of amphotericin B resistance which correlates ... It was also the initial source for the drug mevinolin (lovastatin), a drug for lowering serum cholesterol. A. terreus can cause ... "Fungal Infections Aspergillus terreus". Leading International Fungal Education. Retrieved 13 October 2013. "Aspergilus terreus ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspergillus_terreus
*  Acriflavine - Wikipedia
Since 2014, acriflavine has been undergoing testing as an antimalarial drug to treat parasites with resistance to quinine and ... It is used as treatment for external fungal infections of aquarium fish. In an animal model, acriflavine has been shown to ... "This forgotten WWI antiseptic could be the key to fighting antibiotic resistance". Science Alert. November 30, 2016. Pépin, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acriflavine
*  Aspergillus ustus - Wikipedia
This species shows elevated resistance to antifungal drugs; however, four classes of drugs (itraconazole (a triazole), ... ustus as an emerging agent of opportunistic fungal infection. However, the true incidence of A. ustus infection is very ... the response of skin to treatment varies depending on the degree of drug susceptibility exhibited by the particular strain. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspergillus_ustus
*  Isavuconazonium - Wikipedia
Infection and Drug Resistance. 9: 79-86. doi:10.2147/IDR.S81416. PMC 4898026 . PMID 27330318. Miceli, MH; Kauffman, CA (15 ... Pettit, Natasha N.; Carver, Peggy L. (2015-07-01). "Isavuconazole A New Option for the Management of Invasive Fungal Infections ... "Proposed INN: List 96" (PDF). WHO Drug Information. 20 (4). 2006. "Recommended INN: List 58" (PDF). WHO Drug Information. 21 (3 ... and market the drug. In 2013 and 2014 the partners won orphan drug designation in the US for isavuconazonium for treating ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isavuconazonium
*  Azole - Wikipedia
... drug-drug interactions, toxicity, development of resistance and unfavorable pharmacokinetics, analogues were developed. Second- ... the first azole-based oral treatment of systemic fungal infections, in the early 1980s. Later, triazoles fluconazole and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azole
*  Hexamethylenetetramine - Wikipedia
... but its use has now been re-approved because of the prevalence of antibiotic resistance to more commonly used drugs. This drug ... used widely as a screen for fungal organisms. Jones' stain, a methenamine silver-Periodic acid-Schiff that stains for basement ... Therefore, its effectiveness as a drug depended greatly on the acidity of the urine rather than the amount of the drug ... because bacteria do not develop resistance to formaldehyde. It should not be used in the presence of renal insufficiency. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexamethylenetetramine
*  Multidrug resistance pump - Wikipedia
Chitsaz, Mohsen; Brown, Melissa H. (2017-03-03). "The role played by drug efflux pumps in bacterial multidrug resistance". ... Pathogenic bacterial and fungal species have developed MDR pumps which efflux out many antibiotics and antifungals rendering ... Laura J. V. Piddock (2006). "Multidrug-resistance efflux pumps ? not just for resistance". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4: 629- ... Multidrug resistance pumps (MDR pumps) also known Multidrug efflux pumps are a type of efflux pump and P-glycoprotein. MDR ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multidrug_resistance_pump
*  Mucor racemosus - Wikipedia
In the manufacture of sufu (fermented cheese-like soybean product common in China and Vietnam), the fungal fermentation of ... It possesses the ability to adapt phenotypically to several different antibiotics after exposure to a single drug, which makes ... Leathers, TD; Sypherd, PS (June 1985). "Inducible phenotypic multidrug resistance in the fungus Mucor racemosus". Antimicrobial ... However, some secondary metabolites of the fungus have been found to have anti-inflammatory activity similar to the drug ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucor_racemosus
*  Aspergillus flavus - Wikipedia
"Aspergillus flavus". Center for Integrated Fungal Research. Center for Integrated Fungal Research. "Helpful Yeast Battles Food- ... A. flavus infection is typically treated with antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole ... and caspofungin; however, some antifungal resistance has been shown in amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole. In 1960 ... flavus is a common etiological cause of fungal sinusitis and cutaneous infections and noninvasive fungal pneumonia. Countries ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspergillus_flavus
*  Sepsis - Wikipedia
In case of people having high risk of being infected with multiple drug resistance organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ... Fungal sepsis accounts for approximately 5% of severe sepsis and septic shock cases; the most common cause of fungal sepsis is ... Access to therapeutic drug monitoring is important to ensure adequate drug therapeutic level while at the same time preventing ... Fink, MP; Warren, HS (October 2014). "Strategies to improve drug development for sepsis". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 13 ( ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sepsis
*  List of MeSH codes (G04) - Wikipedia
... drug resistance, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.383.500 --- drug resistance, multiple, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.286.420 --- drug ... drug resistance, multiple, fungal MeSH G04.185.515.329.750 --- drug resistance, multiple, viral MeSH G04.185.515.372 --- germ- ... drug resistance, multiple, viral MeSH G04.185.515.329 --- drug resistance, multiple MeSH G04.185.515.329.500 --- drug ... drug resistance, microbial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347 --- drug resistance, bacterial MeSH G04.185.515.286.347.500 --- beta-lactam ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(G04)
*  Amphotericin B - Wikipedia
It has been a highly effective drug for over fifty years in large part because it has a low incidence of drug resistance in the ... Mammalian and fungal membranes both contain sterols, a primary membrane target for amphotericin B. Because mammalian and fungal ... Rura, Nicole (2013-10-29). "Understanding the evolution of drug resistance points to novel strategy for developing better ... "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-09-05. Retrieved 2015-11-03 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphotericin_B
*  Cabozantinib - Wikipedia
Cabozantinib is a substrate of CYP3A4 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2; drugs that inhibit these enzymes will make ... fungal infections, low thyroid levels, dehydration, loss of albumin, anxiety, depression, and confusion, peripheral neuropathy ... was granted orphan drug status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2011. Exelixis filed a new drug ... Exelixis' XL184 Granted Orphan Drug Designation and Assigned the Generic Name Cabozantinib. Jan 2011 "Thyroid cancer drug ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabozantinib