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*  Developmental regulation of intestinal angiogenesis by indigenous microbes via Paneth cells | PNAS
... networks of germ-free mice with those of ex-germ-free animals colonized during or after completion of postnatal gut development ... The gut epithelium undergoes constant renewal throughout postnatal life. This process is fueled by one or more long-lived ... Role of Commensal Bacteria in Development of Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues and Preimmune Antibody Repertoire ... All mice (conventionally raised, germ-free, and ex-germ-free) were killed at the same time of day (12:00 p.m.). Animals were ...
  https://www.pnas.org/content/99/24/15451.long
*  A new look at the human microbiome | YCPMicro
... "germ-free" environment lacking a complement of normal microbiota, there is firm evidence that these animals are fundamentally ... and the presence of these organisms are critical for proper development during the first few months of life. Although mice can ... Humans acquire the vast majority of their flora from their mother, during the process of birth, ... you may also be killing the normal bacteria on you. ... vigilant with our patients in order to prevent the development ...
  https://bio230fall2010.wordpress.com/2012/07/21/a-new-look-at-the-human-microbiome/
*  News Feature: Microbes on the mind | PNAS
"Germ-free mice are a good model to ask the very simple question: is the microbiota involved in this process or not? That's a ... If so, he hopes to use these mice to test hypotheses about the mechanisms by which bacteria contribute to the development of ... once established incorrectly in germ-free mice, could be difficult to modify with bacterial interventions later in life. ... B. breve 1205 emboldened the animals to explore open, exposed parts of a maze, and B. longum 1714 suppressed spikes in body ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/112/30/9143
*  Frontiers | Gut Microbiota and Developmental Programming of the Brain: From Evidence in Behavioral Endophenotypes to Novel...
Such investigation will reveal the full therapeutic potential of nurturing gut bacteria starting since the perinatal life to ... Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 979-984. ... Both neurodevelopmental and obese endophenotypes seem to have their root during the intrauterine life. Early development of gut ... compared to the specific pathogen free (SPF) animals in response to a mild restraint stress induced (Sudo et al., 2004). ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2012.00109/full
*  How gut bacteria ensures a healthy brain - and could play a role in treating depression
But medicine in the 21st century is rethinking its relationship with bacteria and ... ... One of medicine's greatest innovations in the 20th century was the development of antibiotics. It transformed our ability to ... In one experiment, researchers transplanted the human microbiome into germ-free mice (animals that have no gut bacteria) in ... The lives of the bacteria in our gut are intimately entwined with our immune, endocrine and nervous systems. The relationship ...
  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-10-gut-bacteria-healthy-brain-role.html
*  Frontiers | Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in the Era of the Human Microbiome: Persistent Pathogens Drive...
... would benefit from treatments that support the human immune system in an effort to reverse the infectious disease process. ... Humans harbor these vast ecosystems of bacteria, viruses and fungi in nearly all tissue and blood. Most well-studied ... Humans harbor these vast ecosystems of bacteria, viruses and fungi in nearly all tissue and blood. Most well-studied ... 79) transplanted fecal samples from patients with Parkinson's disease into germ-free mice. These mice, and not controls, ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fped.2018.00373/full
*  The Brain-Gut-Microbe Axis « Hella Delicious
Germ free mice had less BDNF and a decrease of important nerves in cortex and hippocampus, as well as cognitive loss and less ... February 28th, 2013 , Cultured Foods, D.I.Y., Healing, Spiritual, Traditional, bacteria, biome, brain, dream, embodiment, ... Separation of baby animals from their mothers caused HPA activity and a change in the microbe communities in the gut. ... The intuitive process has often been referred to as "gut decisions" because it is highly connected with bodily sensation ...
  https://www.helladelicious.com/diy/2013/02/the-brain-gut-microbe-axis/
*  A New Antibiotic Weakness--Drugs Themselves Help Bacteria Survive - Scientific American
The researchers learned this after giving antibiotics to so-called "germ-free" mice that had no bacteria and saw the same ... leading to the build-up of toxic molecules inside the bacteria that help to kill them. With this process dampened, bacteria ... Antibiotics save lives, but they are not fail-safe. Even when microbes haven't acquired drug-evading genetic mutations-a ... In other words, the chemicals that had been ramped up in the infected, antibiotic-treated animals were, ironically, making ...
  https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/a-new-antibiotic-weakness-mdash-drugs-themselves-help-bacteria-survive/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ScientificAmerican-News+%28Content%3A+News%29
*  Microbiota and neurologic diseases: potential effects of probiotics | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full Text
In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many ... Early-life adversity and brain development: Is the microbiome a missing piece of the puzzle? Neuroscience. 2015. pii:S0306-4522 ... Preclinical studies on germ-free (GF) mice demonstrated that abnormalities in neural growth factors and altered behaviours ... these studies overall found variations in microbiota bacteria that may play a role in the inflammatory process of the disease [ ...
  https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-016-1058-7
*  Federal Register :: Addition of ortho-Nitrotoluene; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting
C. What is the review process for the RoC?. Specific details of the nomination and review process for the development of the ... but not from females or germ-free males. These results, together with o-nitrotoluene's inability to induce DNA repair in ... Cancer Studies in Experimental Animals. Oral exposure to o-nitrotoluene caused tumors at several different tissue sites in rats ... o-Nitrotoluene did not cause mutations in bacteria. In studies of its ability to cause genetic damage in cultured mammalian ...
  https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2013/03/13/2013-05812/addition-of-ortho-nitrotoluene-community-right-to-know-toxic-chemical-release-reporting
*  biofilms
... some mice were transferred to a non-germ-free facility and the researchers introduced segmented filamentous bacteria into their ... bacteria that lives in the gut is able to trigger a cascade of immune responses that can ultimately result in the development ... The segmented filamentous bacteria cause the animals to produce more of a particular subset of T cells. The immune system ... Secretory IgA (sIgA) is known to be a key factor in this process, agglutinating bacteria and preventing their translocation in ...
  http://members.tripod.com/mueller_ranges/links/compendium/biofilms.html
*  Nature of bacterial colonization influences transcription of mucin genes in mice during the first week of life | BMC Research...
Mouse pups (N = 8/group) from differently colonized dams: Germ-free (GF), conventional specific pathogen free (SPF), ... is distinct and that the onset of this development may be accelerated by specific groups of bacteria present or absent at the ... Muc2 and Muc4 gene transcription for Lb animals with detectable Lactobacillus levels as compared to animals with Lactobacillus ... bacterial strains on the transcription of murine genes involved in mucus layer development during the first week of life. ...
  https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0500-5-402
*  Has the Microbiota Played a Critical Role in the Evolution of the Adaptive Immune System? | Science
In contrast, TH17 cell development in the gut is specifically affected by commensal bacteria (45). Germ-free mice are deficient ... production of IL-10 is reduced within the GALT of germ-free animals (13, 36, 41). Foxp3+ Treg cells in the colon of germ-free ... Bacteria populated Earth 2 billion years before the first signs of eukaryotic life, and they occupy almost every terrestrial ... It is tempting to speculate that commensal microbes (for example, B. fragilis) may have "learned" to augment this process by ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/330/6012/1768?ijkey=3c2b40d21ebca93b8a5f8210d16febed54701e9b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Frontiers | Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain-Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders | Psychiatry
In line, there is preliminary evidence for gut bacteria to have beneficial effect on mood and anxiety, partly by affecting the ... In line, there is preliminary evidence for gut bacteria to have beneficial effect on mood and anxiety, partly by affecting the ... Studies conducted on germ-free animals demonstrated that microbiota influence stress reactivity and anxiety-like behavior and ... This process has been regarded as a key biological process indispensable for maintaining the normal mood (101). ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00044/full
*  A Maternal Gluten-Free Diet Reduces Inflammation and Diabetes Incidence in the Offspring of NOD Mice | Diabetes
... in immunity later in life when insulitis is more progressive are not as critical as in postnatal life for the development of ... diet in both germ-free and specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions. However, the HC diet was more protective in the germ-free ... Diabetes preventive gluten-free diet decreases the number of caecal bacteria in non-obese diabetic mice. Diabetes Metab Res Rev ... Animals and Diet. NOD/BomTac mice (Taconic, Hudson, NY) were fed ad libitum either a GF modified Altromin diet or an STD ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/63/8/2821.long
*  Frontiers | Environmental and Gut Bacteroidetes: The Food Connection | Microbiology
Lateral gene transfer can provide gut bacteria with original sets of utensils to degrade otherwise refractory substrates found ... species and intestinal microbial communities sheds new light on the origin and evolution of Bacteroidetes as animals' symbionts ... We address the potential links between gut and environmental bacteria through food consumption. Lateral gene transfer can ... We address the potential links between gut and environmental bacteria through food consumption. ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2011.00093/full
*  Gut flora - Wikipedia
Interest in the relationship between gut flora and neuropsychiatric issues was sparked by a 2004 study showing that germ-free ... The bacterial flora provide regulatory signals that enable the development and utility of the gut. Overgrowth of bacteria in ... During the first year of life, the composition of the gut flora is generally simple and changes a great deal with time and is ... The gut flora has also been implicated in obesity and metabolic syndrome due to the key role it plays in the digestive process ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gut_flora
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
While it is a natural process occurring at birth, it is also used in adult germ-free animals to control the gut floral ... and labeled amino acids in animals exposed to stable isotopes either from early development on nematode growth media agar ... It is well known that gut bacteria contribute significantly to the host homeostasis, providing a range of benefits such as ... Basic Protocol, Issue 80, Life Sciences (General), budding yeast, protein extracts, bead beating, sumo, Ubiquitin, post- ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/22952947/a-yeast-metabolite-extraction-protocol-optimised-for-time-series
*  A critical assessment of the "sterile womb" and "in utero colonization" hypotheses: implications for research on the pioneer...
... the microbiome during the very first days of life, and the evidence provided by the generation of germ-free animals (including ... of meconiums to be positive for bacteria by culture techniques [8]. The development of molecular techniques and high-throughput ... "germ-free human" supports microbial growth similarly to that of a germ-free mouse, then a rapid colonization process would also ... in germ-free animal facilities. The derivation process may involve the treatment of the non-germ-free donor female with ...
  https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-017-0268-4
*  The Leaky Microbiome: Why your Probiotics aren't sticking around-Full - Chiropractic Economics
... depending on what bacteria you harbor. In fact, so much so that when we take and raise sterile animals, germ-free animals, we ... Men and women alike are now eating for you and your little baby bacteria. For the rest of your life on this planet, you need to ... In the process, you're really making them more of a gentle probiotic. So we lose some of their ability to compete, which is why ... We know the major influence that it's having on our bodies, our development, our immune system, in particular our GI tract ...
  https://www.chiroeco.com/full-access-the-leaky-microbiome-webinar81506/
*  The Parasite Ate Your Depression | Psychology Today
A sugar molecule from Bacteroides species protects against colitis and distorted immune system development in germ-free mice. ... No doubt domesticated animals have evolved with us partly for the mental health benefits we get out of the relationship. ... Medically healthy individuals with depression and a history of early life stress mount a larger inflammatory response to ... could destabilize the gut microbes and be part of the inflammatory process. One could further postulate that exposing depressed ...
  https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evolutionary-psychiatry/201105/the-parasite-ate-your-depression
*  Research Collected: October 2014 - Radical Healing
"We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow ... Depressive Symptoms and Physical Activity During 3 Decades in Adult Life (2014) *"We included approximately 11 000 cohort ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate genes in animals and plants and can be synthesized endogenously. In milk, miRNAs are encapsulated ... "213 cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and propionibacteria intended for probiotic or nutritional use were collected from ...
  https://radicalhealing.info/2014/11/research-collected-october-2014/
*  Short-term periodic consumption of multiprobiotic from childhood improves insulin sensitivity, prevents development of non...
One of the key mechanism by which germ-free animals seem protected from diet-induced obesity is elevated levels of fasting- ... in the gut through lysis of gram-negative bacteria is a microbiota-related factor which can trigger the inflammatory process by ... Life Sci. 2002, 71: 1917-1928.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. de Souza CT, Nunes WM, Gobatto CA, de Mello MA: Insulin secretion ... Germ-free Fiaf-/- mice are similarly obese to their conventionally reared counterparts. After conventionalization germ-free ...
  https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-14-247
*  Say Hello to the 100 Trillion Bacteria That Make Up Your Microbiome - The New York Times
into germ-free mice. The lab found those mice with kwashiorkor who were fed the children's typical diet could not readily ... exposure to bacteria - in everyday life. All of this may help explain why, though these rural populations tend to have greater ... This process begins shortly after birth, when a distinctive infant community of microbes assembles in the gut. Then, with the ... But Cani also found the junk-food diet made the animals' gut barriers notably more permeable, allowing endotoxins to leak into ...
  http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/magazine/say-hello-to-the-100-trillion-bacteria-that-make-up-your-microbiome.html?smid=tw-share
*  Potential Application of Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
... models of colitis using antibiotic-treated and germ-free animals [27-29]. In addition, many studies have shown that not all ... bacteria populations overgrow in an inflammatory process. In the colonic mucosa of IBD patient, a great concentration of ... Life table analysis showed a relapse free time of 64 d for mesalazine and 65 d for E. coli-treated patients. In a similar study ... The crucial role of IL-10 in the development of IBD has been demonstrated by experiments in IL-10-deficient mice. These animals ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/archive/2011/841651/