*  Common spot of strawberry - Wikipedia
The disease cycle starts when the pathogen overwinters as mycelium or fruiting structures in leaf debris and spores are spread ... The fungus overwinters as mycelium, sclerotia, and perithecia in infected leaf tissues. This disease on strawberry can generate ... The fungal pathogen favors 12 or more hours of leaf wetness for infection. New, young foliage has been found to be more ... At first, the whole spot is purple but as the disease matures the center of the leaf spots become tan or gray, then almost ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_spot_of_strawberry
*  Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - Wikipedia
These sclerotia give rise to a fruiting body in the spring that produces spores in a sac which is why fungi in this class are ... A key characteristic of this pathogen is its ability to produce black resting structures known as sclerotia and white fuzzy ... Fields with heavy disease pressure may also be flooded for a period of four to five weeks so as the sclerotia may lose their ... Next, white fungal mycelium covers the fruit and it decays. This can occur when the fruit is in the field or when in storage. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sclerotinia_sclerotiorum
*  CIR946/VH054: Some Common Diseases of Pepper in Florida
The disease can be definitively diagnosed by finding small, mustard seed sized resting structures called sclerotia at the base ... The fungus can survive in northern Florida on crop debris. The spores are readily transmitted via wind. The disease is usually ... Cercospora Leaf Spot. Cercospora leaf spot, sometimes known as frogeye leaf spot, is common in northern Florida during the ... Phytophthora blight, caused by the fungal-like oomycete Phytophthora capsici, can cause major losses when conditions are ...
  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/vh054
*  Botrytis cinerea - Wikipedia
Melanized sclerotium allows Botrytis cinerea to survive for years in the soil. Sclerotia and the asexual conidia spores ... can be applied as a soil amendment to strawberry plants to reduce the severity of the fungal disease by stimulating defense ... The fungus also produces highly resistant sclerotia as survival structures in older cultures. It overwinters as sclerotia or ... Standing water on plant leaf surfaces provides a place for spores to germinate. Humid conditions can result from improper ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botrytis_cinerea
*  PP-232/PG133: 2013 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Guava (Psidiumguajava)
Disease Cycle and Epidemiology. Conidia (asexual spores) are the fungal structures responsible for anthracnose infection. ... Rhizoctonia may survive as hyphae and sclerotia associated with infected crop debris (Benson and Jones 2001). Once the pathogen ... Algal Leaf Spot. Algal leaf spot occurs on a wide range of tropical fruit species. The presence of the pathogen on the leaf ... Quadriflagellate spores have not yet been identified as infection sources.. Management. Algal leaf spot can be reduced by ...
  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg133
*  May 2013 : Yard and Garden News : UMN Extension
Rake the lawn to remove any leaf debris and to fluff up matted down patches of turf. This will help improve air movement around ... These black dots are sclerotia, resting structures produced by the fungus that allow it to survive through harsh conditions. It ... Labels: 'snow mold', 'turfgrass disease', Diseases, lawn, Lawns, snow mold, turfgrass disease ... In sunlight pink snow mold patches turn pink to salmon colored as the fungus produces spores of these colors.. M.Grabowski, UMN ...
  http://blog-yard-garden-news.extension.umn.edu/2013/05/
*  PDMG-V3-50/PG056: 2015 Florida Plant Disease Management Guide: Strawberry
Leaf Scorch. Leaf scorch, caused by Diplocarpon earlianum, is a common leaf disease of strawberries worldwide. ... The fungus can spread from other plants or plant debris.. Disease Cycle and Epidemiology. The fungus survives on crop debris ... Spores are disseminated by air and by insects.. Management. Cultural. Fruit should be handled carefully to avoid bruising. When ... Lesions begin as small, light brown spots that quickly enlarge and become covered with white fungal mycelia. Under moist ...
  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg056
*  Black Mold Test Inspection Mold Inspector Testing Spore Damage Problem
During dry spells, they form a resting body (sclerotium) with dry, airborne spores. These fungi are not known to produce toxins ... shower curtain disease' (shower surfaces being among those frequented by this fungal organism). Phoma infections in humans also ... These fungi are also found in soil and on plant debris.. hyaline mycelia. Mycelia that are transparent, translucent, or ... If sporulating structures are present, Aspergillus is readily identifiable on tape samples. [Discovery of the Aspergillus ...
  http://byebyemold.com/mold_glossary.php
*  7.0 Guidelines for Crop Assessment - PI-005: Chapter 5 - Seed Potato Crop Inspection - Plants - Canadian Food Inspection Agency
It over winters primarily as sclerotia, which are structures that protect dormant spores, and can be found on the surface of ... may cause sufficient loss of leaf area and subsequently reduce crop yields. As the disease spreads, lesions appear on the upper ... Fungal spores are mostly spread to healthy plants by wind and rain. Very wet and humid growing conditions will favour the ... Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) over winters on seed potato tubers in storage and plant debris left in the field. It ...
  http://inspection.gc.ca/plants/potatoes/guidance-documents/pi-005/chapter-5/eng/1383761839133/1383762066614?chap=13
*  Cantaloupe and Specialty Melons | UGA Cooperative Extension
Fungal inoculum (spores, hyphae, sclerotia, etc.) may be spread by wind, rain, infected plants and seed, and infested soil ... Angular Leaf Spot. Angular leaf spot, a bacterial disease caused by Pseudomonas lachrymans, attacks cantaloupe and melon leaves ... Destroying infected debris or sanitizing greenhouse areas will greatly aid in reducing the spread of disease. Resistant ... The mouth parts are dark brown, pincher-like structures that are highly visible. The head capsule is slightly recessed and ...
  http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=B1179
*  Fungi - faba bean | Guidelines for the safe transer of faba bean germplasm | Safe transfer of faba bean germplasm | Safe...
Spot-causing fungal disease occurring in leaf. The lesions are at first water-soaked small spots and then become blackish brown ... sexual spores are formed on specialized structures called basidia. Four spores are produced on each basidium. Basidia are ... Chocolate spot, caused by Botrytis fabae and Botrytis cinerea can survive either as sclerotia in the soil or on crop debris, in ... This type of disease often occurs because the mycelium and/or sclerotia of the fungus are close to or splashed on the plant ...
  https://www.genebanks.org/resources/general-genebank-management/stog/faba-bean116/guidelines117/fungi-for-faba-bean/
*  Fungi - forage legume | Guidelines for the safe transfer of forage legume germplasm | Safe transfer of forage legume germplasm ...
Acervuli produce many spores (conidia) which is how the disease spreads. The fungus overwinters in infested crop debris and has ... Rhizoctonia solani can be found in most soils and survives as sclerotia (very resistant fungal survival structures) in soil. ... Alternaria leaf spot; Alternaria blight; Bean leaf blight. Ascochyta leaf spot or blotch; Leaf spot (or blotch) in beans. ... The first sign of the disease is the development of dark, grey-green fungal structures (stromata, synnemata and conidia) on the ...
  https://www.genebanks.org/resources/general-genebank-management/stog/forage-legumes83/guidelines84/fungi-for-forage-legumes/
*  Abstracts and PDFs of Publications
Leaf blight caused by Stemphylium solani is a major fungal disease of garlic (Allium sativum) in central China where it has ... tulipae produced larger spores on PDA but smaller leaf lesions and fewer spores on tulip leaves and PDA, again indicating that ... The timing and appearance of the fungal structures in the host appeared to be identical to that of the wild type. GFP ... but there were no differences in the size of sclerotia within each species. For B. elliptica, sclerotia of dicarboximide- ...
  http://www.uoguelph.ca/~thsiang/pubs/pubs.htm
*  Soybean cultivar 04RM822242 - Patent # 7728205 - PatentGenius
To test varieties for Frog Eye Leaf Spot a disease nursery is artificially inoculated with spores. The ratings are done when ... Sclerotinia White Mold (SCL_R) This disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotium. The fungus can overwinter ... The structures of the gene orientations can be sense, antisense, partial antisense orpartial sense: multiple gene copies can be ... The fungus survives as mycelium in infected seeds and in infested debris. With adequate moisture new leaves become infected as ...
  http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/7728205.html
*  Plant Pathology - Guyana Rice Development Board
The disease is characterized by large orange to brown-green fruiting structures on one or more grains of the mature panicle. ... as small water soaked areas on young leaves and enlarge into diamond shape with a blue gray cast which are the fungal spores. ... As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover the rest of the leaf sheath. ... At the center of the spore ball, one or more irregular, hard, black sclerotia, 5-13 x 2-5 mm, develops. ...
  http://grdb.gy/plant-pathology/
*  G6203 Common Diseases in the Home Garden | University of Missouri Extension
Leaf blight or vascular wilt.. Newly confirmed in Missouri in 2014.. Use disease-free seed.. Avoid overhead irrigation.. ... powdery fungal structures.. Rotate crops.. Tillage to bury crop residue.. Limit overhead irrigation.. ... White cottony mass with embedded brown to black bodies (sclerotia) on stems.. Plant in well-drained soil.. Rotate crops.. Avoid ... 1Sanitation includes removing plant debris from the garden, whether it originates in the current growing season or the previous ...
  http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPrinterFriendlyPub.aspx?P=G6203
*  COLLEGE PROJECTS AND MUSIC JUNCTION: FUNGAL DIVERSITY AND LIFE CYCLE
In the spring, they produce perithecia and in turn, large numbers of spores that infect the new rye crop. Sclerotia break free ... Lichens are structures formed by close symbiotic relationships between an algae and a fungus. Both green and blue-green algae ... 1. Achlya whole mounts: Achlya is a water mold that grows on organic debris in lakes and rivers. It forms floating mycelia mats ... Dissecting scope: Scan across the leaf infected with Uncinula to note the powdery mycelium, with chains of conidia rising above ...
  http://xicecybervila.blogspot.com/2006/11/fungal-diversity-and-life-cycle.html
*  Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Plants | SpringerLink
... fungus-like and fungal pathogens have well developed thallus consisting of hyphae, asexual and sexual reproductive structures. ... and its application to the study of leaf disease in Eucalyptus plantations. Phytopathology 97: 132-144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... asexual and sexual reproductive structures. The morphological characteristics of these structures and various kinds of spores ... Hu CJ, Li YR, Wei YW, Huang SL (2008) A PCR-based method to detect Sclerotium hydrophilum in infected rice leaf sheaths. Austr ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-9735-4_2
*  Utah Valley Gardens: March 2008
... resistant fungal structures, while pink snow mold survives as mycelium or spores in infected plant debris. Fungal growth begins ... "Snow mold is a fungal disease that appears in early spring as the snow melts. There are two types of snow molds, gray and pink ... "Gray snow mold survives hot summer temperatures in the soil or in infected plant debris as sclerotia, ... It is much easier to see this time of year without the trees in full leaf.. And, this is the Oquirrh Mountains from the front ...
  http://utahvalleygardens.blogspot.com/2008/03/
*  Download The Basics Of Digital Privacy. Simple Tools To Protect Your Personal Information And Your Identity Online
leaf; M, Cladellas M, de la Torre R, et al. dietary vesicle of inflammatory Western risk in fat active Overload factors: a ... The done fungal journals measured are also diastolic markers. Gunn, Nick, Bailey, Liz, Pink, David and Holub, E. Genetics of ... disease of primarily all several minutes led, firing glyphosate( Figure 19). The download between lecture and labor tumor and ... daring structures study download the basics of digital privacy. simple, chronic pesticide, and feminist noodles. download the ...
  http://greggandjenny.com/library/download-the-basics-of-digital-privacy.-simple-tools-to-protect-your-personal-information-and-your-identity-online.htm
*  2016 : Yard and Garden News : UMN Extension
Many pests and pathogens can cause leaf browning in oak trees. Oak wilt, another fungal disease of oak trees, can cause similar ... Each year the sclerotia produce tiny mushroom like structures that releases spores and starts new infections. ... The pathogen would be expected to survive in the soil and plant debris for 1 to 2 years. As a result, the same crop and related ... These are special resting structures, called sclerotia that are created by the fungus. Sclerotia can survive in the soil for up ...
  http://blog-yard-garden-news.extension.umn.edu/2016/
*  Info Tani: 2008
Disease Cycle Viruses differ from fungi and bacteria in that they do not produce spores or other structures capable of ... Bacterial Leaf Spot (BLS). Bacterial leaf spot is caused by two major groups of bacteria, Xanthomonas campestris pv. ... Mycoparasites are known to destroy existing sclerotia and inhibit the development of new sclerotia. The commercial product ... BLS may also survive on plant debris in the soil for 1-2 years, therefore a 2-year rotation out of pepper and tomato is ...
  http://affeinfotani.blogspot.com/2008/
*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | Current Understanding on Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Future Perspective in Reducing Aflatoxin...
The fungus overwinters either as spores, sclerotia, or as mycelium in debris. When conditions become favorable, the sclerotia ... the fungal mycelium will transform to resistant structures called sclerotia, which can survive in extremely harsh environmental ... Hall, A.J.; Wild, C.P. Epidemiology of Aflatoxin-Related Disease. In The Toxicology of Aflatoxins: Human Health, Veterinary, ... The effects of selected cotton-leaf volatiles on growth, development and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus. ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/4/11/1024/htm
*  Plant Defense Genes and Proteins and Methods of Use - Patent application
... few fungal species, and similarly, most fungi usually have a limited host range. Generally, the best strategy for plant disease ... 0095] Leaf-specific promoters are known in the art. See, for example, Yamamoto et al. (1997) Plant J. 12(2):255-265; Kwon et al ... Cysts are harvested from the debris on the 60 mesh screen. Eggs are released from the cysts by means of a dounce homogenizer in ... When possible, the sequence is modified to avoid predicted hairpin secondary mRNA structures. [0085] The expression cassettes ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120124699