*  EvoTutor: Differential Mortality
The strength of natural selection is directly related to the degree of differential mortality in the population. If the probability of survival for an individual is a function of the value of a particular trait, then that trait is subject to selection pressures (assuming, of course, that the trait is heritable). Selection will not occur if the probability of mortality is the same for all individuals.. The relationship between mortality and a trait's value need not be a linear one for selection to occur. The probability of mortality may increase with the trait value, decrease with the trait value, increase with extreme trait values, increase for intermediate trait values or density dependent; an infinite array of possibilities exist. ...
*  A theory of medicine effectiveness, differential mortality, income inequality and growth for pre-industrial England
Downloadable! We study how mortality reductins and income growth interact, looking at their relationship prior to the Industrial Revolution, when income per capita was stagnant. We first present a model of individual medical spending giving a rationale for individual health expenditures even when medicine was not effective in postponing death. We then explain the rise of effective medicine by a learning process function of expenditures in health. The rise in effective medicine can then be linked to the take-off of the eighteenth century through life expectancy increases, and fostered capital accumulation. The rise of effective medicine has also an impact on the relation between growth and inequality and on the intergenerational persistence of differences in income. These channels are operative through differential mortality induced by medicine effectiveness that turns out to determines a differential in the propensity to save among income groups.
*  UNU-WIDER : Working Paper : Excess female mortality in Africa
Relative to developed countries, there are far fewer women than men in parts of the developing world. Estimates suggest that more than 200 million women are demographically 'missing' worldwide. To explain the global 'missing women' phenomenon, research has mainly focused on excess female mortality in Asia.. However, as emphasized in our earlier research, at least 30 per cent of the missing women are 'missing' from Africa. This paper employs a novel methodology to determine how the phenomenon of missing women is distributed across Africa. Moreover, it provides estimates of the extent of excess female mortality within different age groups and by disease category. The empirical results reiterate the importance of excess female mortality for women in Africa.. ...
*  Table 4 Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years at risk for selected causes of death, by educational...
Health Reports, volume 23, number 3. Cause-specific mortality by education in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study. Table 4 Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person-years at risk for selected causes of death, by educational attainment, age group and sex, cohort members aged 25 or older at baseline, Canada 1991 to 2006
*  The value of socialized medicine: The impact of universal primary healthcare provision on mortality rates in Turkey
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper examines the impact of universal, free, and easily accessible primary healthcare on population health as measured by age-specific mortality rates, focusing on a nationwide socialized medicine program implemented in Turkey. The Family Medicine Program (FMP), launched in 2005, assigns each Turkish citizen to a specific state-employed family physician who offers a wide range of primary healthcare services that are free-of-charge. Furthermore, these services are provided at family health centers, which operate on a walk-in basis and are located within neighborhoods in close proximity to the patients. To identify the causal impact of the FMP, we exploit the variation in its introduction across provinces and over time. Our estimates indicate that the FMP caused the mortality rate to decrease by 25.6% among infants, 7.7% among the elderly, and 22.9% among children ages 1-4. These estimates translate into 2.6, 1.29, and 0.13 fewer ...
*  Human Mortality Database
The Human Mortality Database (HMD) was created to provide detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity. The project began as an outgrowth of earlier projects in the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, and at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany (see history). It is the work of two teams of researchers in the USA and Germany (see research teams), with the help of financial backers and scientific collaborators from around the world (see acknowledgements). The Center on the Economics and Development of Aging (CEDA) French Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) has also supported the further development of the database in recent years. We seek to provide open, international access to these data. At present the database contains detailed population and mortality data for the following 39 ...
*  Early Childhood Health, Reproduction of Economic Inequalities and the Persistence of Health and Mortality Differentials |...
This article was published in, and the following abstract copied from Social Science & Medicine.. The persistence of adult health and mortality socioeconomic inequalities and the equally stubborn reproduction of social class inequalities are salient features in modern societies that puzzle researchers in seemingly unconnected research fields. Neither can be satisfactorily explained with standard theoretical frameworks. In the domain of health and mortality, it is unclear if and to what an extent adult health and mortality disparities across socioeconomic status (SES) are the product of attributes of the positions themselves, the partial result of health conditions established earlier in life that influence both adult health and economic success, or the outcome of the reverse impact of health status on SES. In the domain of social stratification, the transmission of inequalities across generations has been remarkably resistant to satisfactory explanations. ...
*  The Reversal of Fortunes: Trends in County Mortality and Cross-County Mortality Disparities in the United States
Majid Ezzati and colleagues analyze US county-level mortality data for 1961 to 1999, and find a steady increase in mortality inequality across counties between 1983 and 1999.
*  US Population Mortality Rate Study - Variation by Age Group, Cause of Death and Region from 2000‐2015 | SOA
Report on differences & similarities in mortality by age group, time, cause of death and region to aid in understanding of future expected mortality rates.
*  Risks for All-Cause Mortality: Stratified by Age, Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria. | The REGARDS Study
The relative reduction of risk for all-cause mortality among the elderly has been described as attenuated compared to younger subjects, but the risk for all-cause mortality increases with age when absolute risk is considered. The objectives of the present inquiry were to calculate the relative and absolute risks of all-cause mortality based on incidence rate ratios, and summarize these risks for age, gender, and race strata. We conclude that strata-specific risk summaries are more informative than a single all-encompassing risk summary, and that gender- and race-specific strata need to be considered as well as age-specific strata. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.. ...
*  Subjective Mortality Risk and Bequests
This paper investigates whether subjective expectations about future mortality affect consumption and bequests motives. We estimate a dynamic life-cycle model based on subjective survival rates and wealth from the panel dataset Asset and Health Dynamics among Oldest Old. We find that bequest motives are small on average, which indicates that most bequests are involuntary or accidental. Moreover, parameter estimates using subjective mortality risk perform better in predicting out-of-sample wealth levels than estimates using life table mortality risks, suggesting that decisions about consumption and saving are influenced more strongly by individual-level beliefs about mortality risk than by group level mortality risk. ...
*  Redistribution and Insurance: Mandatory Annuitization With Mortality Heterogeneity
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This article examines the distributional implications of mandatory longevity insurance when mortality heterogeneity exists in the population. Previous research has demonstrated the significant financial redistribution that occurs under alternative annuity programs in the presence of differential mortality across groups. This article embeds that analysis into a life-cycle framework that allows for an examination of distributional effects on a utility-adjusted basis. It finds that the degree of redistribution that occurs from the introduction of a mandatory annuity program is substantially lower on a utility-adjusted basis than when evaluated on a purely financial basis. In a simple life-cycle model with no bequests, complete annuitization is welfare enhancing even for those with higher-than-average expected mortality rates, so long as administrative costs are sufficiently low. These findings have implications for policy ...
*  Reminders of mortality increase concern for environmen... ( When we turn on the A/C in the summe...)
...When we turn on the A/C in the summer our first thought is probably o...In a study published in Psychological Science a publication of...When people make decisions they often focus on rewards in the present...Wade-Benzoni and her colleagues hypothesized that reminding people of ...,Reminders,of,mortality,increase,concern,for,environmental,legacy,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
*  Estimates of the worldwide mortality from eighteen major cancers in 1985. Implications for prevention and projections of future...
This report presents worldwide estimates of annual mortality from all cancers and for 18 specific cancer sites around 1985. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and numbers of deaths were computed for 24 geographical areas. Of the estimated 5 million deaths from cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, 56% occurred in developing...
*  Mortality rate - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Early recording of mortality rate in European cities proved highly useful in controlling the plague and other major epidemics.[14] Public health in industrialised countries was transformed when mortality rate as a function of age, sex and socioeconomic status emerged in the late 19th and 20th centuries.[15][16] This track record has led to the argument that inexpensive recording of vital statistics in developing countries may become the most effective means to improve global health.[17] Gathering official mortality statistics can be very difficult in developing countries, where many individuals lack the ability or knowledge to report incidences of death to National Vital Statistics Registries. This can lead to distortion in mortality statistics and a wrongful assessment of overall health. Studies conducted in northeastern Brazil, where underreporting of infant mortality is of huge concern, have shown that ...
*  Effects of health and social care spending constraints on mortality in England: a time trend analysis | BMJ Open
This study demonstrates that recent constraints in PEH and PES spending in England were associated with nearly 45 000 higher than expected numbers of deaths between 2012 and 2014. If these trends continue, even when considering the increased planned funding as of 2016, we estimate approximately 150 000 additional deaths may arise between 2015 and 2020. Combining these projected excess deaths and the observed deaths prior to 2015 translates to around 120 000 excess deaths from 2010 to 2017. Contemporaneous reductions in life expectancy and excesses in measures of preventable death both validated our mortality findings.. The excess deaths observed in our study corroborate recent evidence highlighting the reversal of declining mortality trends observed in England and Wales in the past decade.13 Similar to findings reported by Hiam and colleagues,13 we observed ...
*  Inequality in mortality in Vietnam during a period of rapid transition
The associations between socioeconomic variables and mortality for 41,000 adults Vietnamese followed from January 1999 to March 2008 are estimated using Cox's proportionally hazard models. Also, we use decomposition techniques to investigate the relative importance of socioeconomic factors for explaining inequality in age-standardized mortality risk. The results confirm previously found negative association between mortality and income and education, for both men and women. We also found that marital status, at least for men, explain a large and growing part of the inequality. Finally, estimation results for relative education variables suggest that there exist positive spillover of education, meaning that that higher education of one's neighbors or spouse might reduce ones mortality risk.. ...
*  The Age Pattern of Increases in Mortality Affected by HIV : Bayesian Fit of the Heligman-Pollard Model to Data from the...
BACKGROUND: We investigate the sex-age-specific changes in the mortality of a prospectively monitored rural population in South Africa. We quantify changes in the age pattern of mortality in a parsimonious way by estimating the eight parameters of the Heligman-Pollard (HP) model of age-specific mortality. In its traditional form this model is difficult to fit and does not account for uncertainty.. OBJECTIVE: 1. To quantify changes in the sex-age pattern of mortality experienced by a population with endemic HIV. 2. To develop and demonstrate a robust Bayesian estimation method for the HP model that accounts for uncertainty.. METHODS: Bayesian estimation methods are adapted to work with the HP model. Temporal changes in parameter values are related to changes in HIV prevalence.. RESULTS: Over the period when the HIV epidemic in South Africa was growing, mortality in the population described by our data increased profoundly ...
*  Projects and Groups | CPHA
Three interrelated projects together aim to develop an integrated, multifaceted understanding of the male-female health-survival paradox. Women - at least human women - tend to outlive men, but with higher disability levels at all ages. Building on our current research, we aim to analyze whether this paradox is universal or unique to our species, and whether it can be explained. Or, in other words, how much do male-female differences depend on context and species? Project 1: Male-Female Mortality Differences In this project, our focus is determining whether females, on average, always live longer than males. Our research will encompass demographic analyses to shed light on the supposed survival advantage of females by studying lifetables-from modern human populations, prehistoric human populations, and populations of nonhuman animals-that include estimates of age-specific death rates for males vs. females. We are: Analyzing thousands of years' worth of human ...
*  Mortality ratio, circulatory disease, Dorset | Zanran
Data & statistics on Mortality ratio, circulatory disease, Dorset: Standardised mortality ratio, circulatory disease, Dorset 2001-2003. Source: NCHOD., Percentage change in mortality rate from all circulatory diseases in persons aged under 75 per 100,000 population (age and sex standardised), Causes of Death in Dorset and England and Wales...
*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20024695 - Relative mortality for correlated lifetime data.
Comparing correlated lifetimes for a group of individuals to a standard reference population may require variance adjustment of marginal model estimates or the use of conditional random effects models with shared frailty. We present the cumulative relative mortality, the marginal model robust variance estimator and the frailty models in estimating relative mortality for individuals who have correl
*  Mortality ratio - About Us - Mayo Clinic
The number of patient deaths (mortality) in a hospital is shown as a mortality ratio that compares patients' actual mortality rates to their expected rate of mortality.. The "observed-to-expected mortality" rate is a risk-adjusted measure of a hospital's mortality rate. This ratio is created from two sets of numbers:. ...
*  Most recent papers with the keyword Hiv mortality | Read by QxMD
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in adult mortality have been observed in South Africa since the mid-2000s, but there has been no formal evaluation of how much of this decline is attributable to the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART), as previous models have not been calibrated to vital registration data. We developed a deterministic mathematical model to simulate the mortality trends that would have been expected in the absence of ART, and with earlier introduction of ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model estimates of mortality rates in ART patients were obtained from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) collaboration ...
*  Polski
The objective of this study is to measure the effect on mortality rates in post-weaned pigs in a real GD farm case when a specific vaccine program with HIPRASUIS® GLÄSSER vaccine (HIPRA) was applied either in sows or piglets.. ...
*  Consumption-investment problems with stochastic mortality risk
Downloadable! I numerically solve realistically calibrated life cycle consumption-investment problems in continuous time featuring stochastic mortality risk driven by jumps, unspanned labor income as well as short-sale and liquidity constraints and a simple insurance. I compare models with deterministic and stochastic hazard rate of death to a model without mortality risk. Mortality risk has only minor effects on the optimal controls early in the life cycle but it becomes crucial in later years. A diffusive component in the hazard rate of death has no significant impact, whereas a jump component is desired by the agent and influences optimal controls and wealth evolution. The insurance is used to ensure optimal bequest such that there is no accidental bequest. In the absence of the insurance, the biggest part of bequest is accidental.