*  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic subunit CBb - P0CG56 (PA2BB CRODU)
Heterodimer CA-CB: Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin that possesses phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and exerts a ... Multiple variants of each subunit give different crotoxin complexes that can be subdivided into 2 classes: (1) those of high ... At equilibrium, only the CB subunits remain associated with the specific crotoxin receptor. In addition to neurotoxicity, ... crotoxin has been found to exert myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and cardiovascular toxicity (PubMed:20109480). Moreover, anti- ...
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P0CG56
*  Synergism of the two subunits of crotoxin. - Semantic Scholar
The mechanism of action of crotoxin could be divided into two distinct steps: a quasi irreversible binding step, which has no ... The mechanism proposed explains in simple terms the synergistic action of the two subunits of crotoxin at the level of the ... It is shown that crotoxin very efficiently blocks the cholinergic post-synaptic response of the isolated electroplaque from ... This post-synpatic effects was investigated by studying the binding of crotoxin and its isolated subunits to acetylcholine ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Synergism-of-the-two-subunits-of-crotoxin.-Bon/bb921c52f41792a92187966ad8b9413dd33b79b5
*  GV (nerve agent) - Wikipedia
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GV_
*  Botulinum toxin - Wikipedia
Crotoxin. See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botox
*  Structure-Function Relationship in Heterodimeric Neurotoxin PLA2s from Viperidae Snakes Inhabiting Europe, South America, and...
Effects of chemical modifications of crotoxin B, the phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus ... Crotoxin: a possible mechanism of action. Adv Cytopharmacol. 1979;3:231-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin on the isolated rat kidney. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:1347-52. ... Crystal structure of crotoxin reveals key residues involved in the stability and toxicity of this potent heterodimeric β- ...
  https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-94-007-6416-3_16
*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | Molecular Characterization of Lys49 and Asp49 Phospholipases A2 from Snake Venom and Their Antiviral...
Crotoxin and phospholipases A2 from Crotalus. durissus terrificus showed antiviral activity against dengue and yellow fever ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/5/10/1780/htm
*  IUCr) Acta Crystallographica Section F Volume 63, Part 12, December 2007
Crotoxin B is a basic phospholipase A2 found in the venom of C. durissus terrificus and is one of the subunits that constitute ... Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a tetrameric phospholipase A2 formed by two isoforms of crotoxin B from Crotalus ... crotoxin. Here, the crystallization, X-ray diffraction data collection and molecular-replacement solution of a novel tetrameric ... complex formed by two dimers of crotoxin B isoforms are presented. ...
  http://journals.iucr.org/f/issues/2007/12/00/
*  Management of strabismus - Wikipedia
Crotoxin appears to act similarly. To weaken an eye muscle, 1 to 12 units (a few nanograms) of toxin are injected directly into ... Crotoxin, a snake neurotoxin, is being developed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil as a potential alternative. Botulinum toxin ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Ribeiro Gde B, Almeida HC, Velarde DT, Sá ML (Oct 2012). "Study of crotoxin on the ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Ribeiro Gde B, Almeida HC, Velarde DT (2012-12-01). "Crotoxin in humans: analysis of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management_of_strabismus
*  Crotalus simus - Wikipedia
Only venom from neonates contains crotoxin; a constituent typically found in C. durissus venom that produces neurotoxic ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crotalus_simus
*  Role of enzymatic activity in muscle damage and cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops asper Asp49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins: are...
Effects of chemical modifications of crotoxin B, the phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus ... Crotoxin, a phospholipase A2 neurotoxin from the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus: purification of ... Crotalus d. terrificus crotoxin-B. 15. very low myotoxicityb Gopalakrishnakone et al. (1984) ... Crotalus d. terrificus crotoxin-B. 0. 14.1, myotoxicity. Soares et al. (2001a) ...
  https://peerj.com/articles/569/
*  Opiate and acetylcholine-independent analgesic actions of crot...
Opiate and acetylcholine-independent analgesic actions of crotoxin isolated from crotalus durissus terrificus venom.: The venom ... Opiate and acetylcholine-independent analgesic actions of crotoxin isolated from crotalus durissus terrificus venom.. Authors * ... The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus is reported to have analgesic activity and the administration of Crotoxin (Cro) to ...
  https://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/opiate-acetylcholine-independent-analgesic-actions-crotoxin-isolated-from-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-venom-b1330c55
*  Rattlesnake Venom Compounds Show Activity Against Hepatitis C Virus
When the same experiment was performed using crotoxin, production of viral particles fell 58%.. The second stage of the ... In this case, the results were even more satisfactory: phospholipase blocked 97% of viral cell entry, and crotoxin reduced ... They are found in natura as subunits of the crotoxin protein complex, which the researchers also tested.. In a series of in ... Treatment with crotoxin achieved 50% inhibition of viral release.. According to the researchers, the results of the experiments ...
  https://www.technologynetworks.com/biopharma/news/isolated-rattlesnake-venom-compounds-show-activity-against-hepatitis-c-virus-297342
*  Expression of anti human IL-4 and IL-6 scFvs in transgenic tobacco plants, Plant Molecular Biology | 10.1023/A:1023902407855 |...
Neutralizing human anti crotoxin scFv isolated from a nonimmunized phage library. Cardoso, D.F.; Nato, F.; England, P.; ... A monoclonal antibody directed against the non-toxic subunit of a dimeric phospholipase A2 neurotoxin, crotoxin, neutralizes ... Biologically active human anti-crotoxin scFv isolated from a semi-synthetic phage library ...
  https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/expression-of-anti-human-il-4-and-il-6-scfvs-in-transgenic-tobacco-eaEau70T4p
*  Spotlight Innovation - Wikipedia
Crotoxin was tested on patients in the George Pompidou University Hospital in Paris. In 2014, Celtic Biotech LTD entered into a ... "Crotoxin Administration for Cancer Treatment and Pain Relief". www.google.com/patents. Google Patents. Retrieved 7 September ... In January, 2015, Celtic Biotech Iowa was granted a patent by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office entitled Crotoxin ... Celtic Biotech made headlines in 2011 when they announced a clinical trial to test the effectiveness of Crotoxin, a protein ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotlight_Innovation
*  Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom
... comparison between crotoxin, crotoxin B and a Lys49 PLA2 homologue," Toxicon, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 80-92, 2008. View at ... H. Breithaupt, "Enzymatic characteristics of crotalus phospholipase A2 and the crotoxin complex," Toxicon, vol. 14, pp. 221-233 ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/612649/
*  Snakebite Envenoming in Latin America and the Caribbean | Springer for Research & Development
Cellular and mitochondrial changes induced in the structure of murine skeletal muscle by crotoxin, a neurotoxic phospholipase A ...
  https://rd.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-94-017-7438-3_14
*  Laudanosine - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Laudanosine also occurs naturally in minute amounts (0.1%) in opium, from which it was first isolated in 1871.[2] Partial dehydrogenation of laudanosine will lead to papaverine, the alkaloid found in the opium poppy plant (Papaver somniferum).. Laudanosine is a benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid. It has been shown to interact with GABA receptors, glycine receptors, opioid receptors, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors,[1][3][4] but not benzodiazepine or muscarinic receptors which are also involved in epilepsy and other types of seizures.[5]. ...
  https://infogalactic.com/info/Laudanosine
*  Datura - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
All Datura plants contain tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine, primarily in their seeds and flowers. Because of the presence of these substances, Datura has been used for centuries in some cultures as a poison.[5][6] There can be a 5:1 toxin variation between plants,[citation needed] and a given plant's toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, and the local weather conditions. These variations makes Datura exceptionally hazardous as a drug.. In traditional cultures, a great deal of experience with and detailed knowledge of Datura was critical to minimize harm.[5] Many tragic incidents result from modern users ingesting Datura. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, the United States media contained stories of adolescents and young adults dying or becoming seriously ill from intentionally ingesting Datura.[7][8] There are also several reports in the medical literature of deaths from D. stramonium and D. ferox intoxication.[9][10][11] Children are especially ...
  https://infogalactic.com/info/Datura
*  Articles
Citation: De-Oliveira RBB, Kato EE, Cirillo MC, De- Lima TS, Alba-Loureiro TC, Curi R, Sampaio SC (2018) Crotoxin-Treated ... Crotoxin-Treated Macrophages Stimulate ROS Production and Killing Activity in co-cultured Neutrophils. ...
  http://innovationinfo.org/journal/article_archive
*  Karl Slotta - Wikipedia
In 1938, Slotta and his brother-in-law Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat isolated crotoxin from venom, the first snake toxin to be isolated ... Their research suggested that the toxicity of crotoxin was due to effects on nerve lipids. He subsequently co-founded a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Slotta
*  Randolf Lewis | Biology | USU
Aird, S.D, Kaiser, I.I, Lewis, R., Kruggel, W.G, (1986). A complete amino acid sequence for the basic subunit of crotoxin.. ...
  http://biology.usu.edu/about/faculty/randolph-lewis
*  Calumenin - Wikipedia
Hseu MJ, Yen CH, Tzeng MC (1999). "Crocalbin: a new calcium-binding protein that is also a binding protein for crotoxin, a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calumenin
*  Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Orally Administrated Denatured Naja Naja Atra Venom on Murine Rheumatoid...
Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, which contains crotoxin as a major active component, significantly inhibited edema and ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/616241/
*  Crotalus durissus - Wikipedia
Bite symptoms are very different from those of Nearctic species due to the presence of neurotoxins (crotoxin and crotamine) ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crotalus_durissus