*  Extrachromosomal DNA - Wikipedia
Extrachromosomal DNA is any DNA that is found outside the nucleus of a cell. It is also referred to as extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA found outside the nucleus also serves important biological functions. In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. Mitochondrial DNA is a main source of this extrachromosomal DNA in eukaryotes. Extrachromosomal DNA is often used in research of replication because it is easy to identify and isolate. Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found within the nucleus. It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs ...
*  Extrachromosomal DNA | definition of extrachromosomal DNA by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of extrachromosomal DNA in the Medical Dictionary? extrachromosomal DNA explanation free. What is extrachromosomal DNA? Meaning of extrachromosomal DNA medical term. What does extrachromosomal DNA mean?
*  Nonchromosomal | Define Nonchromosomal at Dictionary.com
Nonchromosomal definition, any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and X and Y for the female and male sex chromosomes respectively. See more.
*  A repeated chromosomal DNA sequence is amplified as a circular extrachromosomal molecule in rice (Oryza sativa L.) | IRIS UNIPV
The plasmid pE10 is a pBR322-derived plasmid carrying a 4.5 kb rice (Oryza sativa L.) repeated DNA sequence. The cloned sequence has been shown to be amplified in cultured rice cells. The analysis of practically intact chromosomal rice DNA molecules by pulsed field gel electrophoresis has now shown that the amplification is associated with the appearance of extrachromosomal molecules. In fact, pE10 hybridizes exclusively with unfractionated DNA from leaf protoplasts, while it recognizes predominantly an extrachromosomal DNA molecule (ECD) of about 45 kb and its multiples in the case of protoplasts from cultured cells. Insensitivity to the action of the exonuclease Bal31 suggests that the molecule is circular. Analysis of restriction endonuclease products with both standard horizontal and pulsed field gel electrophoresis suggest that the extrachromosomal DNA, and its chromosomal counterpart, is composed of tandemly repeated units of about 7 kb. Thus, the ...
*  Possible cytoplasmic inheritance and its effect on the phenotypic variability in Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae
Rights: This volume was digitized and made accessible online due to deterioration of the original print copy. If you are the author of this work and would like to have online access removed, please contact the Library Administration Office, 785-532-7400, library@k-state.edu. ...
*  Plus it
In tumor specimens such as those from neuroblastoma, ovarian, and lung carcinoma patients, the prevalence of extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules harboring amplified genes has been well established. In some cases, the amplified genes have been identified as oncogenes, and their increased expression appears to contribute to the maintenance and progression of the malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fractionated radiation treatment, given in daily doses similar to those administered clinically, on the stability of extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules in cancer cells. Our studies were conducted with multidrug-resistant KB cells, which harbor extrachromosomal copies of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) almost exclusively on circular DNA molecules of ∼750 and 1500 kb pairs. This size range is representative of extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules that have been shown to harbor amplified oncogenes in vivo. ...
*  Download Extrachromosomal DNA by Donald J. Cummings PDF - ONHIAT.US Book Archive
Essentially the same results for species 1 and 4 were obtained using 32p. labelled species 4 mt DNA as probe (Figure 10). Here EcoRI fragments El, E2 and E3 of species 1 were homologous, with only trace amounts detectable in the other fragments. Similarly for species 5, where El, 2 and 4 contained the main homologous bands. For species 7, the only fragments which showed a high degree of homology to species 4 were E2, and E5, the rRNA genes. El also showed homology but to a lesser extent. p EXTRACHROMOSOMAL DNA 47 Figure 10. We have observed recently a new fragment for species 7 dimers after digestion with Sail. For both species 4 and 5, a new band appears in EcoRI dimer digests at about 5x10^ dalton molecular weight, without any apparent loss of a fragment. This fragment is twice the molecular weight of E3 from species 4 and E4 from species 5. Comparing dimer to monomer digests, there is an apparent decrease in the intensity of these two fragments suggesting that two fragments are ...
*  Preparation of gram quantities of a purified R-factor-mediated penicillinase from Escherichia coli strain W3310 | Biochemical...
Purified penicillinase, in gram quantities, has been prepared from Escherichia coli strain W3310 by using methods developed to handle large amounts of material. The final product had a specific enzyme activity of 3.08 units/μg of protein, which was over twice as high as that reported previously (Datta & Richmond, 1966). The purified enzyme was similar to that from E. coli strain TEM, but different in molecular weight and some other respects. The differences observed may be a result of the greater purity obtained.. ...
*  Studies of inheritance in amoebae by the technique of nuclear transfer | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B:...
The methods of classical genetics depend essentially on the reassortment of genes which occurs as a result of meiotic and mating processes. These methods are of great elegance and great power. Upon their success our present theory of inheritance depends. But these methods also have certain weaknesses. These include the following points (1) The study of non-chromosomal inheritance is laborious, though of course not impossible, as has been demonstrated by the remarkable studies of Michaelis (1954). (2) In many instances the setting of the scene for meiosis, and the developments after mating, involve drastic reorganization of the cytoplasm in ways which are unfavourable for detailed analysis of cytoplasmic inheritance. (3) Where mating and meiotic processes do not occur, the classical methods of genetics are useless. This means, for example, that the manifest differences between cell lineages which appear in the course of development cannot be studied by these ...
*  Extranuclear inheritance - Wikipedia
Extranuclear inheritance or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus. It is found in most eukaryotes and is commonly known to occur in cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts or from cellular parasites like viruses or bacteria. Mitochondria are organelles which function to transform energy as a result of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts are organelles which function to produce sugars via photosynthesis in plants and algae. The genes located in mitochondria and chloroplasts are very important for proper cellular function, yet the genomes replicate independently of the DNA located in the nucleus, which is typically arranged in chromosomes that only replicate one time preceding cellular division. The extranuclear genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts however replicate independently of cell division. They replicate in response to a cell's increasing energy needs which adjust during that cell's ...
*  Extrachromosomal MicroDNAs and Chromosomal Microdeletions in Normal Tissues | Science
We have identified tens of thousands of short extrachromosomal circular DNAs (microDNA) in mouse tissues as well as mouse and human cell lines. These microDNAs are 200 to 400 base pairs long, are derived from unique nonrepetitive sequence, and are enriched in the 5′-untranslated regions of genes, exons, and CpG islands. Chromosomal loci that are enriched sources of microDNA in the adult brain are somatically mosaic for microdeletions that appear to arise from the excision of microDNAs. Germline microdeletions identified by the "Thousand Genomes" project may also arise from the excision of microDNAs in the germline lineage. We have thus identified a previously unknown DNA entity in mammalian cells and provide evidence that their generation leaves behind deletions in different genomic loci.. ...
*  Letter from Tracy M. Sonneborn to Sol Spiegelman (November 8, 1950)
From your letter, it is clear that you are displeased with my treatment of the status of this experiment. This I can well understand and I want you to know that I hesitated long before putting it in, and was very reluctant to do so. It was the only point which I discussed in full with the editors before finally deciding to do so. Frankly, the thing that decided us was the fact that the plasmagene theory based on your work had been so extensively set forth in the popular press that it would have been impossible to omit it in a popular discussion of cytoplasmic inheritance. Further, many specialists have wondered why there had been so little direct mention of the later developments -- only the citation mentioned above. Of course, this became known to people directly interested, but I for one have wondered why you never discussed Doudoroff's failure to confirm in your papers. Or have you? I don't recall seeing it. It has been four years now since the L. and L. paper and that would seem to be ...
*  Bacterial Plasmids - Kimber Hardy; | Foyles Bookstore
This text describes the structure, functions, transmission and applications of bacterial plasmids. The rate of research and accumulating knowledge on bacterial plasmids since the first edition, has established a need for a thorough revision and update. Each chapter has been brought up-to-date, and current developments in the understanding of plasmid replication and transposable elements have received special attention.
*  Announcements We have decided to halt our efforts with the yw crosses, due to uncooperative yw females, frustration, and lack...
Review of Last Lecture 1.Quick review of conjugation: F-, F+, Hfr 2. Transformation: a different process of recombination, can be used to map genes 3. Bacteriophages are viruses that use bacteria as hosts; they can mediate bacterial DNA transfer - transduction 4. Extrachromosomal inheritance: Phenotype of maternal parent is solely responsible for phenotype of offspring - example of maternal inheritance of chloroplasts
*  Quiz & Worksheet - Characteristics of Bacterial Plasmids | Study.com
What are the characteristics of bacterial plasmids? This quiz and interactive worksheet will help ensure your understanding of bacterial plasmids...
*  Gresham:Publications - OpenWetWare
1. Gresham D. DNA microarray-based mutation discovery and genotyping. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;772:179-91. 2. Poultney CS, Butterfoss GL, Gutwein MR, Drew K, Gresham D, Gunsalus KC, Shasha DE, Bonneau R. Rational design of temperature-sensitive alleles using computational structure prediction. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23947. Epub 2011 Sep 2. 3. Gresham D, Boer D, Caudy A, Ziv N, Brandt NJ, Storey JD, Botstein D. System-level analysis of genes and functions affecting survival during nutrient starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011 vol. 187 (1) pp. 299-317. (published online Oct 13, 2010). 4. Gresham D, Usaite R, Germann SM, Lisby M, Botstein D and Regenberg B Adaptation to diverse nitrogen limited environments by deletion or extrachromosomal element formation of the GAP1 locus. PNAS (2010): 107(43): 18551-6. 5. Ehrenreich IM, Torabi N, Jia Y, Kent J, Martis S, Shapiro JA, Gresham D, Caudy AA, and Kruglyak L. Dissection of genetically complex traits with extremely large pools of yeast ...
*  NWMN 0056 - AureoWiki
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsProphage functionsputative phage terminase, small subunit, P27 family (TIGR01558; HMM-score: 13.5) ...
*  Patent US7314746 - Apparatus and method for preparative scale purification of nucleic acids - Google Patents
Apparatus and methods are described for pharmaceutical grade manufacture extrachromosomal nucleic acids from cell lysates using flotation to separate and eliminate undesired insoluble cellular debris including chromosomal DNA from the lysates. A gas is introduced to controllably generate bubbles that reduce the density of the cell debris and create a buoyant flocculent phase that can be readily separated from, and thus provide, a substantially clarified fluid lysate phase that is enriched in extrachromosomal DNA but substantially depleted of cellular proteins and chromosomal DNA.
*  SACOL RS04870 - AureoWiki
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsPlasmid functionsentry exclusion protein TrbK (TIGR04361; HMM-score: 9.9) ...
*  Study of circular DNA comes full circle with use of old technique - nilmonibhar.in
With the aid of a process called density gradient centrifugation, a research team, which included scientists from The University of Texas at Dallas and Stanford University School of Medicine, recently published a study that for the first time characterizes all of the circular DNA in the worm C. elegans, as well as in three human cell types.. What Is Circular DNA?. The DNA molecules that make up the genes and chromosomes in our cells are rope-like strands, free at both ends and shaped like a twisted ladder, or helix. That DNA, called chromosomal DNA, is found in each cell's nucleus and contains genetic instructions needed to carry out biological functions.. But another population of DNA, called extrachromosomal circular DNA, is shaped like a circle, with no loose ends, and exists independently of linear DNA. While researchers are beginning to better understand how circular DNA functions in humans, much is still unknown. The study, published online recently in the journal G3: ...
*  AID 481197 - Induction of DNA cleavage in supercoiled pGL2 DNA assessed as open circular DNA form-2 under hypoxic condition...
BioAssay record AID 481197 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of DNA cleavage in supercoiled pGL2 DNA assessed as open circular DNA form-2 under hypoxic condition with NADPH:cytochrome P450 enzyme system at 25 uM after 16 hrs by agarose gel electrophoresis in presence of radical scavenging agent mannitol.
*  Cancer Plays Rope-a-Dope to Resist Targeted Therapy | GEN
Study shows that brain tumors resist targeted therapy by temporarily suppressing the expression of extrachromosomal DNA that encodes a signaling molecule.
*  Factor R for extra holiday - Wales Online
A STRESS psychologist has come up with a scientific way to convince the boss you deserve extra holiday, it was revealed yesterday.
*  Genetics-General, Non-Mendelian, Human, & Technology by Adrienne Towns on Prezi
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