*  example of polypeptide-coated carbon black nanoparticles
Page contains details about example of polypeptide-coated carbon black nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
  http://nano.nature.com/nano/GR-M1260735
*  Assessment of Soot Particles in an Exhaust Gas for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with High EGR in a Heavy Duty Compression...
The characteristics of soot particles in an exhaust gas for low temperature diesel combustion (LTC) compared with conventional combustion in a compression ignition engine were experimentally investigated by the elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Morphology of soot particles was also studied by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the result of the TGA, the water can be evaporated until about 150°C for both combustion regimes. The soot particles for LTC contained more volatile hydrocarbons, which can be easily evaporated from 200°C to 420°C compared with conventional diesel combustion. The soot oxidation for conventional combustion occurs up to 600°C, on the other hand the particles for LTC is oxidized below 520°C. Elemental analysis showed higher oxygen weight fraction resulted from the oxygenated hydrocarbon for the soot particles in LTC. TEM has shown primary particles to be in a diameter range of ...
  http://papers.sae.org/2013-01-2572/
*  Immunomodulation by Gastrointestinal Carbon Black Nanoparticle Exposure in Ovalbumin T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mice. |...
Humans could become exposed to carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) in consumer products or an occupational setting. In rodent models, acute respiratory, subcutaneous, and direct immune cell exposure to CBNPs has been shown to enhance allergic sensitization to co-administered ovalbumin (OVA) protein from chicken egg. However, little is known about the effects of ingested CBNPs on immunological responses and oral tolerance to food antigens. We hypothesized that ingestion of CBNPs would enhance the development of food allergy to OVA. Allergy prone DO11.10 mice were orally exposed to CBNPs every second day for 2 weeks (total dose 10.8 (LO) or 108 μg (HI)), with and without (+/-) co-administered OVA. Systemic immune parameters were measured at necropsy. Exposure to OVA resulted in significant increases in serum anti-OVA IgG1, anti-OVA IgM and anti-OVA IgA antibodies relative to vehicle control. Immunophenotyping revealed a reduction in the number of OVA specific CD4(+) T helper cells upon ...
  https://www.physiciansweekly.com/immunomodulation-by-gastrointestinal-carbon-black-nanoparticle-exposure-in-ovalbumin-t-cell-receptor-transgenic-mice-2/
*  DSpace at KOASAS: Morphology and nano-structure of soot in diesel spray and in engine exhaust
This work investigates how morphology and nano-structure of the soot particles produced in a diesel spray flame evolve due to the rise in the temperature/pressure caused by the piston motion. The soot particles were sampled from the exhaust line of a diesel engine and were compared to the soot particles directly sampled from the spray flame of the same injector, in a constant volume chamber. Analysis of the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images acquired from the soot samples at two axial locations in the spray flame shows that the soot aggregates grow in size, become longer, more fractal and attain lower surface to volume ratio along the spray axis. However, the soot particles produced in the spray flame become smaller, shorter, less fractal, more compact and attain higher surface to volume ratio when emitted from the engine. This is discussed to be due to the increase in the ...
  http://koasas.kaist.ac.kr/handle/10203/224850
*  中国科学院水生生物研究所机构知识库(IHB OpenIR): Evaluation of soot particles of biomass fuels with endocrine-modulating activity in yeast-based...
Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the combustion of biomass fuels is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In the work discussed in this paper we evaluated the endocrine activity of soot particles from biomass fuels by using yeast bioassay. These pollutants could have beta-galactosidase activity with a relative potency (RP) about 10(-7)-10(-9) that of estradiol. Soot particles from wood and straw combustion only partially induced beta-galactosidase activity whereas others produced fully inductive activity in the yeast assay system. These pollutants did not have estrogen antagonist and progesterone agonist activity within the defined concentration range. However, these pollutants require 2-4 orders of magnitude higher IC50 to inhibit the activity of progesterone in a similar dose-response manner to mifepristone. We therefore propose that the endocrine activity of some environmental pollutants may be because of inhibition of the ...
  http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/152342/9280
*  New type of soot particle discovered from wildfire emissions | EurekAlert! Science News
In a paper published in Nature Scientific Reports, a team of scientists led by Rajan Chakrabarty from Nevada's Desert Research Institute report the observation of a previously unrecognized form of soot particle, identified as 'superaggregates,' from wildfire emissions. These particles were detected in smoke plumes from wildfires in Northern California, New Mexico, Mexico City, and India. These particles contribute up to 90-percent more warming than spherical sub-micrometer soot particles, which current climate models use.
  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-07/dri-nto070514.php
*  Biological effects of carbon black nanoparticles are changed by surface coating with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons |...
Supporting the hypothesis that a reduced surface area reduces the biological effects of CBNP [1, 10, 67], the coating of P90 with BaP prevented the P90-induced increase of the neutrophil attracting cytokine IL8 mRNA in A549 cells. As the high surface area of P90 is strongly associated with induction of oxidative stress, the reduced biological effect can be explained by the reduced ROS release that we observed with P90-BaP and P90-9NA in A549 cells compared to uncoated P90. This reduced biological effect is also supported by our observation that P90, and not P90-BaP, led to a transient increase in granulocyte influx in the in vivo experiment. This transient increase in granulocytes without changes of total cell number has previously been observed [68, 69]. The mechanism for the reduced number of macrophages is not known and would be an interesting area for future research. However, these results clearly demonstrate that surface area can be an important factor of CBNP effects in biological ...
  https://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12989-017-0189-1
*  OSA | Size distributions of nanoscaled particles and gas temperatures from time-resolved laser-induced-incandescence...
Laser-induced-incandescence (LII) signal decays are measured in sooting premixed atmospheric and low-pressure flames. Soot particle temperatures are obtained from LII signals measured at two wavelengths. Soot particle size distributions P(r) and flame temperatures T are measured spatially resolved by independent techniques. Heat and mass transfer kinetics of the LII process are determined from measured soot particle temperatures, flame temperatures, and particle sizes. Uncertainties of current LII models are attributed to processes during the absorption of the laser pulse. Implications for LII experiments are made in order to obtain primary soot particle sizes. Soot particle size distributions and flame temperatures are assessed from measured particle temperature decays by use of multi-D nonlinear regression.. © 2003 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
  https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-42-12-2021
*  Scientists measure soot particles in flight | EurekAlert! Science News
For the first time, air-polluting soot particles have been imaged in flight down to nanometer resolution. Pioneering a new technique, the international team, including researchers from DESY, snapped the most detailed images yet of airborne aerosols.
  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-06/haog-sms062512.php
*  Environmental Health Perspectives - Telomere Length, Long-Term Black Carbon Exposure, and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of...
Araujo JA. 2011. Particulate air pollution, systemic oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Air Qual Atmos Health 4(1):79-93.. Arfanakis K, Fleischman DA, Grisot G, Barth CM, Varentsova A, Morris MC, et al. 2013. Systemic inflammation in non-demented elderly human subjects: brain microstructure and cognition. PLoS One 8:e73107, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073107.. Artandi SE, DePinho RA. 2010. Telomeres and telomerase in cancer. Carcinogenesis 31:9-18.. Baccarelli A, Tarantini L, Wright RO, Bollati V, Litonjua AA, Zanobetti A, et al. 2010. Repetitive element DNA methylation and circulating endothelial and inflammation markers in the VA Normative Aging Study. Epigenetics 5:222-228.. Bassuk SS, Wypij D, Berkman LF. 2000. Cognitive impairment and mortality in the community-dwelling elderly. Am J Epidemiol 151:676-688.. Bell B, Rose CL, Damon A. 1966. The Veterans Administration longitudinal study of healthy aging. Gerontologist 6:179-184.. Blackburn EH. 2001. Switching and signaling at ...
  https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp241/
*  Soot blocks rain: Studies say it's worse than you think - Houston Chronicle
[...] a raft of new studies is beginning to make clear how soot may play a critical role in everything from human health to global warming to whether it will rain tomorrow in Houston. After mingling with sulfuric acid, a common pollutant from power plants, the scientists found that soot inhibits the formation of clouds, perhaps reducing coverage in Houston by as much as 20 percent and diminishing the chances of rain. The work should have important implications for air quality in regions such as Houston, where there are many sources of soot, including diesel trucks, as well as electricity-generating facilities that produce pollutants that modify soot. '[...] recently, we really understood very little about how soot transforms once it reaches the atmosphere,' said Renyi Zhang, the Texas A&M scientist and lead author of a paper on soot that was just published in the journal Proceedings of the National ...
  http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Soot-blocks-rain-Studies-say-it-s-worse-than-you-1791117.php
*  Personal Black Carbon Exposure Influences Ambulatory Blood PressureNovelty and Significance | Hypertension
BC has gained attention as a product and marker of combustion-related anthropogenic air pollution, often showing independent health associations distinct from those induced by background ambient PM2.5.13 Our results demonstrate an effect of anthropogenic combustion-related air pollution (BC) on ABP and HRV in patients with metabolic syndrome in Beijing, a city continually facing extreme levels of air pollutants.. Although previous associations between exposures to ambient air pollutants and BP have been reported, these generally have been observed to occur in response to concentrations that are several folds lower.4 It is not clear whether adverse cardiovascular actions of air pollutants persist at the markedly higher levels encountered in Asia. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the effects of air pollutants in patients with metabolic syndrome, a population at risk for development of type II diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Previous findings suggest that obese individuals and those ...
  http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/63/4/871
*  Reconstruction of atmospheric soot history in inland regions from lake sediments over the past 150 years
Historical reconstruction of atmospheric black carbon (BC, in the form of char and soot) is still constrained for inland areas. Here we determined and compared the past 150-yr records of BC and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in sediments from two representative lakes, Huguangyan (HGY) and Chaohu (CH), in eastern China. HGY only receives atmospheric deposition while CH is influenced by riverine input. BC, char, and soot have similar vertical concentration profiles as PACs in both lakes. Abrupt increases in concentrations and mass accumulation rates (MARs) of soot have mainly occurred since ~1950, the establishment of the People's Republic of China, when energy usage changed to more fossil fuel contributions reflected by the variations in the concentration ratios of char/soot and individual PACs. In HGY, soot MARs increased by ~7.7 times in the period 1980-2012 relative to the period 1850-1950. Similar increases (~6.7 ...
  https://publikationen.bibliothek.kit.edu/1000064644
*  Crosslinking chemistry of curing carbon composites containing novolac/furfuryl alcohol resins and carbon black or mesophase...
The crosslinking chemistry was studied for producing carbon composites using carbon black or mesophase pitch as additives and a binder containing novolac and furfuryl alcohol (FA) resins and hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA) as a crosslinker. Curing the composites to 205 °C generated FA, water and ammonia as the major volatile species released from the systems due to evaporation, condensation of FA and crosslinking reactions between the resins and HMTA, respectively. Carbon black or mesophase displayed a minimal effect on the chemical nature of the volatiles released from the curing. However, the carbon black particles, which were homogeneously distributed in the cured composite, produced a broad distribution of chemical environments and structures of the binder networks, and the chain motions of the binder were also modified. Mesophase pitch on the other hand was likely to participate in curing reactions of the resin phase and heterogeneous phase structures were detected only on a scale as small ...
  http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30086155
*  OSA | Electrostatics analysis of radiative absorption by sphere clusters in the Rayleigh limit: application to soot particles
An analysis of radiative absorption and scattering by clusters of spheres in the Rayleigh limit is developed with an electrostatics analysis. This approach assumes that the largest dimension of the cluster is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. The electric field that is incident upon and scattered by the cluster can then be represented by the gradient of a potential that in turn satisfies Laplace's equation. An analytical solution for the potential that exactly satisfies the boundary conditions at the surfaces of the spheres is obtained with a coupled spherical harmonics method. The components of the polarizability tensor and the absorption, scattering, and depolarization factors are obtained from the solution. Calculations are performed on fractallike clusters of spheres, with refractive-index values that are characteristic of carbonaceous soot in the visible and the IR wavelengths. Results indicate that the absorption cross sections of fractal soot ...
  https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-34-18-3535
*  Synthesis of Diesel-Like Soots. Influence of the Operative Parameters on the Chemico-Physical and Morphological Characteristics...
Synthetic Diesel-like soots were prepared according to a methodology reported in the literature, and their physico-chemical characteristics and properties determined as a function of the operating parameters. These Diesel-like soots were synthesized following a two stage process where carbon-black oil mixtures were firstly oxidized at 400 °C in a tubular furnace and the resulting solid was next oxidized between 75°C and 175 °C. The products obtained after the removal of residual oil were characterized morphologically, via elemental analysis, solid state 13C-NMR, XPS and rheologically. Results were compared with those achieved from the characterization of a "reference" soot sample extracted from an oil recovered after an XUD11 engine test. Synthetic soots have chemico-physical characteristics that are different than those of the precursor carbon black and that can be controlled changing the operative conditions of the second step of the ...
  http://papers.sae.org/982664/
*  Sooting Characteristics and Modeling in Counterflow Diffusion Flames - KAUST Repository
Soot formation is one of the most complex phenomena in combustion science and an understanding of the underlying physico-chemical mechanisms is important. This work adopted both experimental and numerical approaches to study soot formation in laminar counterfl ow diffusion flames. As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the precursors of soot particles, a detailed gas-phase chemical mechanism describing PAH growth upto coronene for fuels with 1 to 4 carbon atoms was validated against laminar premixed and counter- flow diffusion fl ames. Built upon this gas-phase mechanism, a soot model was then developed to describe soot inception and surface growth. This soot model was sub- sequently used to study fuel mixing effect on soot formation in counterfl ow diffusion flames. Simulation results showed that compared to the baseline case of the ethylene flame, the doping of 5% (by volume) ...
  http://repository.kaust.edu.sa/kaust/handle/10754/306502
*  Simultaneous 2-D Imaging of OH Radicals and Soot in a Diesel Flame by Laser Sheet Techniques - SAE International
The OH and soot in an unsteady flame, which was achieved in a rapid compression machine, were visualized simultaneously by the laser-induced fluorescence and laser-induced scattering techniques. The fuel mixture consisting of 90% paraffin hydrocarbon (reference fuel) and 10% polypropylene-glycol was used to reduce the optical attenuation caused by dense soot cloud. The simultaneous images of the fluorescence from OH and scattering from soot show that the soot and OH exist separately from each other in the leading portion of the spray flame, and the OH is formed earlier than the soot in the near field region of spray flame ...
  http://papers.sae.org/960834/
*  Physics Colloquium: Of Soot and Sunflowers - Comet Calendar
Dr. Chris Sorensen (Kansas State). Soot, the by-product of combustion, that smoky, black stuff from chimneys, power plants and the inside of the tail pipe of my roadster, what scientist would ever bother to study soot? As a "particle physicist", that's what I do, and I find that soot has mysteries and beauties that can entertain any curiosity. In this talk I will describe some of my researches into soot and other aggregate structures; an unlikely journey of discovery to find fractal structures with non-Euclidian dimensionality, gel networks that tenuously span space and common Fibonacci themes between spirals, sunflowers and soot.. ...
  http://www.utdallas.edu/calendar/event.php?id=1220413379
*  Catalytic Soot Oxidation: Effect of Ceria-Zirconia Catalyst Particle Size - SAE...
Catalysts that have been extensively investigated for direct soot oxidation in Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFs) are very often based on mixed oxides of ceria with zirconia, materials known to assist soot oxidation by providing oxygen to the soot through an oxidation-reduction catalytic cycle. Besides the catalyst composition that significantly affects soot oxidation, other parameters such as morphological characteristics of the catalyst largely determined by the synthesis technique followed, as well as the reagents used in the synthesis may also contribute to the activity of the catalysts. In the present work, two ceria-zirconia catalyst samples with different zirconia content were subjected to different milling protocols with the aim to shift the catalyst particle size distribution to lower values. The produced catalysts were then evaluated with respect to their soot oxidation activity following established ...
  http://papers.sae.org/2016-01-0968/
*  SOOT - search.cpan.org
SOOT is a Perl extension for using the ROOT library. It is very similar to the Ruby-ROOT or PyROOT extensions for their respective languages. Specifically, SOOT was implemented after the model of Ruby-ROOT.. Please note that SOOT is to be considered highly experimental at this point. It uses a very dynamic approach to wrapping a very large and quickly evolving library. Due to the dynamic nature (using the CInt introspection), SOOT is able to handle most of the ROOT classes without explicitly wrapping them. Some things are expected to not work because not enough information about the API can be obtained automatically. Let me know what you need and what is giving you problems and we'll work out a solution.. In order to install and use SOOT, you need a configured ROOT library. In particular, it is necessary that the root-config tool be executable and findable via your ...
  http://search.cpan.org/dist/SOOT/lib/SOOT.pm
*  An Austin Homestead: So Long, Soot
We continue to debate about bringing any of our hens with us on our voyage west. I think we've decided that Belina is coming with us. Belina is our big, puffy, personable Buff Orpington who is the subject of a childrens book i'm writing. She's just too sweet and too easily harassed to be left behind. She's also the reason Soot was the first to go. Soot was our favorite pullet: beautiful, full of things to say (she makes the sweetest little sounds) and an excellent layer. She's also what we liked to call "the enforcer." She's in charge of alerting about danger, and ruling hte roost. Poor Belina was looking really great while Soot was molting and feeling like poo - and as soon as she was back to feeling herself, Belina was back to having bloody comb at most times and constantly chased about. Soot is a great hen, and she'll be great for our friend Robin who has 6 other hens that will be sure to put "Queen Soot" in her place ...
  http://anaustinhomestead.blogspot.com/2011/04/so-long-soot.html
*  How carbon paper is made - material, manufacture, making, used, processing, components, product, industry
The principle behind carbon paper is simple, yet producing it is difficult. A modern manufacturer of carbon paper tests all incoming raw materials for quality. A large number of tests can be applied to carbon black, including those for pigments and sulfur content. The carbon black selected should also be of fine particle size, which is determined by measuring the average diameter of a carbon black particle with an electron microscope. In addition, it should have low oil absorption, and the absorbency and pH of the carbon black are tested prior to use. The inks are tested for fineness of grain, which affects the final smoothness of the coating. The wax binder should penetrate only slightly into the paper and have the proper viscosity. To ensure proper lettering, the amount of wax released under pressure is tested. The paper itself should be smooth, nonporous, and free of surface defects. Although it must be a thin tissue, it should also be strong and dense. The finished carbon paper must be free ...
  http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Carbon-Paper.html
*  Patent US5211932 - Carbon black process control system - Google Patents
A carbon black process control system measures input variables such as feedstock flow rate, feedstock quality, air flow rate, air humidity, air temperature, fuel flow rate, fuel quality, and/or potassium additive solution flow rate at spaced intervals while the carbon black reactor is operating. Then, at spaced intervals in time one or more output variables of the carbon black, such as iodine number and/or DBP, are predicted in accordance with a prediction algorithm based on the values of the measured input variables. Then, at spaced intervals in time the predicted values of the output variables, such as iodine number and/or DBP, are averaged. Based on the average values of the predicted output variables, one or more input variables are then adjusted to achieve goal values of the predicted output variables, and thus obtain carbon black of substantially consistent quality. The predicted output variables are also laboratory measured from samples of the carbon black produced at spaced intervals in time
  http://www.google.com/patents/US5211932?dq=7125605
*  Wholesale Carbon Black, China Wholesale Carbon Black Manufacturers & Suppliers | Made-in-China.com
Wholesale Carbon Black - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Carbon Black products in best price from certified Chinese Carbon Black For Rubber manufacturers, Plastic Carbon Black suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
  http://www.made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Wholesale_Carbon_Black.html