Loading...
*  Thalamocortical radiations - Wikipedia
Thalamocortical radiations are the fibers between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex.[1] ... where they either terminate or connect with axons collaterally depending on type of projection and type of initial activation.[ ... The specific excitatory signaling is based upon glutamatergic signaling, and is dependent on the nature of the sensory ... Cortico-thalamic feedback neurons are mostly found in layer VI of the cortex.[4] Reciprocal CT projections to the thalamus are ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thalamocortical_radiations
*  Recent developments in the pathology of Parkinson's disease | Springer for Research & Development
Berger B, Gaspar P, Verney C (1991) Dopaminergic innervation of the cerebral cortex: unexpected differences between rodents and ... which causes inhibition of the glutamatergic thalamocortical pathway and reduced cortical activation. The tremor-dominant type ... which project to the matrix of the dorsolateral striatum and ventromedial thalamus, thus causing hyperactivity of thalamomotor ... and cerebellar projections. These and experimental data suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms for the major ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-7091-6139-5_33
*  Plus it
TANs receive glutamatergic excitatory inputs from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus (DiFiglia, 1987; Wilson et al., 1990; ... Relation to projection neurons. Because TANs are interneurons, their signals must be transmitted to projection neurons to be ... Compared with the selective activation of DA neurons, TANs were much less selective. Nonetheless, TANs responded to the cue ... neurons in the cerebral cortex and the thalamus, and dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/19/7804
*  Frontiers | Transcranial Electric Stimulation for Precision Medicine: A Spatiomechanistic Framework | Frontiers in Human...
... via projections from the motor and premotor cortices), and consecutive activity alterations in the medial thalamus, anterior ... Bindman, L. J., Lippold, O., and Redfearn, J. (1964). The action of brief polarizing currents on the cerebral cortex of the rat ... dorsal premotor cortex and the contralesional cerebellum. It seemed that tDCS was able to incline brain activation toward the ... Anodal tDCS causes locally reduced GABA activity, while cathodal stimulation reduces glutamatergic neurotransmission (Stagg et ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00159/full
*  Frontiers | Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia | Frontiers in...
... despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is ... indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate ... Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal ... Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, ... SNr and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2014.00013/full
*  Frontiers | Opioidergic Modulation of Striatal Circuits, Implications in Parkinson's Disease and Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia |...
Among the neurotransmitters that regulate the activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), opioid neuropeptides (enkephalin ... Among the neurotransmitters that regulate the activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), opioid neuropeptides (enkephalin ... DORs are abundant in layers II, III, IV and V of the cerebral cortex and in the striosomes and matrix compartments of the CPu, ... Red, blue and black lines indicate GABA-ergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic projections, respectively. Changes in the rate of ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2018.00524/full
*  Neurotransmitter - Wikipedia
Caudal projections. *CN → Cerebral cortex. *CN → Thalamus. *CN → Caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens ... Different subregions of the VTA receive glutamatergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex, orexinergic inputs from the lateral ... It should be noted that trace amines, primarily via TAAR1 activation, have a very significant effect on neurotransmission in ... The] dorsal raphe preferentially innervates the cerebral cortex, thalamus, striatal regions (caudate-putamen and nucleus ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuro_transmitter
*  Reticular formation - Wikipedia
Sleep and consciousness - The reticular formation has projections to the thalamus and cerebral cortex that allow it to exert ... the glutamatergic component of the ARAS includes one glutamatergic nucleus in the hypothalamus and various glutamatergic ... Kinomura, S., Larsson, J., Gulyas, B., & Roland, P. E. (January 1996). "Activation by attention of the human reticular ... and periaqueductal gray projections that stimulate the cortex directly and indirectly via the thalamus, hypothalamus and BF.6, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reticular_formation
*  CGP 52432 (CAS 139667-74-6): R&D Systems
CGP 52432: a novel potent and selective GABAB autoreceptor antagonist in rat cerebral cortex.. Lanza et al.. Eur.J.Pharmacol., ... Postnatal development of synaptic properties of the GABAergic projection from the inferior colliculus to the auditory thalamus. ... Plasticity of burst firing induced by synergistic activation of metabotropic glutamate and acetylcholine receptors.. Authors: ... Differential expression of metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptors at neocortical glutamatergic and GABAergic axon terminals. ...
  https://www.rndsystems.com/products/cgp-52432_1246
*  TBR1 - Wikipedia
Fezf2 expression is observed in layer V of the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is constructed in six layers. Fezf2 ... Tbr1, along with Pax6 and Tbr2, has a role in glutamatergic projection neuron differentiation. Glutamatergic neurons make and ... Abnormal activation of TBR1 in layer V eliminates corticospinal tract formation. Bhlhb5 is a gene marker in the mouse brain, ... the eminentia thalami. Orthologs of the human TBR1 gene have been identified in chimpanzee, dog, cow, rat, mouse, and zebrafish ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TBR1
*  Zona incerta - Wikipedia
There are projections from the zona incerta back to the cerebral cortex. Diencephalon Projections with the diencephalon are ... from zona incerta to paraventricular thalamus contributes to binge-like eating produced by zona incerta GABA neuron activation ... These projections are glutamatergic and excitatory rather than GABAergic and inhibitory. The zona incerta also receives input ... Cerebral cortex Projections to the zona incerta arise across the cortical mantel from the frontal to the occipital lobes. The ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zona_incerta
*  Frontiers | Control of Striatal Signaling by G Protein Regulators | Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Striatal neurons express a staggering number of GPCRs whose activation results in the engagement of downstream signaling ... Striatal neurons express a staggering number of GPCRs whose activation results in the engagement of downstream signaling ... Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by extracellular signals activates heterotrimeric G proteins by promoting the ... Activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by extracellular signals activates heterotrimeric G proteins by promoting the ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2011.00049/full
*  Discharge Profiles across the Sleep-Waking Cycle of Identified Cholinergic, GABAergic, and Glutamatergic Neurons in the...
1993) Actions of acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex and thalamus and implications for function. Prog Brain Res 98:303-308, ... could stimulate cortical activation during both W and PS by projections onto presumed glutamatergic neurons located in the Mes ... 2004) Activity, modulation and role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons innervating the cerebral cortex. Prog Brain Res 145: ... C, Discharge rates of possibly glutamatergic (n = 7) neurons, including a subset of identified glutamatergic (VGluT2+, n = 2, ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/13/4708
*  Marijuana Compounds: A Nonconventional Approach to Parkinson's Disease Therapy
... thalamus, striatum, and brainstem and to a lesser extent in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum [92]. Lower concentrations of ... CB1 receptors are also present in the corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals and in the excitatory projections from the ... The activation of CB2 receptors might also contribute to some extent to the potential of cannabinoids in PD [191]. THCV, which ... G. Tanda, F. E. Pontieri, and G. Di Chiara, "Cannabinoid and heroin activation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission by a common ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2016/1279042/
*  Hippocampus - Boys without Fathers
The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex;[1] and in primates it is located in the medial temporal lobe, underneath ... "The contribution of hippocampal glutamatergic and VTA dopaminergic inputs to the nucleus accumbens and the role of accumbens-- ... while activation of dopamine receptors in the accumbens suppresses GABAergic output to subpallidal area and thus increases the ... Some immunolabelled neurons resemble medium-sized, spiny projection neurons which suggests that the input from the hippocampal ...
  https://sites.google.com/site/boyswithoutfathers/home/hippocampus
*  Hippocampus - Wikipedia
"Spatial organization of direct hippocampal field CA1 axonal projections to the rest of the cerebral cortex". Brain Research ... and from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus to field CA1. A very important projection comes from the medial septal nucleus, ... The glutamatergic pathways have been seen to be largely affected. The subfield CA1 is seen to be the least involved of the ... There are also reports that memory tasks tend to produce less hippocampal activation in the elderly than in the young.[93] ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornu_ammonis
*  Jun Ding | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) receive convergent excitatory synaptic inputs from the cortex and thalamus. Activation ... The two principal excitatory glutamatergic inputs to striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) arise from neurons in the cerebral ... The interplay between motor cortex, sensory cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia is essential for neural computations involved in ... cortex and thalamus. Although there have been many electrophysiological studies of MSN glutamatergic synapses, little is known ...
  https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/jun-ding?tab=teaching
*  Striatum - Wikipedia
... and glutamatergic inputs from several areas, including the cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus (Swanson, 1982; ... Activation of the dMSNs causes a net excitation of the thalamus resulting in a positive cortical feedback loop; thereby acting ... The ventral striatum receives direct input from multiple regions in the cerebral cortex and limbic structures such as the ... These glutamatergic inputs make contact on the heads of dendritic spines of the striatal GABAergic medium spiny projection ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striatum
*  Optogenetic Dissection of the Basal Forebrain Neuromodulatory Control of Cortical Activation, Plasticity, and Cognition |...
2008) Projections from basal forebrain to prefrontal cortex comprise cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs to ... 1996) Induction of a physiological memory in the cerebral cortex by stimulation of the nucleus basalis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... 1988) Basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic projections to the thalamus and brainstem in cats and monkeys. J Comp ... 2015) Selective activation of a putative reinforcement signal conditions cued interval timing in primary visual cortex. Curr ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/41/13896
*  Neurotransmitter - Wikipedia
The] dorsal raphe preferentially innervates the cerebral cortex, thalamus, striatal regions (caudate-putamen and nucleus ... Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, ... Different subregions of the VTA receive glutamatergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex, orexinergic inputs from the lateral ... A mechanism must exist for removing the chemical from its site of activation after its work is done. However, given advances in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmitter
*  Frontiers | Involvement of gap junction channels in the pathophysiology of migraine with aura | Physiology
... system from the meningeal vessels mediates migraine pain via the brainstem and projections ascend to the thalamus and cortex. ... system from the meningeal vessels mediates migraine pain via the brainstem and projections ascend to the thalamus and cortex. ... was proposed to trigger migraine aura and to activate perivascular trigeminal nerves in the cortex. Quinine, quinidine and the ... was proposed to trigger migraine aura and to activate perivascular trigeminal nerves in the cortex. Quinine, quinidine and the ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2014.00078/full
*  Bradykinesia models of Parkinson's disease - Scholarpedia
The thalamus, in turn, excites the cortex via glutamatergic projections. The indirect pathway opposes the direct pathway: ... Cerebral Cortex 21(6): 1362-78.. *Rand, M. K., Stelmach, G. E., & Bloedel, J. R. (2000). Movement accuracy constraints in ... A repetitive and co-contractive pattern of muscle activation results when dopamine is also depleted in the cortex. Finally, ... The basal ganglia project to the thalamus, which, in turn, projects back to the frontal motor areas of the cortex (Parent and ...
  http://scholarpedia.org/article/Bradykinesia_models_of_Parkinson%27s_disease
*  Frontiers | Modulator property of the intrinsic cortical projection from layer 6 to layer 4 | Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Using in vitro slice preparations of the auditory and somatosensory cortices, we found that electrical stimulation or ... stimulation or photostimulation of layer 6 elicits a prolonged depolarizing response that is attributable to the activation of ... Here we show that the intracortical projections from layer 6 to layer 4 exhibit a physiological property that is consistent ... Using in vitro slice preparations of the auditory and somatosensory cortices, we found that electrical ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/neuro.06.003.2009/full
*  Frontiers | Modulation of epileptic activity by deep brain stimulation: a model-based study of frequency-dependent effects |...
Experiments can be undertaken in rodents with electrodes implanted in the cerebral cortex and in the thalamus. First, we could ... This projection was obtained by summing some coordinates of initial 9D feature vectors to get 3D vectors [E(δ2)+E(θ1), E(θ2)+E( ... Parameters W and τ w are tuned such that h(t) approximates the shape of real excitatory (glutamatergic) or inhibitory ( ... The activation of these GABAergic interneurons subsequently promotes inhibition of pyramidal cells after a di-synaptic delay. ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2013.00094/full