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*  Inflammatory breast cancer: Relationship between growth factor signaling and motility in aggressive cancers | Breast Cancer...
... of function of key Rho-regulatory proteins or overexpression of Rho mRNA could result in increased Rho activity and cellular ... All aspects of cellular motility and invasion are controlled by the Rho GTPases and are closely linked to signals from the ... The Rho (Ras homology) GTPases are a subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, which are related to the Ras oncogene. ... Like Ras, Rho proteins are activated via extracellular signals that cause binding and hydrolyses of GTP and induction of ...
  https://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/bcr598
*  Measure Small GTPase Activation | Thermo Fisher Scientific - AU
... selective enrichment and detection of GTP-bound Rac1 GTPase through specific protein interaction with the Pak1 protein-binding ... 2 GTPases are active when bound to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and inactive when the triphosphate is hydrolyzed to guanosine ... Downstream effector binding domain. Cellular function. Rho. GST-Rhotekin-RBD. Filopodia, lamellipodia formation, and stress ... The Active Rac1 Pull-Down and Detection Kit includes purified GST-Pak1 protein-binding domain (PBD), glutathione agarose resin ...
  https://www.thermofisher.com/au/en/home/life-science/protein-biology/protein-biology-learning-center/protein-biology-resource-library/protein-biology-application-notes/measure-small-gtpase-activation.html
*  Frontiers | Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinases in the Regulation of T Cell Activation | Immunology
In the GTP-bound form, Cdc42 interacts with the neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) that, in turn, binds the ... PLCγ1 hydrolyzes PIP2 into DAG and IP3. While DAG remains in the cellular membrane and activates the RAS/protein kinase C (PKC ... Rac1, and Cdc42 have been reported to interact with all PIP5K isoforms and to activate them in a GTP-independent manner (10, 21 ... PLC-γ1 hydrolyzes PIP2 in IP3 and DAG. IP3 induces the activation of Ca2+/calcineurin (CN) and NF-AT. CD28 also binds class 1A ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00186/full
*  GTPase - Wikipedia
... are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP). The GTP binding and ... "GTPase activating proteins: structural and functional insights 18 years after discovery". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences ... The Rho subfamily is further divided into RHOA, RAC1, and CDC42. These GTPases play an important role in Initiation, elongation ... GTP analogues like γ-S-GTP, β,γ-methylene-GTP, and β,γ-imino-GTP that cannot be hydrolyzed fixate the GTPase in its active ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GTPase
*  Optogenetic Reporters: Fluorescent Protein-Based Genetically-Encoded Indicators of Signaling and Metabolism in the Brain
The activated Gα can subsequently activate downstream signaling before its intrinsic GTPase activity hydrolyzes the bound GTP, ... The fluorescent protein palette: tools for cellular imaging. Chem Soc Rev. 2009;38:2887-2921. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... Goto A, Hoshino M, Matsuda M, Nakamura T. Phosphorylation of STEF/Tiam2 by protein kinase a is critical for Rac1 activation and ... sensors of other protein kinases, such as Akt/protein kinase B, protein kinase C, and AMP-dependent protein kinase, have been ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3494096/?lang=en-ca
*  Development - Angiotensin activation of Akt Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-Rad
It has been shown that 12-HETE activates small GTP binding proteins: cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) and ras-related C3 ... PLA2G4A hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine (2-arachidonoyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) to produce lyso-phosphatidylcholine ... botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) [16], [17] and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11 (MLK3)/ dual ... When 6 is 9: 'uncoupled' AT1 receptors turn signalling on its head. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 2004 Nov;61(21 ...
  http://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/pathway/gpcr/development-angiotensin-activation-akt
*  Regulation by GEFs | Migrations
... last week's Nature had a post on Rewiring cellular morphology pathways with synthetic guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Yeh ... In the same vein as my recent post on kinase structures and autoinhibition of multimodular signaling proteins, ... GTPases ("G" proteins) represent a family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanine triphosphate (GTP) into the ... Constitutely active Trio DH (and Rac1) induced lamellipodia.]. Abstract below the fold:. Eukaryotic cells mobilize the actin ...
  https://migration.wordpress.com/2007/06/20/regulation-by-gefs/
*  GTPase-activating protein - Wikipedia
G proteins can weakly hydrolyse GTP, breaking a phosphate bond to make GDP. In the GDP-bound state, the G proteins are ... Rac1, and Rac2. The GAPs that act on small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily have conserved structures and use ... Regulation of G proteins is important because these proteins are involved in a variety of important cellular processes. The ... The activity of G proteins comes from their ability to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Binding of GTP inherently changes the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GTPase-activating_protein
*  GTPase Antibodies | Thermo Fisher Scientific - JP
... the GGAH domain has been shown to be sufficient to bind GTP-bound Arf, and Arf1 binds all three GGA effector proteins. The ... Activation of Rac1 results in actin polymerization and appears as membrane ruffling at the cellular periphery. Rac1 activation ... Conversely, GAP proteins inactivate GTPases by hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. Ras mediates downstream signaling by interacting with ... Through mutational studies, the GGAH domain is sufficient to bind GTP-bound Arf, and in vitro Arf6 binds GGA1 with the highest ...
  https://www.thermofisher.com/jp/en/home/life-science/antibodies/primary-antibodies/antibodies-cancer-research/gtpase-antibodies.html
*  Expression Profile in Rice Panicle: Insights into Heat Response Mechanism at Reproductive Stage
Small GTPases are GTP-binding proteins [97], and include Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran families in plant. RAC/ROP GTPases belonging to ... In addition, the direct binding of Rac1 of small GTPase to RbohB in rice leads to an increase in ROS [109]. ... It's also widely known that HSE can be recognized and bound by activated HSF to respond to cellular and environmental changes, ... Nitrilase plays important roles in maintaining auxin homeostasis through hydrolyzing IAA [82]. SAUR39 from the small auxin-up ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3498232/?lang=en-ca
*  Rho GTPase signaling complexes in cell migration and invasion | JCB
... which are unable to hydrolyze GTP and are therefore constitutively GTP-bound, and RHOU, which has a high intrinsic nucleotide ... Activation of Rac1 by a Crk SH3-binding protein, DOCK180. Genes Dev. 12:3331-3336. doi:10.1101/gad.12.21.3331. ... and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Rho GTPase activity needs to be precisely tuned at distinct cellular locations to enable ... RhoG activates Rac1 by direct interaction with the Dock180-binding protein Elmo. Nature. 424:461-464. doi:10.1038/nature01817. ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/early/2017/12/11/jcb.201612069
*  "The role of the WASP family proteins in cellular MD...
... exchange factors GIT G-protien-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein Grb2 growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 GTP ... Once incorporated at the (+)-end, ATP-G-actin hydrolyses its bound ATP. After release of inorganic phosphate, ADP-actin ... 2004) and, by means of the unconventional Rac1- and Cdc42-GEF activity of DOCK180 (Brugnera et al. 2002), activates Rac1 to ... The EVH1 domain binds the evolutionarily conserved WASP-interacting protein (WIP) family of proteins. The WIP family proteins ...
  http://spotidoc.com/doc/23821/%E2%80%9Cthe-role-of-the-wasp-family-proteins-in-cellular-md-thesis
*  WikiGenes - AC1OAGKE - (2R)-2-[[hydroxy-[(1R,2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-2,3...
The small GTP-binding protein Rho regulates a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase in mammalian cells. Chong, L.D., ... This novel p122-RhoGAP binds to PLC-delta 1 and activates the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolyzing activity ... Steady-state cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), and inositol phosphates ... which has been reported to be regulated by RhoA and Rac1 [12]. ... through coupling of surface receptors to a GTP-binding protein ...
  https://www.wikigenes.org/e/chem/e/6857407.html
*  Platelet-neutrophil interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions
Takai Y, Sasaki T, Matozaki T. Small GTP-binding proteins. Physiol Rev. 2001;81(1):153-208. [PubMed] ... Nishizuka Y. Protein kinase C and lipid signaling for sustained cellular responses. FASEB J. 1995;9(7):484-496. [PubMed] ... Phospholipase hydrolyzes membrane PIP2 into IP3 and diacylglycerol, thereby increasing the cytosolic Ca2+ level and activating ... In platelets, studies using mice lacking Rac1, Cdc42, or both demonstrated the importance of each GTPase for throm-bopoiesis, P ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4480154/
*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for DG(16:0/18:2(9Z,12Z)/0:0) (HMDB0007103)
Putative RHO/RAC effector that binds to the GTP-bound forms of RHO and RAC1. It probably binds p21 with a tighter specificity ... PKC is activated by diacylglycerol which in turn phosphorylates a range of cellular proteins. PKC also serves as the receptor ... Hydrolyzes high density lipoproteins (HDL) more efficiently than other lipoproteins. Binds heparin. Gene Name:. LIPG. Uniprot ... Involved in protein binding. Specific function:. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rap1A, Rap1B and Rap2B GTPases. ...
  http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB07103
*  Microtubule - Wikipedia
However, the GTP bound to β-tubulin may be hydrolyzed to GDP shortly after assembly. The assembly properties of GDP-tubulin are ... Dynamic microtubules regulate the levels of key G-proteins such as RhoA and Rac1, which regulate cell contractility and cell ... and there are motor proteins that allow organelles and other cellular components to be carried along a microtubule. This ... Since tubulin adds onto the end of the microtubule in the GTP-bound state, a cap of GTP-bound tubulin is proposed to exist at ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microtubule
*  Reactome | TUBB4B [cytosol]
RAB4A:GTP binds KIF3 and activates KIF3 (Homo sapiens) * GGC-RAB4A:GTP:KIF3:microtubule [cytoplasmic vesicle membrane] (Homo ... Protein folding (Homo sapiens) * Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway (Homo sapiens) * Beta-tubulin:GTP:Cofactor D:alpha- ... RAC1,CDC42:GTP:IQGAP1:CLIP1:microtubule [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * Microtubule [cytosol] (Homo sapiens) * Microtubule ... Cellular responses to external stimuli (Homo sapiens) * * Cellular responses to stress (Homo sapiens) * HSP90 chaperone cycle ...
  https://reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-191702
*  Protein Kinase Cι Is Required for Pancreatic Cancer Cell Transformed Growth and Tumorigenesis | Cancer Research
Rac1-GTP was precipitated from cell extracts with PAK-1 PBD agarose. Immunoblot analysis of precipitates and total cellular ... Atypical protein kinases Cλ and -ζ associate with the GTP-binding protein Cdc42 and mediate stress fiber loss. Mol Cell Biol ... Reversion of Ras- and phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C-mediated transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by a dominant ... Bottom, quantitative densitometric analysis of relative Rac1 activity (active Rac1/total Rac1). Columns, mean (n = 3); bars, ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/70/5/2064
*  C-terminal EH-domain-containing proteins: consensus for a role in endocytic trafficking, EH? | Journal of Cell Science
... although it remains possible that in vivo EHD1 might also be capable of binding and/or hydrolyzing GTP. ... Proteins that have an EH domain can carry out a variety of crucial cellular functions ranging from regulation of the actin ... through Rac1) and actin-rich filopodia (through CDC42) (Hall, 1998). Other EHD proteins, such as intersectin 1, regulate actin ... Nucleotide-binding. All mammalian C-terminal EHD proteins contain a putative P-loop motif, an ATP/GTP-binding site found in Ras ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/118/18/4093
*  KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster)
100769650 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 100755128 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G ... GTP) [EC:4.1.1.32] K01596 E4.1.1.32; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) [EC:4.1.1.32] ... 100760399 Pak4; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 4 100770707 Mmp9; matrix metallopeptidase 9 102466555 Mir615; microRNA 615 ... 100760225 Asns; asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) 100756446 Nit2; nitrilase family member 2 100768176 Gpt2; ...
  http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?cge00001+100774486
*  Rho family of GTPases - Wikipedia
GEFs activate Rho proteins by catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP. GAPs control the ability of the GTPase to hydrolyze GTP ... Bustelo XR, Sauzeau V, Berenjeno IM (2007). "GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Rac family: regulation, effectors and functions in ... Rho/Rac proteins are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions such as cell polarity, vesicular trafficking, the cell ... Three members of the family have been studied in detail: Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA. All G proteins are "molecular switches", and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rho_family_of_GTPases
*  Reactome | GDP [cytosol]
GNAT1-GTP hydrolyses its bound GTP to GDP (Bos taurus) * GNAT1-GDP [photoreceptor disc membrane] (Bos taurus) * GDP [cytosol] ... The high affinity receptor complex binds to G-protein (Bos taurus) * G protein-GDP complex [plasma membrane] (Bos taurus) * G- ... p-VAV family:PIP3 binds RAC1:GDP (Bos taurus) * RAC1:GDP [plasma membrane] (Bos taurus) * GDP [cytosol] ... Cellular responses to external stimuli (Bos taurus) * * Cellular responses to stress (Bos taurus) * HSP90 chaperone cycle for ...
  http://www.reactome.org/content/detail/R-ALL-29420
*  Plus it
B: Rac1 GTP binding activity. Total cellular extracts were isolated, and Rac1 GTP binding activity was determined. C-G: Total ... Ridley A, Paterson HF, Johnston C, Diekmann D, Hall A: The small GTP-binding protein rac regulates growth factor-induced ... Mentlein R, Gallwitz B, Schmidt WE: Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV hydrolyses gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1( ... Rac1 guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding assay.. Total cellular extracts were isolated from CD4+ T-cells and Rac1 GTP binding ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/58/3/641
*  Frontiers | Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders...
... triphosphate hydrolyzing enzymes (GTPases) typically cycle between active GTP-bound and inactive guanosine diphosphate- (GDP) ... Ramakers, G. J. (2000). Rho proteins and the cellular mechanisms of mental retardation. Am. J. Med. Genet. 94, 367-371. doi: ... Rac1, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate; Rheb, Ras homolog enriched in brain; RhoA, ras homolog gene family, member A; ... Ramakers, G. J. (2002). Rho proteins, mental retardation and the cellular basis of cognition. Trends Neurosci. 25, 191-199. doi ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2013.00075/full
*  Novel genes and uses thereof, expression profile of colon, gastric and pancreatic cancer - CTI Salud S.A.
The switch is turned off when the G protein hydrolyzes its own bound GTP, converting it back to GDP. But before that occurs, ... homology to the RCC1 family and it has been reported to bind directly to a nucleotide-free form of Rac1 and act as a Rac1 ... Tailored glycoproteomic methods for the sequencing, mapping and identification of cellular glycoproteins. December, 2008. Wong ... when GTP is bound, and inactive, when GDP is bound. 'Active' in this context usually means that the molecule acts as a signal ...
  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2013/0130354.html