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*  Multiple Roles for Enterococcus faecalis Glycosyltransferases in Biofilm-Associated Antibiotic Resistance, Cell Envelope...
... teichoic acids and cell wall polysaccharides), and proteins (cell wall-anchored and cell wall-associated proteins). ... Gram-positive bacterial cell walls are composed of three major components, namely, a peptidoglycan backbone, anionic polymers ( ... A genome-wide screen for bacterial envelope biogenesis mutants identifies a novel factor involved in cell wall precursor ... by which the helicase-like protein RapA upregulates a multidrug-resistant pump and a putative protein that affects cell wall ...
  https://aac.asm.org/content/59/7/4094?ijkey=42a48cadc002a4ee041b2f0f4359cb439ba5f477&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Plus it
Uptake of animal/insect antimicrobial proteins across bacterial cell walls is also facilitated by binding to cell wall ... bacterial lipopolysaccharides or teichoic acids. This interaction is competed by monovalent cations (Hancock and Scott, 2000). ... Phosphomannans are conjugated to several cell wall proteins and several cell wall mannoproteins could bind to immobilized ... Heterotrimeric G-proteins of a filamentous fungus regulate cell wall composition and susceptibility to a plant PR-5 protein. ...
  http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/131/4/1580
*  Peptidoglycan - the strength and weakness of bacteria | MicrobiologyBytes
The peptidoglycan layer is a unique and essential structural element in the cell wall of most bacteria (Peptidoglycan structure ... Attached to NAM is a side chain generally composed of four amino acids. In the best-studied bacterial cell wall (that of ... "outer wall zone" of higher density is the polymeric peptidoglycan-teichoic acid complex with its attached surface proteins. The ... NAM is only found in the cell walls of bacteria and nowhere else. ...
  https://microbiologybytes.wordpress.com/2008/02/25/peptidoglycan-the-strength-and-weakness-of-bacteria/
*  Teichoic Acids Summary Report | CureHunter
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and ... 05/01/1989 - "Recent studies indicate that antibodies to cell wall antigens, including pneumococcal surface protein A and the ... Glycerol Teichoic Acid; Glycerol Teichoic Acids; Acid, Glycerol Teichoic; Acids, Glycerol Teichoic; Acids, Teichoic ... Teichoic Acids. Subscribe to New Research on Teichoic Acids Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages ...
  http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD013682-Teichoic-Acids.do
*  US Patent # 7,981,659. Bacillus subtilis mutant strain - Patents.com
... a gene involved in D-alanine addition to teichoic acid within cell walls or cell membranes, or a gene involved in biosynthesis ... a protoplast obtained via the lysis of the cell wall is provided as a donor DNA for competent cells of a recipient bacterial ... 2001-503641 A). However, the degrees of improvement in protein productivity of these bacterial strains have been insufficient. ... Such Bacillus subtilis mutant strain is prepared by introducing a gene encoding a target protein so that the protein can be ...
  http://patents.com/us-7981659.html
*  PPT - CELL SHAPE Coccus - sphere - coccus Single Diplococcus - two PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3918020
CELL SHAPE Coccus - sphere - coccus Single Diplococcus - two Clusters of cocci Streptococcus Bacillus- cylinder, rod Spiral ... shape- Rigid spirilla curved rods Flexible: spirochetes TYPICAL BACTERIAL CELL, BINARY FISSION Slideshow... ... CELL WALL. * Gram positive organisms: Peptidoglycan, Teichoic acid. * Gram negative organisms: Peptidoglycan ... Neurotoxin - similar to tetanus toxin; One protein processed to heavy chain (binds peripheral nerve cell; creates pore); Light ...
  https://www.slideserve.com/bailey/cell-shape-coccus-sphere-coccus-single-diplococcus-two
*  BIOL 230 Lab Manual, Lab 6
... cell wall is peptidoglycan. Interwoven in the cell wall of Gram-positive are teichoic acids. Teichoic acids, which extend ... differences in the structure of their cell walls. The bacterial cell wall serves to give the organism its size and shape as ... and proteins (see Figs. 2A and 2B). Only 10% - 20% of the Gram-negative cell wall is peptidoglycan. The phospholipids are ... and Gram-positive cell wall, see the following in your Softchalk Lectures: *The Prokaryotic Cell Wall ...
  http://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab6/lab6.html
*  Chapter 2/4: Bacterial Cell Walls Flashcards by Avi Aronov | Brainscape
Teichoic acids 26 What function do Teichoic acids serve in Gram-positive cell walls? ... What is the name for the space between the plasma membrane and cell wall? ... What protein can cleave the bond between NAM-NAG subunits in the peptidoglycan backbone? ... Chapter 2/4: Bacterial Cell Walls Flashcards Preview MIBO3500 , Chapter 2/4: Bacterial Cell Walls , Flashcards ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/chapter-2-4-bacterial-cell-walls-1716187/packs/3220327
*  meningitis
The cell wall of pneumococci contains special polymers, called teichoic acids that are rich in choline which act as a docking ... the molecules occupy the choline binding sites of the CBPs so that the proteins can no longer bind to the cell walls of the ... 1) Cell wall division.. 2) Release of bacterial toxins.. 3) Adhesion to infected tissues. ... The iagA gene helps GBS invading the great wall of the brain!!Researchers suggest a new therapeutic target to block bacterial ...
  http://micro-writers.egybio.net/blog/?tag=meningitis
*  MICRO WRITERS » Archive for Bacteriology
The cell wall of pneumococci contains special polymers, called teichoic acids that are rich in choline which act as a docking ... the molecules occupy the choline binding sites of the CBPs so that the proteins can no longer bind to the cell walls of the ... 1) Cell wall division.. 2) Release of bacterial toxins.. 3) Adhesion to infected tissues. ... 2- "CsrA suppresses the biofilm state in which bacterial cells tend to be more resistant to antibiotics. OmpF is a porin used ...
  http://micro-writers.egybio.net/blog/?cat=13&paged=2
*  Structure and Dynamics of The Bacterial Cell Wall: a Solid-State NMR Study
Using this technique, different aspects of the bacterial cell wall were investigated, as e.g. protein-peptidoglycan interaction ... dynamics of the different biopolymers involved in the cell wall and metal-ion complexation. ... Unique to the bacterial world, this large polymer network is also the principal target of many antibiotics, and one of the main ... Surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane, it plays a crucial role in allowing cells to withstand osmotic pressure and in defining ...
  http://inac.cea.fr/en/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/ast_visu.php?id_ast=568
*  The Complete Book On Biotechnology Based Bulk Drugs by Npcs Board Of Consultants & Engineers, ISBN: 9788190439879 | NPCS
The Gram positive bacterial cell wall comprises layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acid polymer outside the cell membrane. ... while incorporation into cell walls did not appear to be inhibited. Under the test conditions protein synthesis was shown to ... The presence of D amino acids especially D alanine is characteristics of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. ... It was recognized at an early stage that these antibiotics had as their target the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. As ...
  https://www.niir.org/books/book/complete-book-on-biotechnology-based-bulk-drugs/isbn-9788190439879/zb,,122,a,0,0,a/index.html
*  Bacteria - wikidoc
Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (called ... Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In contrast, Gram- ... synthesise vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin K and biotin, convert milk protein to lactic acid (see Lactobacillus), as well ... Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi, which are made of cellulose and chitin, ...
  https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Bacterium
*  Patente US7615381 - Method and apparatus for detecting estradiol and metabolites thereof using ... - Google Patentes
... proteins, and nucleic acid probes) targeting a variety of analytes (e.g., cells, proteins and nucleic acids). Alternatively, ... lipoteichoic and teichoicacids, and gram-negative endotoxin (e.g.) lipopolysaccharide). Bacterial analytes include, for example ... prions or other pathogens or their cell wall or surface components such as gram-positive peptidoglycans, ... The channel block 142 thus forms a fluid chamber, of which the FPW device 104 comprises one of the interior walls. ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US7615381?hl=es&dq=flatulence
*  Frontiers | Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Regulator SarA Targeted Compound, 2-[(Methylamino)methyl]phenol Inhibits Biofilm and...
Thus, inhibiting the production or blocking SarA protein might influence the down regulation of biofilm and virulence factors. ... Thus, inhibiting the production or blocking SarA protein might influence the down regulation of biofilm and virulence factors. ... a cell to cell communication process. The quorum regulator SarA of S. aureus up regulates the expression of many virulence ... a cell to cell communication process. The quorum regulator SarA of S. aureus up regulates the expression of many virulence ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01290/full
*  Chemistry and Biological Activities of Bacterial Surface Amphiphiles - 1st Edition
Purchase Chemistry and Biological Activities of Bacterial Surface Amphiphiles - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Fatty Acid Esters of Streptococcal Cell Wall Polysaccharides as Amphiphiles. 4. Physical Properties of Bacterial Amphiphiles. ... On the Participation of Lipoteichoic Acid in the Biosynthesis of Wall Teichoic Acids. Glycerophosphoglycolipids Presumptive ... and Animal Cell Membranes. Induction of Murine Lymphocytes and Macrophages by Components of Bacterial Cell Walls and Membranes ...
  https://www.elsevier.com/books/chemistry-and-biological-activities-of-bacterial-surface-amphiphiles/shockman/978-0-12-640380-0
*  Bacteria - Wikipedia
Around the outside of the cell membrane is the cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (called "murein" in ... Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In contrast, Gram- ... bacteria have a multi-component cytoskeleton to control the localisation of proteins and nucleic acids within the cell, and to ... Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi, which are made of cellulose and chitin, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria
*  Cell envelope - Wikipedia
Teichoic acids give the gram-positive cell wall an overall negative charge due to the presence of phosphodiester bonds between ... While all bacterial cell walls (with a few exceptions e.g. intracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma) contain peptidoglycan, ... teichoic acid monomers. Outside the cell wall, many Gram-positive bacteria have an S-layer of "tiled" proteins. The S-layer ... the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. In prokaryotes, the primary function of the cell wall is to ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_envelope
*  Bacterial cell structure - Wikipedia
... the exact function of teichoic acid is debated and not fully understood. A major component of the gram-positive cell wall is ... not all cell walls have the same overall structures. Since the cell wall is required for bacterial survival, but is absent in ... is a cell surface protein layer found in many different bacteria and in some archaea, where it serves as the cell wall. All S- ... The cell envelope is composed of the plasma membrane and cell wall. As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_cell_structure
*  Cell wall - Wikipedia
... which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D-amino acids. Bacterial cell walls are ... and become cross-linked in the cell wall. These proteins are often concentrated in specialized cells and in cell corners. Cell ... Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In contrast, Gram- ... Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (also called ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_wall
*  Gram-positive bacteria - Wikipedia
Specific to Gram-positive bacteria is the presence of teichoic acids in the cell wall. Some of these are lipoteichoic acids, ... Peptidoglycan chains are cross-linked to form rigid cell walls by a bacterial enzyme DD-transpeptidase. A much smaller volume ... Desvaux, M.; Hébraud, M.; Talon, R.; Henderson, I. R. (2009). "Secretion and subcellular localizations of bacterial proteins: A ... This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram-positive_bacteria
*  S-layer - Wikipedia
... the binding occurs to the peptidoglycan and to a secondary cell wall polymer (e.g., teichoic acids). In the absence of SLH ... assembly of the hexagonally and tetragonally arranged subunits of bacterial surface layers and their reattachment to cell walls ... Thus, the S-layer protein can represent up to 15% of the whole protein content of a cell. S-layer proteins are poorly conserved ... Since the first evidence of a macromolecular array on a bacterial cell wall fragment in the 1950s S-layer structure has been ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-layer
*  Environmental impact of silver nanoparticles - Wikipedia
Approximately half of the peptidoglycan wall is composed of teichoic acids linked by phosphodiester bonds, which results in an ... The positively charged silver ion can also attach to the negatively charged cell walls of bacteria, leading to deactivation of ... leading to cell death. Silver nanoparticles that are larger than the openings of membrane channel proteins can easily clog ... Silver nanoparticles are experimentally shown to inhibit autotrophic nitrifying bacterial growth (86±3%) more than Ag+ ions (42 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_silver_nanoparticles
*  Yeast arrays, methods of making such arrays, and methods of analyzing such arrays - Patent application
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Cell Role BNI1 BEM1 Cell Polarity BEM2 Cell Polarity BEM4 Cell Polarity BUD6† Cell Polarity SLA1† Cell Polarity CLA4 Cell Polarity ELM1† Cell Polarity GIN4 Cell Polarity NAP1† Cell Polarity SWE1† Cell Polarity BNR1 Cytokinesis CYK3† Cytokinesis SHS1 Cytokinesis BCK1 Cell Wall Maintenance BNI4† Cell Wall Maintenance FAB1 Cell Wall Maintenance CHS3 Cell Wall Maintenance SKT5† Cell ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20080287317
*  MeasuringIn VitroExtensibility of Growing Plant Cell Walls | SpringerLink
This article summarizes the theory and practical aspects of measuring cell wall properties by four different extensometer techniques and how the results of these methods relate to the concept and ideal measurement of cell wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. These in vivo techniques are particularly useful for studies of the molecular basis of cell wall extension. Measurements of breaking strength, elastic compliance, and plastic compliance may be informative about changes in cell wall structure, whereas measurements of wall stress relaxation and creep are sensitive to both changes in wall structure and wall-loosening processes, such as those mediated by expansins and some lytic enzymes. A combination of methods ...
  https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-61779-008-9_20
*  Frontiers | Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation |...
Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2013.00383/full
*  Functional characterisation of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius cell wall-associated proteins
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the major cause of the common canine skin disease, pyoderma, and is a zoonotic pathogen of humans. Multidrug resistant strains of S. pseudintermedius have emerged and are spreading globally leading to decreased therapeutic success. The development of novel therapeutics is hindered by the lack of understanding of critical host-pathogen interactions mediating S. pseudintermedius colonization and pathogenesis. For the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, interactions with host fibrinogen play a fundamental role in pathogenesis. The aim of the current study was to genetically and functionally characterise 2 cell wall-associated proteins of S. pseudintermedius, SpsD and SpsL, which mediate binding to multiple host extracellular matrix proteins including fibrinogen and fibronectin. DNA sequencing of the A- (ligand binding) domains of spsD and spsL genes ...
  https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/25715
*  The cell wall ultrastructure of wood fibres : effects of the chemical pulp fibre line
Knowledge of the ultrastructural arrangement within wood fibres is important for understanding the mechanical properties of the fibres themselves, as well as for understanding and controlling the. ultrastructural changes that occur during pulp processing.. The object of this work was to explore the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in studies of the cell wall ultrastructure and to see how this structure is affected in the kraft pulp fibre line. This is done in order to eventually improve fibre properties for use in paper and other applications, such as composites. On the ultrastructural level of native spruce fibres (tracheids), it was found that cellulose fibril aggregates exist as agglomerates of individual cellulose microfibrils (with a width. of 4 nm). Using AFM in combination with image processing, the average side length (assuming a square cross-section) for a ...
  http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:7109
*  Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains (Journal Article) | DOE...
Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A 2pm (A 2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite ...
  https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1233189-insights-substrate-specificity-nlpc-p60-cell-wall-hydrolases-containing-bacterial-sh3-domains
*  § 340.2
b)Exemptions. (1) A limited permit for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in Escherichia coli genotype K-12 (strain K-12 and its derivatives), sterile strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or asporogenic strains of Bacillus subtilis, provided that all the following conditions are met: (i) The microorganisms are shipped in a container that meets the requirements of § 340.8(b)(3); (ii) The cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does not contain other conjugation proficient plasmids or generalized transducing phages; (iii) The cloned material does not include the complete infectious genome of a known plant pest; (iv) The cloned genes are not carried on an expression vector if the cloned genes code for: (A) A toxin to plants or plant products, or a toxin to organisms beneficial to plants; or (B) Other factors directly involved in eliciting plant disease (i.e., cell ...
  https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/7/340.2
*  Chapter 43. Beta-Lactam Antibiotics & Other Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors | Katzung & Trevor's Pharmacology: Examination &...
bacitracin also inhibit cell wall synthesis but are not nearly as important as the beta-lactam drugs. The selective toxicity of the drugs discussed in this chapter is mainly due to specific actions on the synthesis of a cellular structure that is unique to the microorganism. More than 50 antibiotics that act as cell wall synthesis inhibitors are currently available, with individual spectra of activity that afford a wide range of clinical applications. ...
  http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=514§ionid=41817562
*  Proteomes | Free Full-Text | Plant Cell Wall Proteins: A Large Body of Data, but What about Runaways? | HTML
Plant cell wall proteomics has been a very dynamic field of research for about fifteen years. A full range of strategies has been proposed to increase the number of identified proteins and to characterize their post-translational modifications. The protocols are still improving to enlarge the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Comparisons between these proteomes have been done based on various working strategies or different physiological stages. In this review, two points are highlighted. The first point is related to data analysis with an overview of the cell wall proteomes already described. A large body of data is now available with the description of cell wall proteomes of seventeen plant species. CWP contents exhibit particularities in relation to the major differences in ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2227-7382/2/2/224/htm
*  Animals Do Not Have Cell Walls : 8 Picture Animals Do Not Have Cell Walls. Animals Do Not Have Cell ...
Amazing pictures of 8 Picture Animals Do Not Have Cell Walls is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 719 x 588 px and the image size only 326 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: animals do not have cell walls, can animals have cell walls, do animal eukaryotic cells have cell walls, do animal like protists have cell walls, do animals and humans have cell walls, .. ...
  http://pulpbits.net/tag/animals-do-not-have-cell-walls/
*  Does Animal Has Cell Wall : 8 Picture Animals Do Not Have Cell Walls. Does Animal Has Cell Wall.
Amazing pictures of 8 Picture Animals Do Not Have Cell Walls is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 719 x 588 px and the image size only 326 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: animals do not have cell walls, can animals have cell walls, do animal eukaryotic cells have cell walls, do animal like protists have cell walls, do animals and humans have cell walls, .. ...
  http://pulpbits.net/tag/does-animal-has-cell-wall/
*  In vitro Detection of Neutrophil Traps and Post-attack Cell Wall Changes in Candida Hyphae -BIO-PROTOCOL
In this protocol we describe how to visualize neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and fungal cell wall changes in the context of the coculture of mouse neutrophils with fungal hyphae of Candida albicans. These protocols are easily adjusted to test a wide array of hypotheses related to the impact of immune cells on fungi and the cell wall, making them promising tools for exploring host-pathogen interactions during fungal infection.
  http://www.bio-protocol.org/cn/e2213
*  Diaphragm Wall Construction Techniques
... Diaphragm wall construction is used extensively in Europe and a special plant has been developed for excavating the trench using fluid mud to support the walls. Various types of grab reverse-circulation excavating machines are described and illustrated and specifications are quoted for the quality of the slurry. The normal procedure is to backfill the trench with tremie concrete around a reinforcement cage. Alternatively, precast concrete panels may be used or cement may be added to the bentonite for hydraulic cut offs.
  http://cedb.asce.org/CEDBsearch/record.jsp?dockey=0021607
*  Glycosyltransferases in Plant Cell Wall Synthesis - eLS - Perrin - Wiley Online Library
Through their influence on plant cell wall polysaccharide structure, plant cell wall glycosyltransferases influence growth, development, cell division and environmental responses as well as plant-derived food products, biofuels, textiles, paper and timber. Plant cell wall synthesizing enzymes can be processive (glycan synthases) or nonprocessive, and are integral membrane proteins with single or multiple transmembrane domains. Plant cell wall glycosyltransferases can be challenging to study biochemically, as they tend to be labile, present in multimeric complexes and encoded by large gene families whose members may have overlapping function. Candidate proteins may be identified by homology, but their function must be confirmed with ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470015902.a0020102/abstract
*  4.3.2 Cell wall expansion | Plants in Action
(figure) (figure) Figure 4.18 High resolution scanning electron micrograph of the primary cell wall of onion (Allium cepa L.). The root has been saponin treated then freeze-fractured to reveal the inner face of a cell wall.
  http://plantsinaction.science.uq.edu.au/edition1/?q=content/4-3-2-cell-wall-expansion
*  Cell Walls of Crown-Gall Tumors and Embryonic Plant Tissues Lack Agrobacterium Adherence Sites | Science
Crown-gall tumor initiation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is inhibited by cell walls from normal dicotyledonous plants but not by cell walls from crown-gall tumors apparently because of bacterial adherence or nonadherence, respectively, to the different cell walls. Cell walls from normal and tumor tissues in culture also show this difference, indicating that the two types of tissue stably maintain this difference under these conditions. Habituated tissue cultures, which resemble crown-gall tumor cultures, however, form cell walls that are inhibitory like those of the normal cultures from which they are derived. Monocotyledonous plants do not act as hosts for Agrobacterium and bacteria-specific inhibition is not shown by ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/199/4333/1075
*  Cell Wall Inhibitors, Part 2
Discusses all of the non-penicillin beta-lactam antibiotics, including cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, and non-beta-lactam cell wall inhibitors, including vancomycin, daptomycin, and bacitracin. These drugs are used to treat a broad spectrum ...
  http://www.doctorsintraining.com/shop/cell-wall-inhibitors-part-2/
*  New approach to unlock the genetic potential of plant cell wall | The Informant
Recent developments in genome sequencing technology have provided detailed information about the genetics of crop plants, but what has been lacking to date is the technology needed to collect comparable cell wall data to locate, assign and signpost these important genes for plant breeders.. Using a microarray, sometimes called a lab-on-a-chip, the team were able analyze thousands of plant cell samples simultaneously and harvest a large amount of data relevant to the arrangement of the cell.. They then linked this information back to particular changes in genetic information between the different varieties of plant cell, using a technique called association mapping.. Dr Ian Bancroft from the University of York's Department of Biology said: "Plant cell walls are made up of sugars, which can be arranged into a ...
  http://theinformant.cl/new-approach-to-unlock-the-genetic-potential-of-plant-cell-wall/
*  AllAboutFeed - Application of yeast cell wall in swine
The addition of yeast cell wall in feed has the capacity to improve liver function and increase antibody titer of pigs after injection of vaccine. Piglets of the control group drenched normal saline from birth to 28 days old, piglets in treatment 1 to 3 were fed with different levels (0.1 g, 0.2 g, 0.3 g) of yeast cell wall instead of normal saline respectively; from weaning to 42 days, the control group fed with basal diet, piglets of group 1 and 3 fed the same diet supplemented with 500 g/t, 1,000 g/t, 2,000 g/t of yeast cell wall separately, which was conducted by yeast technology research and promotion centre in China. Liver -function and antibody titre in the piglets are presented in Figures 2 and 3; the results suggested that liver function and the antibody level of piglets fed with yeast cell wall ...
  http://www.allaboutfeed.net/Special-focus/Yeast-Special/Application-of-yeast-cell-wall-in-swine/
*  Direct visualization of cross-links in the primary plant cell wall | Journal of Cell Science
We have investigated the structure of the onion primary cell wall at high resolution, using shadowed replicas of rapidly frozen deep-etched specimens.. We have sequentially extracted polymers from the wall and have visualized both these and the remaining structures at each extraction step.. By viewing the structures in as near their native state as possible, an accurate three-dimensional picture of wall construction has been assembled, facilitated by viewing stereo pairs of micrographs. Our observations show that the physical links between cellulose microfibrils that we observe in the intact wall are generally shorter (20-40 nm) than the isolated molecules we extract (30-,700nm), suggesting that lateral interactions must occur between linking polymers and cellulose in muro. These cross-links are ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/96/2/323
*  Sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Analysis of Plant Cell Wall Glycan Connections -BIO-PROTOCOL
Sandwich ELISA is a highly sensitive method that can be used to determine if two epitopes are part of the same macromolecule or supramolecular complex. In the case of plant cell wall glycans, it can reveal the existence of inter-polymers linkages, leading to better understanding of overall cell wall architectures. This development of a conventional sandwich ELISA protocol uses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), a small protein domain found in some carbohydrate catalysing or activating enzymes, and rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which can be combined in the same ELISA plate without risk of cross reaction; the secondary anti-rat HRP antibody being only able to bind to the rat mAb and not the CBM. This protocol was developed and modified in the Prof. J. Paul Knox lab at the University of Leeds.
  https://bio-protocol.org/e1106
*  Sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Analysis of Plant Cell Wall Glycan Connections -BIO-PROTOCOL
Sandwich ELISA is a highly sensitive method that can be used to determine if two epitopes are part of the same macromolecule or supramolecular complex. In the case of plant cell wall glycans, it can reveal the existence of inter-polymers linkages, leading to better understanding of overall cell wall architectures. This development of a conventional sandwich ELISA protocol uses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), a small protein domain found in some carbohydrate catalysing or activating enzymes, and rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which can be combined in the same ELISA plate without risk of cross reaction; the secondary anti-rat HRP antibody being only able to bind to the rat mAb and not the CBM. This protocol was developed and modified in the Prof. J. Paul Knox lab at the University of Leeds.
  http://www.bio-protocol.org/e1106
*  Arabidopsis] Postdoctoral position: Genetic modification of secondary cell wall properties in Populus
The Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC) is an internationally renowned center in experimental plant biology and forest biotechnology. UPSC hosts four national centers of excellence and is leading the Swedish conifer genome sequencing project. More than 180 scientists from 35 countries organized in 30 groups are working at the UPSC. Postdoctoral position: Genetic modification of secondary cell wall properties in Populus The postdoctoral position is within the strategic research effort Bio4Energy, www.bio4energy.se, which is devoted to bioenergy and biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass. The work will be carried out at UPSC, where research on cell walls and wood biology is a particularly active area covering aspects of biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology and wood chemistry. This offers the successful ...
  http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/arab-gen/2011-May/012599.html
*  Cell wall associated kinase - Wikipedia
Cell wall associated kinases (WAKs) are receptor-like protein kinases, found in plant cell walls, that have the capability to transmit signals directly by their cytoplasmic kinase domains. They usually link the plasma membrane to the protein and carbohydrate that composed the cell wall. The receptor-like proteins contain a cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase and a less conserved region; bound to the cell wall and contains a series of epidermal growth factor repeats. WAKs are found in various plants and crops like rice, and maize. In plants genome like Arabidopsis, WAKs, are encoded by five highly similar genes clustered in a 30-kb locus, among them WAK1 & WAK2 are highly distributed. They are primarily involved in regulating plant cell wall ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_wall_associated_kinase
*  Effect of a small molecule Lipid II binder on bacterial cell wall stre | IDR
Effect of a small molecule Lipid II binder on bacterial cell wall stress Jakob Malin,1,2 Amol C Shetty,3 Sean Daugherty,3 Erik PH de Leeuw,1,2 1Institute of Human Virology, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: We have recently identified small molecule compounds that act as binders of Lipid II, an essential precursor of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Lipid II comprised a hydrophilic head group that includes a peptidoglycan subunit composed of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) coupled to a short pentapeptide moiety. This headgroup is coupled to a long bactoprenol chain via a pyrophosphate group. Here, we report on the cell wall activity relationship of ...
  https://www.dovepress.com/effect-of-a-small-molecule-lipid-ii-binder-on-bacterial-cell-wall-stre-peer-reviewed-article-IDR