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*  Chemistry and Biological Activities of Bacterial Surface Amphiphiles - 1st Edition
... and Animal Cell Membranes. Induction of Murine Lymphocytes and Macrophages by Components of Bacterial Cell Walls and Membranes ... Biosynthesis of D-Alanyl-Lipoteichoic Acid in Lactobacillus casei. Biosynthesis of the Membrane Lipoteichoic Acid of ... Physical Principles and Modes of Interaction of Membrane Lipids and Amphiphiles. Determination of Molecular Structure of ... Chemistry and Biology of Lipopolysaccharides and Lipid A. 2. Extraction and Purification of Amphiphiles. A Model System for the ...
  https://www.elsevier.com/books/chemistry-and-biological-activities-of-bacterial-surface-amphiphiles/shockman/978-0-12-640380-0
*  Sodium dichloroisocyanurate delays ripening and senescence of banana fruit during storage | SpringerLink
Additionally, inositol could be a precursor for the biosynthesis of plant cell walls [50]. ... oleic acid and octadecanoic acid are common fatty acids in plant membrane lipids while the contents of unsaturated fatty acids ... Lim GH, Singhal R, Kachroo A, Kachroo P (2017) Fatty acid- and lipid-mediated signaling in plant defense. Annu Rev Phytopathol ... Cell wall modification is related to fruit softening. Polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinesterase (PEC) are the major enzymes ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13065-018-0503-5
*  Essential Bacillus subtilis genes | PNAS
... all required for membrane and cell wall formation. Membrane lipids, phospholipids, and glycolipids are synthesized from fatty ... are required for synthesis of the lipid-linked disaccharide-pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor (Fig. 8, which is published as ... There is only one essential gene involved in the biosynthesis of CoA, ytaG, that is required for the last step in the pathway ( ... Synthesis of peptidoglycan, the main component of the cell wall, comprises two stages, the synthesis of the precursor molecules ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/100/8/4678
*  Hypoxia-elicited impairment of cell wall integrity, glycosylation precursor synthesis, and growth in scaled-up high-cell...
We tested the cell wall integrity by probing the cell wall sensitivity to Zymolyase. Also exometabolomics data showed changes ... Here we hypothesize that hypoxia weakens the yeast cell wall during the scale up, leading to changes in cell permeability, and/ ... This impairment in glycosylation would be expected to affect cell wall integrity. Although cell viability from samples obtained ... in supply of precursors for the glycosylation pathway. The results show a more sensitive cell wall later in the production ...
  https://microbialcellfactories.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12934-016-0542-3
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Roisin M. Owens (Translated to Arabic)
In preliminary studies on the lipid processing enzymes associated with the bacterial cell wall, a kinase activity was noted ... Many of these lipids are derived from phosphatidylinositol (PI) that is differentially processed to give rise to ... Phospholipids of pathogenic bacteria are known to play roles both as membrane components and as factors that modulate the ... M. Tuberculosis Rv2252 Encodes a Diacylglycerol Kinase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Phosphatidylinositol Mannosides (PIMs) ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Roisin+M._Owens?language=Arabic
*  cholesterol
... which both alters membrane fluidity[17] and maintains membrane integrity so that animal cells do not need to build cell walls ( ... In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid ... William W C (2003). Lipid analysis: isolation, separation, identification, and structural analysis of lipids. Ayr, Scotland: ... which can be recognized and bound by specific receptors on cell membranes, directing their lipid payload into specific cells ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholesterol
*  The ISME Journal - Bacterial growth at -15[thinsp][deg]C; molecular insights from the permafrost bacterium Planococcus...
Active division at −15 °C would require that P. halocryophilus Or1 have cold-active cell wall, membrane, and envelope-component ... Figure 8, group M). This increase in cell wall biosynthesis transcripts in P. halocryophilus Or1 is similar to the observations ... Lipid synthesis and cell wall modifications. Although peptidoglycan synthesized-related genes were upregulated in response to − ... It appears that the large turnover in membrane lipids in P. halocryophilus Or1 observed in vivo (described above; Table 1) may ...
  http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/v7/n6/full/ismej20138a.html?error=cookies_not_supported&code=2863f607-4ad4-4d86-aa61-6e635d7a713d
*  Natural product - Wikipedia
These include cell membranes (e.g. phospholipids), cell walls (e.g. peptidoglycan, chitin), and cytoskeletons (proteins). ... Fatty acid are essential components of lipid bilayers that form cell membranes as well as fat energy stores in animals. Natural ... In animals, the three carbon precursors lactate or glycerol can be converted into pyruvate which in turn can be converted into ... Primary metabolites include carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids which are the basic building blocks of life. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_product
*  Microscopic characterization of the bacterial cell envelope of Planococcus halocryophilus Or1 during subzero growth at −15 °C |...
Sohlenkamp C, López-Lara IM, Geiger O (2003) Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in bacteria. Prog Lipid Res 42:115-162CrossRef ... Russell NJ, Fukunaga N (1990) A comparison of thermal adaptation of membrane lipids in psychrophilic and thermophilic bacteria ... Park JT, Uehara T (2008) How bacteria consume their own exoskeletons turnover and recycling of cell wall peptidoglycan. ... Rivadeneyra MA, Algarra AM, Sánchez-Román M, Sánchez-Navas A, Martín-Ramos JD (2010) Amorphous Ca-phosphate precursors for Ca- ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00300-015-1826-5
*  De novo assembly of Phlomis purpurea after challenging with Phytophthora cinnamomi | BMC Genomics | Full Text
Genes involved in cutin biosynthesis and in exodermal Casparian strips formation were up-regulated. The de novo assembly of ... Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2014; ... transporter localized at the plasma membrane of epidermal cells of Arabidopsis suggests that ABCG32 exports cutin precursors ... Molina I, Kosma D. Role of HXXXD-motif/BAHD acyltransferases in the biosynthesis of extracellular lipids. Plant Cell Rep. 2015; ...
  https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-017-4042-6
*  Iron-sulfur world hypothesis - Wikipedia
Further lipid evolution leads to self-supporting lipid membranes and closed cells. The earliest closed cells are pre-cells ( ... This postulated late acquisition of the biosynthesis of lipids as directed by genetically encoded peptides is consistent with ... of these precursor components within a cell membrane would gradually increase metabolic complexity within the cell membrane, ... These structures consist of microscale caverns that are coated by thin membraneous metal sulfide walls. Therefore, these ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron%E2%80%93sulfur_world_hypothesis
*  Deletion of the glycosyltransferase bgsB of Enterococcus faecalisleads to a complete loss of glycolipids from the cell membrane...
Analysis of cell membrane extracts revealed a complete loss of glycolipids from the cell membrane. Cell walls of 12030ΔbgsB ... Its inactivation profoundly affects cell membrane composition and has secondary effects on LTA biosynthesis. Both cell-membrane ... 12030ΔbgsB was not altered in growth, cell morphology, or autolysis. However, attachment to Caco-2 cells was reduced to 50% of ... Deletion of the glycosyltransferase bgsA in Enterococcus faecalis leads to loss of diglucosyldiacylglycerol from the cell ...
  https://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-11-67
*  glycosylphosphatidylinositols
J Cell Biol 142:69-84. 1998. ..These findings constrain current models for lipid rafts and the membrane organization of GPI- ... Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glucanosyltransferases play an active role in the biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall. I ... Probing Trypanosoma brucei glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis using novel precursor-analogues. Michael D Urbaniak. ... a cell wall and indicate that a cell wall salvage mechanism is activated when Candida cells are confronted with cell wall ...
  http://www.labome.org/topics/chemicals/lipids/glycolipids/glycosylphosphatidylinositols-13367.html
*  Acidophiles in acid mine drainage - Wikipedia
Though lacking a cell wall, F. acidiphilum cell membranes contain caldarchaetidylglycerol tetraether lipids, which effectively ... "Characterization of the precursor of tetraether lipid biosynthesis in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum ... The differing cell membranes in archaea compared to the bacteria may hold part of the explanation; ether lipids that link ... Acidophiles harness the strong proton motive force (PMF), caused by the pH gradient across their cell membrane, for ATP ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidophiles_in_acid_mine_drainage
*  GENES ASSOCIATED TO SUCROSE CONTENT - Patent application
... in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants. They play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to ... In higher plants, the membrane lipids contain a high proportion of trienoic fatty acids (TAs). It has been suggested that these ... SCRUSB1062E12.g Lipid metabolism Putative triacylglycerol lipase 2.38531 SCBGLR1096C08.g Protein kinases Cell cycle-related ... biosynthesis and six of them code for jasmonate biosynthesis genes. Two ESTs that were up regulated in high sugar content (HS) ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100162442
*  Angomonas deanei - Wikipedia
Phosphatidylinositol, a membrane lipid required for cell-cell interaction, in the bacteria is also synthesised by the protozoan ... which shows reduced or absence of rigid cell wall. The cell membrane of the protozoan host contains an 18-domain β-barrel porin ... In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and ... Palmié-Peixoto IV, Rocha MR, Urbina JA, de Souza W, Einicker-Lamas M, Motta MC (2006). "Effects of sterol biosynthesis ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angomonas_deanei
*  Zygomycota - Wikipedia
This structure is similar to a conidium, which has two, fused cell walls, an inner spore wall and an outer sporangium wall. ... These lipids are clustered in cellular structures, complex of lipid globules, about 0.1mm below the very tip of the apex. (Fig ... and that activates receptors located in the cell membrane. These receptors in turn trigger a chain of events which finally ... Recognition of compatible sexual partners in zygomycota is based on a cooperative biosynthesis pathway of trisporic acid. Early ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zygomycota
*  High-value biomass from microalgae production platforms: strategies and progress based on carbon metabolism and energy...
... and energy fluxes is emerging as the potential strategy to increase efficiency of carbon fixation and product biosynthesis. To ... glycolysis pathway and processes of product biosynthesis in microalgae, with focus on the increased photosynthetic and carbon ... the cell division slows down and cell wall becomes hard and thick. An increase of lipid content in Scenedesmus abundans is ... However, since microalgae are prone to provide energy and precursors for cell division through catabolic processes, the lipid ...
  https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13068-018-1225-6
*  ASMscience | Genetics of Capsular Pol
The compositional and architectural complexity of the mycobacterial cell envelope is probably the most distinctive feature of ... Biosynthesis of the linkage region of the mycobacterial cell wall. J Biol Chem 271: 7820- 7828.[PubMed][CrossRef]. ... Disclosure of the mycobacterial outer membrane: cryo-electron tomography and vitreous sections reveal the lipid bilayer ... Lipids: complex lipids, their chemistry, biosynthesis and roles, p 95-184. In Ratledge C,, Stanford J (ed), The Biology of ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555818845.chap28
*  Moenomycin family antibiotics - Wikipedia
... inhibiting growth of the cell wall. Compromise of the wall results in leakage of cell contents, and ultimately cell death. The ... Early work on the biosynthesis of the moenomycins focused on the 25-carbon lipid tail derived from moenocinol; the tail was of ... Feeding studies revealed the moenocinol lipid tail originates from a 15-carbon farnesyl precursor and a 10-carbon geranyl ... a detergent-like property that allows them to become incorporated into the cytoplasmic membrane of the target bacterial cell. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moenomycin_family_antibiotics
*  Red blood cell - Wikipedia
The other half are lipids, namely phospholipids and cholesterol. The red blood cell cell membrane comprises a typical lipid ... which break down the pathogen's cell wall and membrane, killing it. As a result of not containing mitochondria, red blood cells ... As red blood cells contain no nucleus, protein biosynthesis is currently assumed to be absent in these cells. Because of the ... which are normal erythropoietic precursors to mature red blood cells, and megaloblasts, which are abnormally large precursors ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_blood_cell
*  Fatty acid metabolism - Wikipedia
... the cell wall, and the membranes that enclose all the organelles within the cells, such as the nucleus, the mitochondria, ... Stryer, Lubert (1995). "Biosynthesis of membrane lipids and steroids.". In: Biochemistry (Fourth ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman ... Occurrence and Biosynthesis." Lipid Library - Lipid Chemistry, Biology, Technology and Analysis. Web. 30 Apr. 2011. <"Archived ... Feb 2013). "Heptanoate as a neural fuel: energetic and neurotransmitter precursors in normal and glucose transporter I- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acid_metabolism
*  Blakeslea trispora - Wikipedia
... a structural component of the zygospore cell wall. It is consequential to regulate this feedback-type synthesis with ... Carotenoids are precursors of many apocarotenoids that contain very important sex-specific precursors, trisporic acid (TSA) for ... Lycopene is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of all dicyclic carotenoids including β-carotene. Lycopene is one of the most ... However, dysregulation of ROS can lead to DNA damaging, inactivation of enzymes and proteins, disruption of membranes. This ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blakeslea_trispora
*  Insulin - Wikipedia
Steiner DF, Oyer PE (February 1967). "The biosynthesis of insulin and a probable precursor of insulin by a human islet cell ... The cascade that leads to the insertion of GLUT4 glucose transporters into the cell membranes of muscle and fat cells, and to ... Decreased lipolysis - forces reduction in conversion of fat cell lipid stores into blood fatty acids and glycerol; decrease of ... Marcial GG (13 August 2007). "From SemBiosys, A New Kind Of Insulin". Inside Wall Street. Archived from the original on 17 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin
*  Reactive oxygen species - Wikipedia
... in cell membranes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria convert energy for the cell into a usable ... damage of DNA or RNA oxidations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids (lipid peroxidation) oxidations of amino acids in ... to strengthen the cell wall. This prevents the spread of the pathogen to other parts of the plant, essentially forming a net ... to provide reducing power in many enzymatic reactions for macromolecular biosynthesis and at the same time rescuing the cells ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species