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*  endocrine glands? - The Student Room
... rate of cells as they enter cells and go to the nucleus where they activate transcription factors which turn on the genes which ... Sertoli cells found in seminiferous tubules in the testes where they stimulate these Sertoli cells to secrete androgen-binding ... the production of sperm). Luteinizing hormone (LH) or sometimes called interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH) in males is ... and goes to Leydig cells found in the interstitial space between seminiferous tubules where it stimulates the Leydig cells to ...
  https://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/showthread.php?t=3889097
*  Cell proliferation, tumorogenicity, and apoptosis sub-cluster 2
Leydig cells are the primary source of androgens in the mammalian testis. It is established that the luteinizing hormone (LH) ... Chloride efflux in unstimulated Leydig cells causes autonomous cAMP production and stimulatory/inhibitory ... ... At the time of sexual differentiation, SOX9 moves into the nucleus of male pre-Sertoli cells whereas in female, ... ... Their action is mediated through the androgen receptor (AR). Ligand-bound AR interacts with coactivator proteins that mediate ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/2/Cell-proliferation-tumorogenicity-and-apoptosis/sub-2-p9.html
*  The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases
... the DHT-AR complex translocates from cytoplasm to nucleus and activates the transcription of certain genes (the androgen ... T is synthesized by the Leydig cells of the testes under the control of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland. In male ... Testosterone (T) is the most abundant androgen in serum. Approximately 97% of T is bound to albumen and sex-hormone binding ... CaP cell lines CWR-22 and CWR-22R, and clinical human samples of androgen-stimulated benign prostate (AS-BP), androgen- ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2012/530121/
*  Role of Orphan Nuclear Receptor DAX-1/NR0B1 in Development, Physiology, and Disease
... of the genes regulated by EWS/FLI1 in Ewing tumor cells is sensitive to DAX-1 knockdown. Genes involved in cell cycle control, ... Repression of testosterone production by fetal Leydig cells. Considering its negative effect on steroidogenesis [21, 31, 32], ... model for gene regulation in mouse ES cells, with promoters bound by multiple factors being active in pluripotent cells and ... human adrenocortical H295R and the mouse Leydig MA-10 cells). In the nucleus, DAX-1 is preferentially associated with ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ab/2014/582749/
*  Chronic crude garlic-feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: mechanisms of action | Reproductive Biology and...
The germ cell death process induced by As might be related to a decrease in testosterone production because of the reduced ... In summary, we showed that feeding with crude garlic inhibited Leydig steroidogenic enzyme expression and Sertoli cell markers ... These alterations might induce apoptosis in testicular germ cells. ... This cell death process was characterized by increased levels of active CASP3 but not CASP6. Expression of the caspase ...
  https://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7827-7-65
*  Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor - Wikipedia
DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), which results in the ... Dufau ML, Cigorraga S, Baukal AJ, Sorrell S, Bator JM, Neubauer JF, Catt KJ (Dec 1979). "Androgen biosynthesis in Leydig cells ... In the male the LHCGR has been identified on the Leydig cells that are critical for testosterone production, and support ... close to the FSH receptor gene. It consists of 70 kbp (versus 54 kpb for the FSHR). The gene is similar to the gene for the FSH ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luteinizing_hormone/choriogonadotropin_receptor
*  Vpt 311 General and Systemic Veterinary Pharamacology Tanuvas Lect Notes | Pharmacology | Cell Membrane
LH binds to leydig cells or interstitial cells located in the connective tissue stroma of the testis and stimulate androgen ... It is done by insertion of specific genes (therapeutic genes) exogenously into the animal cells. It involves replacing the ... FSH is responsible mainly for growth of the follicle by binding to granulosa cells and stimulating estradiol production. • LH ... surrounds single cells and nuclei. Complex barriers such as the intestinal epithelia and the skin are composed of multiples of ...
  https://www.scribd.com/doc/105615542/Vpt-311-General-and-Systemic-Veterinary-Pharamacology-Tanuvas-Lect-Notes
*  MCAT - Biology Flashcards by Caitlin Rodeghier | Brainscape
5. Blood cell production. 6. Energy storage in the form of adipose cells in bone marrow. Contains four types of cells ... leydig cells) in interstitium between the tubules to release testosterone.. Stimulates (theca cells) to secrete androgen which ... Portions of the gene that exit the nucleus to be translated (expressed) into proteins. May be spliced together in different ... Insulin binds to membrane receptor -> cascade of rxns inside cell.. -cells of body (not neurons) become highly permeable to ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/mcat-biology-422004/packs/486133
*  Spermatogenesis - Wikipedia
FSH stimulates both the production of androgen binding protein (ABP) by Sertoli cells, and the formation of the blood-testis ... Testosterone is produced by interstitial cells, also known as Leydig cells, which reside adjacent to the seminiferous tubules. ... Each cell division from a spermatogonium to a spermatid is incomplete; the cells remain connected to one another by bridges of ... The Golgi apparatus surrounds the now condensed nucleus, becoming the acrosome. Maturation then takes place under the influence ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spermatogenesis
*  DANGER! Do NOT Swallow This Hormone Disruptor : 2012
Isoflavones have the capacity to act directly as mitogens in Leydig cells, inducing Leydig cell division. Perinatal exposures ... 2010, Soy genistein and daidzein have the capacity to bind estrogen receptors and affect gene expression. Increasing use of soy ... Genistein and daidzein suppress glucocorticoid and stimulate androgen production. Phytoestrogens influence a variety of ... It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces cell death in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in rat brain. There is ...
  http://nihtoxictruth.blogspot.com/2012/
*  CYP17A1 - Wikipedia
... the Leydig cells of the testes, the thecal cells of the ovaries, and, more recently, in luteinized granulosa cells in ovarian ... blocks the biosynthesis of androgens by inhibiting the CYP17A1 enzyme. Abiraterone acetate binds in the active site of the ... The CYP17A1 gene resides on chromosome 10 at the band 10q24.3 and contains 8 exons. The cDNA of this gene spans a length of ... In humans the production of testosterone via pregnenolone to17-OHPreg and DHEA by the CYP17A1 requires POR. Human P450c17 is ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CYP17A1
*  A Guide To Testosterone: Get The Edge Through Diet And Supplementation
What does that mean from a scientific perspective? It activates transcription of specific genes in a muscle cell's nucleus and ... Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone, with the largest amounts produced in the Leydig cells of the testes. It is also ... Albumin-bound testosterone was once believed to be an inactive form of testosterone, much like testosterone bound to SHBG. But ... Schatzl, G., Madersbacher, S., Temml, C., Krenn-Schinkel, K., Nader, A., Sregi, G., ... & Marberger, M. (2003). Serum androgen ...
  https://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/guide-to-testosterone-get-edge-through-diet-supplementation.html
*  Reproductive Flashcards by Tali M | Brainscape
Where on cell are estrogen receptors found? -->receptors are in nucleus; translocate to nucleus when bound by ligand (cytosolic ... Normal testosterone (b/c Leydig cells are unaffected by temperature; even though they're in the testes). -Decreased inhibin (b/ ... E6 gene inhibits p53 suppressor gene. *HPV 18:. -E7 gene inhibits Rb suppressor gene ... secrete ABP (Androgen-Binding Protein). -produce anti-mullerian hormone (mullerian-inhibiting factor) -form blood-testis ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/reproductive-38839/packs/150329
*  Androgen Receptor as a Driver of Therapeutic Resistance in Advanced Prostate Cancer
The androgen-AR complex homodimerizes, translocates to the nucleus to bind androgen response elements, and recruits co- ... Prostate glandular epithelial cells depend on androgens to stimulate androgen-dependent cell processes necessary for their ... tumor suppressor gene inactivation, apoptosis evasion, intratumoral androgen production, and aberrant AR activation lead to the ... of circulating androgens, and the adrenal gland contributes the remainder [26]. Adrenal cortical cells and testicular Leydig ...
  http://www.ijbs.com/v10p0588.htm
*  Saúde Pública - Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners...
Role of androgen and gonadotrophins in the development and function of the Sertoli cells and Leydig cells: data from mutant and ... Cell Mol Life Sci 2008;65(13):2019-38. 61. Kim J, Coetzee GA. Prostate specific antigen gene regulation by androgen receptor. J ... stains dead cells nuclei in red) and a flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of live sperm cells (Intact Membrane, IM) was ... Androgens strongly regulate PSA production and secretion within the prostatic fluid [61]: under pathological conditions (i.e. ...
  https://scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0021-25712011000400016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Androgen insensitivity syndrome - Wikipedia
Target gene transcription ensues. In this way, androgens bound to androgen receptors regulate the expression of target genes, ... "Incidental detection of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor by FDG PET/CT imaging in a patient with androgen insensitivity syndrome". Ann ... in cells containing the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. Both androgens exert their influence through binding with the androgen ... and then translocates into the nucleus where it binds to DNA, provided androgen response elements and coactivators are present ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androgen_insensitivity_syndrome
*  Female-to-male sex reversal in mice caused by transgenic overexpression of Dmrt1 | Development
... qRT-PCR analyses of cell type marker genes. Compared with XX wild-type ovaries, genes expressed in Sertoli and/or Leydig cells ... S3D-F,K). However, androgen production might have been compromised, since expression of Hsd17b3 and Cyp17a1, which both encode ... resembled that of Leydig cells in wild-type testes (T). AMH (green) marks granulosa cells in wild-type ovaries (S). Nuclei were ... 1990). A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif. Nature ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/142/6/1083
*  MED2042 WEEK 2 - Hormones and sex Flashcards - Cram.com
Androgens. - Testis (Leydig cells). - Ovary. - Adrenal cortex. Estrogens. - Ovarian follicle. - Placenta. - Fat ... Being small and lipid-soluble, these hormones diffuse into the target cell.. - They bind to receptors in the cytosol or nucleus ... Virtually all cells have thyroid hormone receptors and many genes are regulated.. - beta adrenergic receptors are up-regulated ... May have ambiguous genitalia due to excessive androgen production. - No aldosterone, therefore crisis due to inability to ...
  http://www.cram.com/flashcards/med2042-week-2-hormones-and-sex-395899
*  Frontiers | In vitro Spermatogenesis - Optimal Culture Conditions for Testicular Cell Survival, Germ Cell Differentiation, and...
Leydig cell functionality was assessed on the basis of testosterone production and the expression of steroidogenic genes. ... the nature of the medium per se exerts a direct influence on the functionality of the rat Leydig cells, but not on germ cell ... Leydig cell functionality was assessed on the basis of testosterone production and the expression of steroidogenic genes. ... Leydig cell functionality and overall cell survival. Single-cell suspensions prepared from 7-day-old rat testes and containing ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2014.00021/full
*  SirT1 is required in the male germ cell for differentiation and fecundity in mice | Development
2008). GATA factors and androgen receptor collaborate to transcriptionally activate the Rhox5 homeobox gene in Sertoli cells. ... S6A). Analysis of various cell-specific transcripts indicated that the abundance of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells or the ... 5A). Nuclei were scored blindly to be either above or below an arbitrary threshold. Approximately 20% of the nuclei scored from ... provide a binding site for the testis-specific bromodomain protein BRDT to bind to nucleosomes (Morinière et al., 2009). In the ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/141/18/3495
*  Cell proliferation, tumorogenicity, and apoptosis sub-cluster 19
The presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in Leydig cells is related to its role in the regulation of testosterone ... Ebp1, an ErbB3 receptor-binding protein, inhibits the proliferation and induces the differentiation of human cancer cells. Ebp1 ... Gene matching shows that Nischarin is a mouse homologue of human imidazoline receptor antisera-selective (IRAS) protein, a ... Adrenocortical androgens, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are produced in the inner zone of the adrenal cortex that is ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/2/Cell-proliferation-tumorogenicity-and-apoptosis/sub-19-p7.html
*  The quest to increase lean body mass is widely THE MECHANISMS OF MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY AND THEIR APPLICATION TO RESISTANCE...
Single-cell analysis of regulatory gene expression in quiescent and activated mouse skeletal muscle satellite cells. Adv Dev ... Unbound testosterone binds to androgen receptors of target tissues, which are located in the cell s cytoplasm. This causes a ... and increase cell body size. The majority of testosterone is synthesized and secreted by the Leydig cells of the testes via the ... Satellite cells are the source of nuclei in muscles of growing rats. Anat Rec 170: , Mulligan, SE, Fleck, SJ, Gordon, SE, and ...
  http://docplayer.net/118355-The-quest-to-increase-lean-body-mass-is-widely-the-mechanisms-of-muscle-hypertrophy-and-their-application-to-resistance-training-brad-j.html
*  Eponyms (Q-S) - WikEM
Sézary-Lutzner cells. Found in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, T-helper cells that characteristically form band-like aggregates ... From mutation in MECP2 on X chromosome which binds to single methylated CpG base pairs and "silences" other genes. This results ... Reed-Sternberg cells. In Hodgkin's lymphoma, giant macrophage-like cells with two nuclei. ... In 25% of Leydig cell tumors, intracytoplasmic rod-shaped crystalloids. Reinke's edema. Vocal cord polyposis in female smokers ...
  https://www.wikem.org/wiki/Eponyms_
*  Exam #4: Male Reproductive Physiology Flashcards by Jonathan Kallevang | Brainscape
1) Diffuses across membrane of target cell (lipophilic) 2) Binds to the androgen receptor in the nucleus 3) Altered gene ... Binds receptors on Leydig cells and stimulates testosterone production/ secretion. *Testosterone then diffuses to Sertoli cells ... 2) Production and secretion of Androgen Binding Protein (ABP), which binds and concentrates testosterone in the area of ... What are Leydig cells? What is the function of the Leydig cells? ... LH binds to a GPCR on the Leydig cell - cAMP increases (Gas). ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/exam-4-male-reproductive-physiology-3512006/packs/5105548
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Bovine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Are More Resistant to Apoptosis than Testicular Cells in...
... with leukemia inhibitory factor and bone morphogenetic protein 4 to maintain and stabilize the expression of stemness genes and ... MEHP also repressed the expression of AR and inactivated WNT signaling, and then led to the commitment of cells to apoptosis ... has been implicated in the promotion of apoptosis in testicular cells (TSCs), the molecular pathway underlying AR-mediated ... apoptosis and its sensitivity to environmental hormones in TSCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remain unclear. We ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/15/3/5011/htm