*  "Selective inhibition of antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation by" by Gyongyi Szabo, Bikash K. Verma et al.
Ethanol consumption is associated with impaired immunity. Our data demonstrate that even a single dose of a biologically relevant concentration (25-150 mM) of ethanol can down-regulate antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast, ethanol augmented mitogen-induced T cell proliferation, suggesting that its inhibitory effect on antigen-specific T cell proliferation was due to its effects on monocytes (m phi s) rather than on T cells. The immunodepressive effects of ethanol on m phi antigen-presenting cell (APC) capacity were manifested whether alcohol treatment was limited to the antigen uptake-processing period only or was present during the entire period of antigen presentation. These inhibitory effects of ethanol were also evident on both the high-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-negative (-31 +/- 17%), and low-antigen-presenting, Fc gamma RI-positive (-42 +/- 15%) m phi subpopulations. Further analysis demonstrated that ethanol ...
*  Immortalization of Human and Rhesus Macaque Primary Antigen‐Specific T Cells by Retrovirally Transduced Telomerase Reverse...
Human and rhesus macaque primary antigen‐specific T cells derived from infected or immunized individuals or animals are a valuable material with which to study cellular immune responses against pathogens and tumors
*  A novel model for antigen-dependent activation of normal human T cells. Transmembrane signaling by crosslinkage of the CD3/T...
Transmembrane signaling of normal human T cells was explored with mAbs directed at TCR, CD2, CD4, CD5, or CD8 antigens and highly purified CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells. Our experiments explicitly show that: (a) crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, and not independent crosslinking of TCR and of CD2 antigen or crosslinking of either protein with the CD4 or CD8 antigen induces significant proliferation independent of co-stimulatory signals (e.g., accessory cells, recombinant lymphokines, or tumor promoter), (b) F(ab')2 fragments of mAb directed at the TCR and F(ab')2 anti-CD2, crosslinked with F(ab')2 fragments of rabbit anti-mouse IgG, promote the proliferation of highly purified T cells, (c) a prompt and sustained increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration results from crosslinkage of TCR with the CD2 antigen, (d) T cell proliferation induced by this novel ...
*  T cell proliferation assay
I am doing TCR transgenic T cell proliferation assay in vitro. (OT-I CD8 T cells and DO.11 CD4 T cells). There are three questions: 1. For 96-well plate, how many T cell should be used in each well? I used 200,000 cells/well, is that too high? And after how many days coculture with APC should H3 thymidine be added? 2. Which medium is good for the assay? I only used RPMI, any one has better experience with other medium? 3. Does it make difference to use mouse serum v.s. FCS? What percentage of serum should be added to the medium? Thanks for help. Kang e-mail: Liuk at rockvax.rockefeller.edu ...
*  Costimulatory molecules in human atherosclerotic plaques: an indication of antigen specific T lymphocyte activation
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*  Application of the pMHC array to characterise tumour antigen specific T cell populations in leukaemia patients at disease...
Immunotherapy treatments for cancer are becoming increasingly successful, however to further improve our understanding of the T-cell recognition involved in effective responses and to encourage moves towards the development of personalised treatments for leukaemia immunotherapy, precise antigenic targets in individual patients have been identified. Cellular arrays using peptide-MHC (pMHC) tetramers allow the simultaneous detection of different antigen specific T-cell populations naturally circulating in patients and normal donors. We have developed the pMHC array to detect CD8+ T-cell populations in leukaemia patients that recognise epitopes within viral antigens (cytomegalovirus (CMV) and influenza (Flu)) and leukaemia antigens (including Per Arnt Sim domain 1 (PASD1), MelanA, Wilms Tumour (WT1) and tyrosinase). We show that the pMHC array is at least as sensitive as flow cytometry and has the potential to rapidly identify more than 40 ...
*  Production and Concentration of Lentivirus for Transduction of Primary Human T Cells. - Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
Lentiviral vectors have emerged as efficient tools for investigating T cell biology through their ability to efficiently deliver transgene expression into both dividing and nondividing cells. Such lentiviral vectors have the potential to infect a wide variety of cell types. However, despite this advantage, the ability to transduce primary human T cells remains challenging and methods to achieve efficient gene transfer are often time consuming and expensive. We describe a method for generating lentivirus that is simple to perform and does not require the purchase of non-standard equipment to transduce primary human T cells. Therefore, we provide an optimized protocol that is easy to implement and allow transduction with high efficiency and reproducibility.
*  MHC‐Peptide Tetramers to Visualize Antigen‐Specific T Cells - Current Protocols
Mature T lymphocytes of the CD8 or CD4 classes bear αβ T cell receptors (TCR) that are specific for a molecular complex consisting of a major histocompatibility complex class I or II (MHC class I or II) molecule bound to a unique self or foreign peptide
*  Plus it
This study is the first to comprehensively investigate the peripheral blood T-cell compartment of morbidly obese subjects. Our main finding was a selective increase in CD4+ T-cell numbers within the peripheral blood T-cell compartment of morbidly obese subjects. Peripheral blood CD8+ T-cell numbers were normal in morbidly obese subjects. This latter observation is in contrast with the increased numbers of local effector and memory CD8+ T cells described in adipose tissue of obese subjects (12,13).. In mice, diet-induced obesity results in reduced sjTREC content in splenic CD4+ T cells (33). This is accompanied by a reduction in naive T cells and a more restricted TCRB repertoire, suggesting that in this mouse model, the decrease in sjTREC content is mainly the result of reduced thymic output (33). Because ageing also is associated with a reduction in thymic output, resulting in a reduced ...
*  The ELISPOT assay: an easily transferable method for measuring cellular responses and identifying T cell epitopes. - Semantic...
Characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted epitopes derived from viral pathogens is imperative for formulating therapeutic interventions, as well as for vaccine design and monitoring. Sensitive, easy and cost-effective assays that measure the frequency of antigen-specific T lymphocytes are crucial for evaluating and improving vaccines and therapies. This paper reviews the ELISPOT technique that allows for quantifying HIV-specific T lymphocytes at the single cell level from peripheral blood by detection of antigen-induced cytokine secretion. The assay can be used successfully to quantify T cell immune responses in humans infected with different pathogens and to assess T cell immunogenicity of vaccines in phase I/II and III clinical trials. This review focuses on the ELISPOT methodology and discusses how it can be standardized and potentially used by multiple international laboratories attached to ...
*  "Regeneration of t-cell helper function in zinc deficient adult a/j mic" by jardieu P. Depasquale, P J. Fraker et al.
Depasquale, jardieu P.; Fraker, P J.; and Luecke, R W., "Regeneration of t-cell helper function in zinc deficient adult a/j mice. Abstr." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 1286 ...
*  functional immune - Search
functional immune Searched from official sources arount the web with simple content and resource link From any languages in different countries.
*  Ultra Low Dose Interleukin-2 in Healthy Volunteers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Interleukin 2 (IL-2, aldesleukin) was discovered as a T cell growth factor more than 30 years ago. IL-2 was the first human cytokine used therapeutically. IL-2 induces antigen specific T cells, and two important lymphocyte subsets: regulatory T cells (T-regs) and natural killer cells (NK) cells. T-regs have a critical role in self-tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune disease or graft versus host disease (GVHD), and they have been extensively studied in solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, viral hepatitis, and HIV infections. NK cells have a unique role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity. NK cells facilitate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment reduce GVHD and increase graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. NK cells have important roles on pathogenesis of malignancies, autoimmune disease and AIDS. Conventional ...
*  Essential Requirement of Antigen Presentation by Monocyte Lineage Cells for the Activation of Primary Human γδ T Cells by...
It is suggested that human γδ T cells play significant roles during intracellular infections, such as tuberculosis (20), malaria (21), ehlrichosis (22), and many others (23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31). Evidence indicates that human T cells bearing Vγ2Vδ2-TCR, which constitute the vast majority of γδ T cells in healthy adults, respond to unique Ags in the extracts and/or supernatants of these bacteria and protozoa and are activated with respect to proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic activity (17). These Ags include nonpeptide molecules such as a wide variety of small organic pyrophosphomonoesters (3, 4, 5, 7) and alkylamines (12) as well as unprocessed protein Ags (32, 33, 34). Although it has been indicated that the response takes place in a Vγ2Vδ2-TCR-dependent manner based on substantial evidence including the TCR gene transfer studies (15), knowledge of how human γδ T cells recognize such molecules has ...
*  Suppression of Autoimmune Diabetes by Soluble Galectin-1 | The Journal of Immunology
Effective therapy of T1D requires elimination and/or regulation of the T cell clones that initiate and perpetuate the damage of the pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the regulatory effects of gal-1 on the immune system can be used to prevent diabetes in NOD mice and, importantly, to reverse ongoing β-cell autoimmunity at later stages of the disease in subclinical and overt T1D.. Previous studies have shown that gal-1 down-regulates T cell survival, activation, and proliferation (36, 37), suppresses Th1-responses (14, 17, 18, 26, 27), and triggers apoptosis of thymocytes and activated T cells in humans (5, 6, 38) and mice (26, 27). Gal-1 is expressed by Treg (39) and immune-privileged sites (40, 41, 42), is used as a mechanism of immunoescape by neoplasms (43), and plays an important role in fetomaternal tolerance (44). Due to its regulatory effects on T cells, gal-1 has been used to ...
*  Antigen-induced T cell arrest: the role of membrane tension | Single Molecule Science
Melanie Chabaud has been awarded a Long-Term Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP) to investigate the molecular events leading to T cell arrest.. T cells constantly migrate through the peripheral lymphoid organs, briefly pausing to sample the antigenic peptides presented by antigen presenting cells. Long-lasting interactions with antigen presenting cells, resulting in sustained signalling, is required to generate a robust immune response. But what makes them stop and what happens when they do?. Melanie believes that increased membrane tension in T cells triggers the critical events leading to T cell arrest, including reorganisation of the cytoskeleton and initiation of signalling cascades. Using purpose-built microchambers, she can observe T cells under the microscope as they recognise their target antigen and stop. She can then observe the actin cytoskeleton ...
*  SIV infection may increase T cells
Tissue in monkeys infected with a close relative of HIV can ramp up production of a type of T cell that actually weakens the body's attack against the invading virus. The discovery, in lymph nodes draining the intestinal tract, could help explain how the HIV virus evades the body's immune defenses. [en español]
*  Fomina Laboratory | UC Davis Department of Physiology and Membrane Biology
T lymphocytes are cells of the immune system that produce factors regulating the function of other cells of immune system thereby shaping the systemic immune response. CD4+ T lymphocytes play a crucial role in directing the immune responses against foreign pathogens, damaged or transformed cells. However, when deregulated, the T cells may also mediate a number of autoimmune diseases such as type-1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In addition, activated T cells mediate graft rejection and may significantly affect the development and progression of inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Therefore, understanding the complex molecular mechanisms that regulate T cell effector functions may lead to development of therapeutic strategies designed to treat and/or alleviate T cell-mediated immune system ...
*  Gene therapy to modify cultured T-lymphocytes - Stock Image G210/0538 - Science Photo Library
Gene therapy. A researcher prepares culture dishes of gene-corrected T-lymphocytes. T-lymphocytes are white blood cells that play a crucial role in the immune system. This stock of lymphocytes is derived from cells taken from a patient with a suppressed immune system. The original sample was genetically altered to make the cells more active, and then cultured to produce large numbers. The cells can then be reintroduced into the patient to help restore the immune system. - Stock Image G210/0538
*  T-lymphocytes, SEM - Stock Image C023/9649 - Science Photo Library
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of two T-lymphocyte white blood cells. Characteristic of T-lymphocytes are the long microvilli projecting from the cell surface. T-lymphocytes are susceptible to infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS. Magnification 1300x at 35mm. - Stock Image C023/9649
*  Biology-Online • View topic - What does this mean??? Please help
The artical pertains to Functional Subclasses of t lymphocytes bearing different Ly Antigens. I do not understand what is being done to each cell? I know that antisera is a fluid phase of clotted blood that contains specific antibodies against the immunizing antigen but was is the immunizing antigen in this case ...
*  The T Cell Marker, CD3 Antigen and Antibodies Mini-review | Bio-Rad
CD3 is an essential T cell co-receptorand defines T cell lineage. CD3is therefore an ideal T cell marker. This mini-review explains the structure of CD3, the genes involved in its expression, its function and the signal transduction pathways mediated by CD3 complex.
*  HEK293 vs HEK293T - Cell Biology
I was wondering if my transfections are not working because I'm using the wrong cell line, I have been using HEK293, but is HEK293T better for transient and stable transfection? Also is there a difference with vendors (ie, some have better cell lines? lower passages perhaps?). I'm just getting frustrated with these transfections that do not work. If anyone has any suggestions I would greatly appreciate it ...
*  Structure Cluster - 1MWA: 2C/H-2KBM3/DEV8 ALLOGENEIC COMPLEX 3D Similarity Report Page
1MWA: Structural comparison of allogeneic and syngeneic T cell receptor-peptide-major histocompatibility complex complexes: a buried alloreactive mutation subtly alters peptide presentation substantially increasing V(beta) Interactions.