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*  Pore-forming toxin - Wikipedia
Pore-forming proteins (PFTs, also known as pore-forming toxins) are protein exotoxins, usually produced by bacteria, such as C ... They are frequently cytotoxic (i.e., they kill cells), as they create unregulated pores in the membrane of targeted cells. PFTs ... Figure 1 shows the pore-form of α-Hemolysin, the first crystal structure of a β-PFT in its pore-form. 7 α-Hemolysin monomers ... Alpha-pore-forming toxins e.g., Cytolysin A of E. coli. Beta-pore-forming toxins e.g., α-hemolysin (Fig 1), PVL - Panton- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pore-forming_toxin
*  SMART: Secondary literature for Aerolysin domain
... domain 3 self-associates to form transmembrane pores, leading to cell lysis or death, which resembles other pore-forming toxins ... Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are the most common bacterial cytotoxic proteins and are required for virulence in a large number of ... Staphylococcus aureus strains causing human pathologies produce several toxins, including a pore-forming protein family formed ... To detect the GPI-deficient cells in PNH patients, we modified alpha toxin, a pore-forming toxin of the Gram-positive bacterium ...
  http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=Aerolysin
*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Vibrio Fluvialis: An Unusual Enteric Pathogen of Increasing Public Health Concern | HTML
... is a pore forming toxin and induces osmotic lysis in erythrocytes. Chakraborty et al. [86] report that V. fluvialis showing ... Cytotoxic and cell vacuolating activity of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from paediatric patients with diarrhoea. J. Med. Microbiol ... forms pores in erythrocyte membrane and by using osmotic protectants. The authors estimate the diameter of the pores to be 2.8- ... Ahn, S-H; Han, J-H; Lee, J-H; Park, K-J; Kong, I-S. Identification of an iron-regulated hemin-binding outer membrane protein, ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/7/10/3628/htm
*  MACPF - Wikipedia
Members of this protein family are pore-forming toxins (PFTs). In eukaryotes, MACPF proteins play a role in immunity and ... high concentrations of perforin can form pores that lyse cells. Secondly, perforin permits delivery of the cytotoxic granzymes ... Like CDC's MACPF proteins are thus β-pore forming toxins that act like a molecular hole punch. Other crystal structures for ... suggesting that MACPF proteins create pores and disrupt cell membranes similar to cytolysin. A representative list of proteins ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MACPF
*  Enterotoxin - Wikipedia
They are mostly pore-forming toxins (mostly chloride pores), secreted by bacteria, that assemble to form pores in cell ... These toxins share the ability to bind to the major histocompatibility complex proteins of their hosts. A more distant relative ... Enterotoxins are frequently cytotoxic and kill cells by altering the apical membrane permeability of the mucosal (epithelial) ... An enterotoxin is a protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines. Enterotoxins are chromosomally ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterotoxin
*  RTX toxin - Wikipedia
These toxins recognize protein receptors such as the β2-integrins, form pores at high concentrations, and cause cell rupture by ... The cyaA operon encodes the five proteins CyaA (RTX toxin), CyaC (CyaA activation protein), and the three T1SS proteins: CyaB ( ... The Pore-forming RTX Toxin (RTX-toxin) Family 1.C.56 - The Pseudomanas syringae HrpZ Cation Channel (HrpZ) Family 1.C.57 - The ... raising it to cytotoxic levels. Lally ET, Hill RB, Kieba IR, Korostoff J (1999), "The interaction between RTX toxins and target ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RTX_toxin
*  Clostridium difficile toxin B - Wikipedia
Guidebook to protein toxins and their use in cell biology. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-19- ... helps to form pores. A putative translocation region ( Fig. 2) makes up approximately 801-1400 amino acids, of which residues ... toxin B activity had more detrimental cytotoxic effects in comparison with toxin A. Therefore, the activity of toxin A is ... cell-cell junction, and apoptosis (Fig. 5). Rho induces the activity of actin stress fibers. Rac proteins controls the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_difficile_toxin_B
*  Sea anemone cytotoxic protein - Wikipedia
In molecular biology, the sea anemone cytotoxic proteins are lethal pore-forming peptides and proteins, known collectively as ... These cytolysins form cation-selective pores in sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Examples include equinatoxins (from Actinia ... Anderluh G; Macek P (February 2002). "Cytolytic peptide and protein toxins from sea anemones (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)". Toxicon. ... They often oligomerise on the membrane surface, before puncturing the lipid bilayers, causing the cell to lyse. The 20kDa sea ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_anemone_cytotoxic_protein
*  US5126257A - Antimicrobial proteins, compositions containing same and uses thereof - Google Patents
A guide to the use of pore-forming toxins for controlled permeabilization of cell membranes. ... Proinflammatory properties of the human S100 protein S100A12. Lehrer et al. 1993. Defensins: antimicrobial and cytotoxic ... All of the membrane-associated ADBF could be extracted at pH 2.0 and released in soluble form after centrifugation of the acid- ... Cells were grown to a density of 2×106 cells/ml and harvested by centrifugation. The cell pellet was resuspended to 1×108 cells ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US5126257A/en
*  Vaccinomics Approach for Designing Potential Peptide Vaccine by Targeting Shigella spp. Serine Protease Autotransporter...
... and more exposure to the immune cells occurred by this secreted toxin [11]. Most importantly, this protein has been shown to be ... quite similar with that for the localization of other SPATE proteins in the bacterial cell surface as well as in secreted forms ... β-barrel pore that allows passage of the functional domain across the outer membrane. This type of exporter proteins either ... SigA is a multifunctional protein, able to degrade casein with cytotoxic and enterotoxic effects. Moreover, SigA is cytopathic ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/6412353/
*  Cirrhosis-induced defects in innate pulmonary defenses against Streptococcus pneumoniae | BMC Microbiology | Full Text
... is a 53-kDa protein made by all clinical S. pneumoniae isolates. Pneumolysin is a pore-forming toxin that can be released from ... The cytotoxic activity affects a wide array of host cells and contributes to lung damage during the early stages of ... thiol-activated cytolysin and a model of its membrane form. Cell. 1997, 89: 685-692. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80251-2.View Article ... This thin aqueous layer covering the surface of the pulmonary epithelium contains numerous proteins and peptides possessing ...
  https://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-7-94
*  Potassium channel, voltage dependent, Kv3 (IPR003974) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... and may have a role in target cell lysis by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes [PMID: 1373731]. In prokaryotic cells, they play a role in ... However, it remains unclear how the 2 P-domain subunits assemble to form a selective pore. The functional diversity of these ...
  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR003974
*  Cytolysin - Wikipedia
Cytolysins which form pores on target cells' membranes. These types of cytolysin are also known as pore-forming toxins (PFTs) ... Hemolysis (microbiology) Thiol-activated cytolysin Sea anemone cytotoxic protein Computer Retrieval of Information on ... To prevent such toxicity, host cells produce immunity proteins for binding cytolysins before they do any damage inward. In the ... Those form pores using helices are named α-PFTs (Pore forming toxins). Those form pores using β-barrel structures are named β- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytolysin
*  A streptococcal lipid toxin induces membrane permeabilization and pyroptosis leading to fetal injury | EMBO Molecular Medicine
... multimeric pores (commonly observed with protein toxins) but rather induces membrane permeabilization by forming variably sized ... Finally, caspase 1 activation causes cell death by pyroptosis. While NLRP3‐dependent pyroptosis is the major form of cell death ... Figure 2. The GBS pigment toxin/lipid toxin is pro‐inflammatory and cytotoxic to primary human macrophages. * A, B PBMC‐derived ... Previous studies that were performed with hemolytic extracts of GBS had contaminating proteins (Marchlewicz & Duncan, 1981); ...
  http://embomolmed.embopress.org/content/7/4/488
*  Кирпичников Михаил Петрович - ИБХ РАН
SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in ... In many cases large-scale expression of IMPs in cell-based and cell-free systems results in misfolded proteins, which should be ... conducting pore. It is based on Escherichia coli spheroplasts with the hybrid protein KcsA-Kv1.3 embedded into the membrane, ... Due to a high cytotoxic activity for cancer cells, cytotoxins are considered as potential anticancer agents. Development of the ...
  http://www.ibch.ru/structure/groups/bioengineering/737
*  CiNii 論文 - Characterization of the damage to membranes caused by bacterial cytolysins ...
A guide to the use of pore-forming toxins for controlled permeabilization of cell membranes BHAKDI S. ... Membrane damage by channel-forming proteins: staphylococcal α-toxin, streptolysin-O and the C5b-9 complement complex BHAKDI S. ... An intermediate in the assembly of a pore-forming protein trapped with a genetically engineered switch WALKER B. ... Assembly of the oligomeric membrane pore formed by staphylococcal α-hemolysin examined by truncation mutagenesis WALKER B. ...
  https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008813742
*  Hemolysin - Wikipedia
... forming the pore structures. These pores in the cellular membrane will eventually end up causing cell death, since it allows ... "Abundance and stability of complexes containing inactive G protein-coupled receptors and G proteins". The FASEB Journal. 22 (8 ... The Vibrio cholerae cytolysin also forms a heptameric pore, however Staphylococcus aureus γ-hemolysin forms a pore that is ... Many hemolysins are pore-forming toxins (PFT), which are able to cause the lysis of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets by ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemolysin
*  Streptococcus pyogenes cytolysin‐mediated translocation does not require pore formation by streptolysin O | EMBO Reports
... into the host cell cytosol, resulting in the death of the host cell. Although SLO is a poreforming protein, previous studies ... These results indicate that even though mutant SLO proteins were unable to form pores, both bound to the membrane as ... Tweten RK (2005) Cholesterol‐dependent cytolysins, a family of versatile poreforming toxins. Infect Immun 73: 6199-6209. ... the synergistic SLO/SPN cytotoxic response requires both the translocation and poreforming activities of SLO. ...
  http://embor.embopress.org/content/11/5/400
*  Three-finger toxin - Wikipedia
Three-finger toxins (abbreviated 3FTx) are a protein superfamily of small toxin proteins found in the venom of snakes. Three- ... though some members may cause physical damage to the cell by establishing pores in the cell membrane. Another class, called the ... In some 3FTx proteins with a C-terminal extension, these residues also participate in forming key binding interactions. The ... Most 3FTx proteins are monomers. However, some 3FTx subgroups form functional non-covalent homodimers. The kappa-bungarotoxin ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-finger_toxin
*  Potassium channel tetramerisation domain - Wikipedia
... and may have a role in target cell lysis by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. In prokaryotic cells, they play a role in the maintenance ... However, it remains unclear how the 2 P-domain subunits assemble to form a selective pore. The functional diversity of these ... Four of these subfamilies, Kv1 (Shaker), Kv2 (Shab), Kv3 (Shaw) and Kv4 (Shal), consist of pore-forming alpha subunits that ... while others are regulated by GTP-binding proteins or other second messengers. In eukaryotic cells, K+ channels are involved in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_channel_tetramerisation_domain
*  ASMscience | Invasion of Host Cells a
By entering host cells and subsequently avoiding destruction within degradative lysosomes, bacteria can gain better access to ... Furthermore, host cell invasion can facilitate the dissemination of bacteria within and across tissue barriers. The actual ... The capacity of some uropathogens to persist and even multiply within host cells may help explain why some UTIs repeatedly ... The ability of bacterial pathogens to invade host cells can have profound effects on the establishment, persistence, and ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555817404.chap16
*  Inhibition of Perforin
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins with the ability to assemble into barrel-shaped pores which insert into cellular ... Within the immune system, the key cytotoxic effector cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, ... Figure 1: Crystal structure of a bacterial protein from P. luminescens which forms pores in a similar manner to perforin. ... effects of the pore-forming protein perforin. J. Med. Chem. 2008, 51, 7614-7624. ...
  https://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/en/sms/about/our-departments/auckland-cancer-society-research-centre/research-groups/medicinal-chemistry/inhibition-of-perforin.html
*  Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection - microbewiki
... aeruginosa also produces a pore-forming cytotoxin that is cytotoxic for most eukaryotic cells, but was originally called ... Toxin-producing strains are more virulent and produce a more virulent form of pneumonia than those that don't produce toxin. ... These virulence factors include: adhesins, secreted toxins, proteases, effector proteins, and pigments, which distrupt or ... Exotoxin A causes ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2, which results in inhibited protein synthesis, which is ...
  https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Pseudomonas_aeruginosa_infection
*  Bacteriocin - Wikipedia
Farkas-Himsley H, Freedman J, Read SE, Asad S, Kardish M (1991). "Bacterial proteins cytotoxic to HIV-1-infected cells". AIDS. ... Alternative methods of classification include: method of killing (pore-forming, nuclease activity, peptidoglycan production ... 10 kDa) protein bacteriocins. This class is subdivided in two subclasses: subclass IIIa or bacteriolysins and subclass IIIb. ... They have shown distinct promise as a diagnostic agent for some cancers, but their status as a form of therapy remains ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteriocin
*  Ion channel hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease - Wikipedia
"Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin forms pores and induces rapid cell necrosis". Toxicon. 55 (1): 61-72. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon. ... and cell death. Further investigation of amyloid proteins and the cytotoxic effects of amyloid channel formation is necessary ... "Pore-forming activity of clostridial binary toxins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. Pore-Forming Toxins: ... Arispe, N; Rojas, E; Pollard, H B (1993-01-15). "Alzheimer disease amyloid beta protein forms calcium channels in bilayer ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion_channel_hypothesis_of_Alzheimer's_disease