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*  Lipid peroxidation - Wikipedia
It is the process in which free radicals "steal" electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, resulting in cell damage. This ... which consists mainly of lipids. Phototherapy may cause hemolysis by rupturing red blood cell cell membranes in this way. In ... producing a different fatty acid radical and a lipid peroxide, or a cyclic peroxide if it had reacted with itself. This cycle ... The chemical products of this oxidation are known as lipid peroxides or lipid oxidation products (LOPs). Initiation is the step ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid_peroxidation
*  Oxidative Stress and Longevity in Okinawa: An Investigation of Blood Lipid Peroxidation and Tocopherol in Okinawan Centenarians
... it protects cell membranes from chain reactions caused by radical-induced lipid peroxidation through quenching free radical ... We compared plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) and vitamin E-plasma and intracellular tocopherol levels (total α, β, and γ), in ... Vitamin E consists of a group of eight related fat soluble tocopherols and tocotrienols, which have significant antioxidant ... the major component of cell membranes, which are in close proximity to mitochondria, the key source of endogenous free radicals ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cggr/2010/380460/
*  Is It a Good Idea to Cook With Olive Oil? A Critical Look
There, it helps fight free radicals that can cause damaging chain reactions in our cell membranes (10). ... When overheated, they can form various harmful compounds... including lipid peroxides and aldehydes, which can contribute to ... Each fat molecule (triglyceride) consists of a glycerol molecule linked to three fatty acids. ... These are called free fatty acids. The more free fatty acids there are in an oil, the lower its smoke point. ...
  https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/is-olive-oil-good-for-cooking
*  Protective Effect of Quercetin against Oxidative Stress and Brain Edema in an Experimental Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals ... which consists mainly of lipids. Lipid peroxidation produces structural and functional damage to membranes as well as several ... Free Radicals and Human Disease. CRC Handbook of Free Radicals and Antioxidants. 1989;1:209-221 ... Lipid peroxidation is one of the major consequences of free radical-mediated injury in the brain. The peroxidation of ...
  http://www.medsci.org/v11p0282.htm
*  Mechanism of Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration
W. Dröge, "Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function," Physiological Reviews, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 47-95, 2002 ... It appears to neutralize the effect of peroxide and prevent lipid peroxidation in membranes. ... The NOX2 enzyme complex consists of the membrane-bound cytochrome b558 (p22PHOX and the enzymatic subunit, gp91PHOX), several ... Reduced GSH can nonenzymatically act directly with free radicals, notably superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2012/428010/
*  Plus it
... hydroxyethyl radical, acetaldehyde, and other aldehydes derived from lipid peroxides. Each of these chemical species is capable ... and a transfected human hepatoma-derived cell line (Dai et al., 1993). However, there are currently few data concerning free ... Activation of G Proteins by Neuropeptide Y and γ-Aminobutyric AcidB Receptor Agonists in Rat Cerebral Cortical Membranes ... The third enzyme system catalyzing the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde consists of CYP enzymes and is commonly referred ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/289/3/1648
*  Oxidative stability of blesbok, springbok and fallow deer droëwors with added rooibos extract
... free lipid radicals resulting in increased lipid oxidation.28 Lipid oxidation however may also initiate protein oxidation.29 A ... The mincing of the meat disrupts the cell membranes releasing pro-oxidants naturally found in meat which interact with the PUFA ... 38 Lipid oxidation products include superoxide anions and hydrogen atoms which react to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 ... Metmyoglobin consists of haem-iron in its ferric state (Fe3+), which has two binding sites.37 RBE is made up of polyphenols,41 ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-23532015000600014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Enzymes
Cell membranes consist primarily of lipids (fats). These lipid membranes are very susceptible to damage by free radicals, ... Glutathione Peroxidase prevents destruction of cell membranes by removing several classes of these lipid peroxides. ... Glutathione Peroxidase is another of the body's major protectors against free radicals. This antioxidant enzyme consists of the ... These unhealthy oxygen atoms are unbalanced and constitute the most common 'Free Radical' known. The 'Oxygen Free Radical' is ...
  http://biomedfoods.com/enzymes.htm
*  Antioxidant - Wikipedia
The reactive oxygen species produced in cells include hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HClO), and free radicals ... while lipid-soluble antioxidants protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation.[53] These compounds may be synthesized in the ... The active site of thioredoxin consists of two neighboring cysteines, as part of a highly conserved CXXC motif, that can cycle ... and free radicals" (PDF). Free Radical Research. 40 (12): 1230-8. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.476.9259 . doi:10.1080/10715760600911303. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_radical_scavenger
*  Effects of oxidised oil and vitamin E on performance and some blood traits of heat-stressed male broilers
These free radicals can damage cell membranes by inducing lipid peroxidation of PUFAs in the cell membrane (Halliwell et al., ... GSH-Px removes hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides from cells (Shaaban et al., 2003; Surai, 2003). Therefore, a higher ... is not able to prevent free radical formation. In this case, the second stage of defence consists of chain-breaking ... initiates lipid peroxidation in the cell membrane and leads to the generation of free radicals (Etches et al., 1995). ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0375-15892011000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  The Real Cause of Most (85%) Heart Attacks and Strokes
Platelet aggregation, fibrinogen, lipid peroxides, and other markers of free radical damage and monitor antibody levels to ... Fatty acid analysis (on red blood cell membranes), and amino acid testing on urine and blood. ... Furthermore, he adds that to fight infections in the blood, his own daily regimen consists of Wobenzym and RM-10 , a new ... He points out that poor metabolism (not burning cleanly) and a lot of free radicals can cause inflammations. The infections in ...
  http://www.mnwelldir.org/docs/cardio/cardio3.htm
*  Regulation of γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase Subunit Gene Expression in Retinal Müller Cells by Oxidative Stress | IOVS | ARVO...
Diabetes is associated with increased production of free radicals and lipid peroxides in the retina. 36 37 Increased oxidative ... A partial list consists of drug-resistant tumor cell lines, 19 20 oxidative stress, 21 22 23 24 25 antioxidants, 26 27 ... The same membranes were subsequently hybridized with β-actin or 18S cDNA probes. A representative northern blot from 3 to 4 ... It has been recognized for some time that lipid peroxidation, production of free radicals, and associated events in retinal ...
  https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2199727
*  GPX4 - Wikipedia
Inactivation of GPX4 leads to an accumulation of lipid peroxides, resulting in ferroptotic cell death. Mutations in GPX4 cause ... Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 75: 95-104. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.07.019. PMID 25064324. Nakagawa Y (2005). "Role ... and the ability to reduce lipid-hydroperoxides inside biological membranes. ... The antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) belongs to the family of glutathione peroxidases, which consists of 8 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPX4
*  Interrelation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of TNF
T. J. Montine, M. D. Neely, J. F. Quinn et al., "Lipid peroxidation in aging brain and Alzheimer's disease," Free Radical ... The adult human central nervous system (CNS) consists of approximately 100 billion neurons and a similar amount of glia cells, ... Examples of ROS include the superoxide anion radical (. ), hydroxyl radical (∙OH), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2, in ... Therefore oxidative stress can cause damage of cellular membranes and thus compromise cell integrity and viability. Moreover, ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/610813/
*  Frontiers | Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen...
We found that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were ... We found that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were ... The concentration of lipid peroxides was thus quantized in terms of the MDA concentration and expressed as nmol/g. ... We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.00197/full
*  The impact of silymarin extract on oxidative stress induced by gold nanoparticles
Free radicals such as superoxide, hydroxyl radicals (•OH) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radicals caused by lipid peroxidation can ... as silymarin and quercetin stabilize the membrane gangliosides and thus make biological membranes durable and increase cell ... Silymarin consists of a group of elements called flavonoid-lignan. There is also a new form of milk thistle called silymarin- ... Silymarin affects cell membrane by eliminating free radicals and iron buffer [13]. In type I diabetes, reduction of ...
  http://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/the-impact-of-silymarin-extract-on-oxidative-stress-induced-by-gold-nanoparticles-7944.html
*  Preliminary In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Ducrosia anethifolia Boiss. and Its Linear...
Initiation of lipid peroxidation by free radicals, in the lipid moiety of the cell membrane, was supposed to result in ... Hydrogen peroxide can cross biological membranes. Catalase detoxifies hydrogen peroxide which plays principle role in tissue ... 15]. An aliquot of liver tissue (0.5 g) was homogenized in the extraction medium which consists of 50 mM triethanolamine, 1 mM ... mediated by superoxide radical through a free radical chain of reactions involving thiol oxidation and univalent O2 reduction. ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/480545/
*  Reactive oxygen species - Wikipedia
... turning that molecule into a free radical and thus propagating a chain reaction. However, hydrogen peroxide is actually more ... in cell membranes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria convert energy for the cell into a usable ... ROS can damage lipid, DNA, RNA, and proteins, which, in theory, contributes to the physiology of aging. ROS are produced as a ... The first is a dimer (consists of two units), while the others are tetramers (four subunits). SOD1 and SOD3 contain copper and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species
*  Test Liver Detoxification Profile | Digital Naturopath
Peroxides. Free radicals that are by-products formed in our bodies when molecules of fat react with oxygen. ... Lipid. Fat-soluble substances derived from animal or vegetable cells by nonpolar solvents (e.g. ether); the term can include ... The challenge dose consists of 2 capsules of aspirin (650mg total) and 2 capsules of acetaminophen (650mg total). The only side ... Glutathione is also involved in amino acid transport across cell membranes.. Glutathione Peroxidase. A family of antioxidant ...
  https://www.digitalnaturopath.com/treatments/test-liver-detoxification-profile/
*  Thymoquinone attenuates cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity via nuclear factor kappa- β | BMC Complementary and Alternative...
Zhu W, Fung PC: The roles played by crucial free radicals like lipid free radicals, nitric oxide, and enzymes NOS and NADPH in ... The hepatic cell contains high levels of transaminases as AST. As a result of the damage caused to hepatic cells by CP, the ... Rats were randomly divided into three groups each consists of 15 rats. Group 1 served as the normal control group. Animals of ... and hydrogen peroxide are normally generated in liver. A detoxification mechanism working in the liver detoxifies the ROS by ...
  https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-14-282
*  Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Prevents Cell Cycle Arrest and Elongates Telomere Length in Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts
... the most potent lipid peroxyl radical scavenger, significantly reduced free radical-induced chromosomal damage [15]. Vitamin E ... hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen are constantly generated in most cells. High level of ROS can cause ... This effect is possibly due to the antioxidant property of TRF which consists of α-tocopherols and all isomers of tocotrienols ... Fractionated DNA fragments were transferred to nylon membranes Hybond-N+ (Amersham, UK) by an alkaline transfer technique using ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2011/506171/
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Metabolomics as a Tool to Investigate Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants | HTML
These simple sugars can act as osmolytes maintaining cell turgor, stabilizing cell membranes and preventing protein degradation ... lipid peroxides and DNA fragments resulting from oxidative or enzymatic cleavage. Considering the metabolome, the balance ... A mQTL mapping consists in computing an association between genomic markers (SSR, SNPs or CNVs) and metabolic markers. However ... Polyols are also implicated in stress tolerance due to its action as scavengers of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, accumulation ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/3/4885/htm
*  Beta-Thalassemia Major and Female Fertility: The Role of Iron and Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress
OS leads to lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in membranes of cells and organelles. Cytotoxic byproducts of lipid ... which catalyzes the formation of free radicals, resulting in oxidative stress (OS) and damage to mitochondria, lysosomes, lipid ... suggesting that iron overload is involved in the OS shown in cells [25]. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide ... Nonenzymic defense consists of scavenging molecules that are endogenously produced (GSH, ubiquinols, and uric acid) or derived ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2013/617204/
*  Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC |...
The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to ... Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are ... Living cells may generate free radicals and other reactive oxygen species by-products as a results of physiological and ... Hydrogen peroxide is an important reactive oxygen species because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes. However, it ...
  https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-10-21
*  The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System
Free radicals are important for a number of biological processes, such as the elimination of bacteria by phagocytic cells. ... stress has been consistently linked to aging-related neurodegenerative diseases leading to the generation of lipid peroxides, ... Their ability to cross cell membranes easily explains why PM can be found inside neurons or erythrocytes [1, 32]. It has also ... The inflammasome itself is a multiprotein complex that consists of caspase 1, PYCARD, NALP (a NOD-like receptor serving as a ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2012/782462/