*  Life | Free Full-Text | Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish
Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly ...
  http://mdpi.com/2075-1729/3/1/161
*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Ancient DNA from Tianyuan Cave
I've cracked it. The authors have looked at the extremities of B's expansion (America, Polynesia and the Nicobar Islands) and followed the haplogroups back. As a result they've confined their search to B5, B4b'd'e and B4a, and ignored the fact that B5 is found as far east as the Admiralty Islands and as far north as Japan as well as in the Nicobar Islands. But B5's spread probably goes no further back that the Hoabinhian's development in SE Asia, especially Vietnam. And B5's presence in the Nicobar Islands may not even go as far back as that. And B4a's spread to the Philippines is probably no earlier than the Hoabinhian either. B4a1a's spread from the Philippines to both Madagascar and the Central Pacific is an even later step in the same process: improved communication between the islands through improved boating technologies. We are left with just one B haplogroup that was eventually to move north beyong modern China: B4b'd'e. ...
  http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/01/ancient-dna-from-tianyuan-cave.html?showComment=1358819131350
*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Ancient DNA from Tianyuan Cave
I've cracked it. The authors have looked at the extremities of B's expansion (America, Polynesia and the Nicobar Islands) and followed the haplogroups back. As a result they've confined their search to B5, B4b'd'e and B4a, and ignored the fact that B5 is found as far east as the Admiralty Islands and as far north as Japan as well as in the Nicobar Islands. But B5's spread probably goes no further back that the Hoabinhian's development in SE Asia, especially Vietnam. And B5's presence in the Nicobar Islands may not even go as far back as that. And B4a's spread to the Philippines is probably no earlier than the Hoabinhian either. B4a1a's spread from the Philippines to both Madagascar and the Central Pacific is an even later step in the same process: improved communication between the islands through improved boating technologies. We are left with just one B haplogroup that was eventually to move north beyong modern China: B4b'd'e. ...
  http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/01/ancient-dna-from-tianyuan-cave.html?showComment=1359039080197
*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Ancient DNA from Tianyuan Cave
I've cracked it. The authors have looked at the extremities of B's expansion (America, Polynesia and the Nicobar Islands) and followed the haplogroups back. As a result they've confined their search to B5, B4b'd'e and B4a, and ignored the fact that B5 is found as far east as the Admiralty Islands and as far north as Japan as well as in the Nicobar Islands. But B5's spread probably goes no further back that the Hoabinhian's development in SE Asia, especially Vietnam. And B5's presence in the Nicobar Islands may not even go as far back as that. And B4a's spread to the Philippines is probably no earlier than the Hoabinhian either. B4a1a's spread from the Philippines to both Madagascar and the Central Pacific is an even later step in the same process: improved communication between the islands through improved boating technologies. We are left with just one B haplogroup that was eventually to move north beyong modern China: B4b'd'e. ...
  http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/01/ancient-dna-from-tianyuan-cave.html?showComment=1359134185132
*  Feasibility of Reagent Test Strips to Estimate Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations in Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus...
Feasibility of Reagent Test Strips to Estimate Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations in Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus ...
  http://ijvm.org.il/node/536
*  Requirements | MPI - Ministry for Primary Industries. A New Zealand Government Department.
ORNAMARI.ALL keywords: fisornic.all, aquatic animals, snails, coral, anemones, shrimp, Abramites spp Headstanders; Acanthophthalmus spp Coolie loaches; Acanthopsis spp Long nosed loaches; Acarichthys heckelii; Acaronia nassa Big eyed cichlid; Aequidens spp Acaras; Alestes spp See Brycinus spp; Amblydoras spp Amblydoras; Anableps spp Four eyes; Ancistrus spp Bristle noses; Anoptichthys spp See Astyanax spp; Anostomus spp Headstanders; Aphanius fasciatus Banded minnow; Aphyocharax spp Bloodfin, flame-tail tetras; Aphyosemion spp Aphyosemions, killie fishes; Apistogramma spp Dwarf cichlids; Aplocheilichthys spp Lampeyes; Aplocheilus spp panchax; Apteronotus spp Black ghost; Arnoldichthys spp Characins; Aspidoras spp dwarf catfish; Astronotus ocellatus Marbled, yellow, back, red Oscar; Astyanax spp Astyanax, tetra; Aulonocara nyassae African peacock cichlid; Austrolfundulus spp killifish; Axelrodia spp Ruby tetra; Badis badis Dwarf chameleon fish; Balanteocheilus spp Silver, bala sharks; Barbodes ...
  http://www.mpi.govt.nz/importing/live-animals/aquatic-animals/requirements/?sa=U
*  Madagascar Creates 1 Million Hectares of New Protected Areas - Conservation International
Arlington, VA For the second time in two years, the Government of Madagascar has created more than 1 million hectares of new protected areas through a visionary policy to save the island-nations remaining intact forests. The 15 new protected areas comprise a total of 1,071,589 hectares (4,137 square miles), or almost the size of the U.S. state of Connecticut, and include tropical rainforest, dry deciduous forest, lakes, rivers, limestone caves and other ecosystems that are home to threatened species such as the giant jumping rat ( Hypogeomys antimena) and the pygmy mouse lemur ( Microcebus myoxinus) one of the worlds smallest primates. Madagascar has only a fraction of its original forest cover but remains one of the biologically richest places on Earth, with many plants and animals found nowhere else. The Global Conservation Fund (GCF) created by Conservation International (CI) recently contributed $1 million to the Madagascar Foundation for Protected Areas and Biodiversity ...
  http://www.conservation.org/NewsRoom/pressreleases/Pages/043007a_madagascar_protected_areas.aspx
*  Doença de Chagas em Virgem da Lapa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. IV. Aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos do aneurisma ventricular...
BORGES-PEREIRA, José; XAVIER, Sérgio Salles; PIRMEZ, Claude and COURA, José Rodrigues. Chagas' disease in Virgem da Lapa County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. IV. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the left ventricle aneurism. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. [online]. 1998, vol.31, n.5, pp.457-463. ISSN 0037-8682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86821998000500006.. The study aimed at the evaluation of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the aneurism found in the left ventricle in chronic Chagas' disease patients. Three handred, eighty eight people (298 chagasic patients and 90 randomly selected healthy individuals) were submitted to echocardiography. The ventricular function was assessed in the M mode by calculating the fraction of ejection, and in the bidimensional mode by analyzing he global systolic function. Segmental contractility was evaluated according to the method described by American Society of Echocardiography. Aneurism of the left ventricle was diagnosed in 58 ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0037-86821998000500006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Leptonycteris curasoae (Curaçaoan Long-nosed Bat, Southern Long-nosed Bat)
This bat roosts in caves, mines and in some cases in abandoned buildings and tunnels, often in colonies of several thousand. It emerges about an hour after sunset to feed on cactus fruit, nectar and pollen of plants in several families (Agavaceae, Cactaceae, Bombacaceae; Fleming and Nassar 2002). It lands on the flowers or may hover for short periods to feed. Night roosts, including buildings, are used after feeding (Reid 1997). It is associated with thorn scrubs, spiny forests and dry forests, and is highly dependent on columnar cacti and agaves (Fleming and Nassar 2002, Nassar et al. 2003). The ecosystem is restricted, fragmented throughout its range, and mostly outside protected areas in all countries. This species is "keystone" in its ecosystem as a long-distance pollinator and seed disperser of agave and columnar cacti (and other plants associated with the habitat type). Direct and indirect evidence indicate that this species is migratory, however, not all ...
  http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/summary/11699/0
*  MassDOT Environmental Priority: Endangered Species Habitat Preservation | MassDOT Blog
Today, May 19, is Endangered Species Day, a day when many environmental organizations and government agencies recognize conservation efforts to protect endangered species and their habitats.. The MassDOT Highway Division works hard to ensure compliance with State and Federal endangered species regulations to avoid, minimize and mitigate impacts to rare and endangered species. In April of 2015 the northern long-eared bat became federally listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act, due to their precipitous population decline caused by White-nose Syndrome. White-nose Syndrome, named as such because of the resultant mold that grows on the bats' nose, is a disease that kills bats during the winter while they hibernate in caves and mines, called "hibernacula." Not only are bats important ecologically, but they also have health and economic benefits because they reduce populations of mosquitoes and crop pests such as moths and beetles.. Through the ...
  http://blog.mass.gov/transportation/massdot-highway/massdot-environmental-priority-endangered-species-habitat-preservation/
*  North American Archaeology
North American Archaeological Collection is one of the largest and most significant such assemblages in the world. The artifacts are recovered from hundreds of museum excavations at key sites throughout the American Southwest (including Pueblo Bonito, Grand Gulch, Canyon de Chelley, the Galisteo Basin, and Aztec ruin), the Pacific Northwest, the Greater New York City area, the Great Basin (including Hidden Cave, Gatecliff Shelter, and Alta Toquima), Labrador, and the Southeast (including Poverty Point, Greenhouse, Jaketown and Menard)Additional Resources: Curatorial Research
  https://www.amnh.org/our-research/anthropology/collections/collections-history/north-american-archaeology
*  Human Evolution: The many mysteries of Homo naledi | eLife
If H. naledi is more than 2 million years old, which Berger et al. suggest could be possible, the species might lie close to the very origin of the genus Homo. However, if the H. naledi fossils are less than 100,000 years old, it would mean that it survived until relatively recently, just like Homo floresiensis far away in Indonesia (another species which combines a small brain with small teeth; Stringer, 2014). Because H. naledi is currently only known from one site, it is unclear whether or not it was restricted to southern Africa. If it turns out that H. naledi was more widespread, its moderate body size may lead scientists to re-examine other diminutive fossils from across Africa, which have usually been attributed to a small form of H. erectus (Antón, 2004; Potts et al., 2004; Simpson et al., 2008).. In the second paper, Dirks, Berger and colleagues describe the setting of the fossils: the Dinaledi Chamber (Dirks et al., 2015). This cave chamber lies some 80 metres into the Rising Star ...
  https://elifesciences.org/articles/10627
*  Ecological Regions Of Portugal - WorldAtlas.com
The Madeira archipelago extends in the Atlantic Ocean from off the coast of Morocco to approach Lisbon on the Portuguese mainland. Madeira and Porto Santo are inhabited while the Desertas and Selvagens islands are not. The landform is a complex of deep gorges and ravines. There are inaccessible high cliffs and caves along the coastline. With a north to south climatic gradient, the temperatures average between 15o and 20º Celsius and rainfall totals of 250 to 750 millimeters. The ecosystem flora includes trees of the Lauraceae family forming the high canopies. There are herb and shrub species some of which are endemic to the ecosystem. The system has 11 important bird areas with 295 bird species and subspecies and 42 of them breed here.There are more than 500 native invertebrates of mollusks, spiders, and insects.The canopies also provide refuge to birds of prey and passerines that live in the archipelago. Shortly after colonization in the 15th Century, the settlers started ...
  http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/ecological-regions-of-portugal.html
*  Bale Zone - Wikipedia
Bale (Oromo: Baale) is one of the zones in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Bale is named for the former Sultanate of Bale, which was in approximately the same area. Bale is bordered on the south by the Ganale Dorya River which separates it from Guji, on the west by the West Arsi Zone, on the north by Arsi, on the northeast by the Shebelle River which separates it from West Hararghe and East Hararghe, and on the east by the Somali Region. The highest point in the Bale Zone, and also the highest point in Oromia, is Mount Batu (4,307 m) in the Urgoma Mountains range. Other notable peaks of the Urgoma include Mount Tullu Dimtu, Mount Darkeena and Mount Gaysay. Rivers include the Wabe and the Weyib; notable lakes include Garba Guracha and Hora Orgona. Points of interest in the Zone include Sheikh Hussein-named for the tomb of a Moslem saint-the Bale Mountains National Park, and the Sof Omar Caves. Towns and cities in Bale include Dodola, Ginir, Goba and Robe. The Central ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bale_Zone
*  RE: cause of Gigantism in sauropods
We might presume that an adult male *Loxodonta africana* is only as large as it needs to be to be reasonably safe from one to two lions, but not three to five. In other words, it hasn't overshot the predation threshhold because it must account for multi-lion packs (which is how lions hunt). Wolves are similar, as they must predate in a group, making the hunting entity more than an individual, and thus the pressure of the hunter in an ecosystem (unlike a mountain lion or lynx in a similar habitat) is based on the pack/pride. Cheers, Jaime A. Headden The Bite Stuff (site v2) http://qilong.wordpress.com/ 'Innocent, unbiased observation is a myth.' --- P.B. Medawar (1969) 'Ever since man first left his cave and met a stranger with a different language and a new way of looking at things, the human race has had a dream: to kill him, so we don't have to learn his language or his new way of looking at things.' --- Zapp Brannigan (Beast With a Billion Backs) ---------------------------------------- , ...
  http://dml.cmnh.org/2011Feb/msg00083.html
*  A Short but Tasty History of Pumpkin Pie - Amanda Foreman
The pumpkin's ancestors were ancient gourds that left Asia some 60 million years ago. Known botanically as Cucurbitaceae, the plant family slowly spread to the African, Australian and American continents, laying down roots (and vines) to become such familiar garden goodies as the melon, the cucumber and the squash.. Scientists have traced Cucurbita pepo, the founding fruit of pumpkin pie, to seeds 8,000 to 10,000 years old in the Guilá Naquitz Cave in Mexico. The site is believed to have the earliest evidence of domesticated crops in North America. Though these early Mexican varieties were smaller and more bitter than the pumpkins we know, early Americans ate or otherwise used almost every part of them. By the time Christopher Columbus reached the New World in 1492, pumpkins and squashes had spread north to Canada.. In 1796, Amelia Simmons of Connecticut published "American Cookery," believed to be the first American cookbook to rely on native-grown ingredients. Despite their artery-clogging ...
  https://www.dramandaforeman.com/short-tasty-history-pumpkin-pie/
*  pain free labour: 2016
Clare says that home births are a natural choice when giving birth as you feel safer in a place "free from intruders, dark, warm and quiet. A place that harks back to the cave, where for thousands of years our ancestor's would have found safety from the world outside." She goes on to explain how as soon as she reached hospital with her first they insisted on performing a vaginal examination (VE) and how this made her feel violated as she was put under pressure to have one. All women who present to a hospital in ? Labour are expected to undergo a VE, if you do not want one then you will not be allowed onto the labour ward. Some birth centers do not perform a regular VE, they use their experience of labour to assess the contractions and watch the woman's body language to decide if someone is in labour or not. A VE is very useful information for midwives and lets us plan your labour. However, if you decline then you should not be punished for it. Also lying down in labour is very uncomfortable ...
  http://painfreelabour.blogspot.com/2016/
*  pain free labour: November 2016
Clare says that home births are a natural choice when giving birth as you feel safer in a place "free from intruders, dark, warm and quiet. A place that harks back to the cave, where for thousands of years our ancestor's would have found safety from the world outside." She goes on to explain how as soon as she reached hospital with her first they insisted on performing a vaginal examination (VE) and how this made her feel violated as she was put under pressure to have one. All women who present to a hospital in ? Labour are expected to undergo a VE, if you do not want one then you will not be allowed onto the labour ward. Some birth centers do not perform a regular VE, they use their experience of labour to assess the contractions and watch the woman's body language to decide if someone is in labour or not. A VE is very useful information for midwives and lets us plan your labour. However, if you decline then you should not be punished for it. Also lying down in labour is very uncomfortable ...
  http://painfreelabour.blogspot.com/2016/11/
*  Ciaphas Cain - Wikipedia
The Ciaphas Cain series is a collection of science fiction novels set in the Warhammer 40,000 universe. They center on the eponymous character, an Imperial Commissar of the Imperial Guard, and his varied and colorful career. Cain is the main character of Sandy Mitchell's novels published by the Black Library. The Cain series currently stands at nine titles: Book 1: For The Emperor (2003) Book 2: Caves of Ice (2004) Book 3: The Traitor's Hand (2005) Book 4: Death Or Glory (2006) Book 5: Duty Calls (2007) Book 6: Cain's Last Stand (2008) Book 7: The Emperor's Finest (2010) Book 8: The Last Ditch (2012) Book 9: The Greater Good (2013) The novels are presented as Cain's personal and often rambling notes. After his death, a third party edited them into a more coherent form, interspersed them with footnotes or snippets of other accounts where Cain's first-person (and self-centered) perspective does not provide sufficient context, and made them available for use by the Holy ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciaphas_Cain
*  Los Rosales in English.: Adventures in Art with Pirates.
Now I want to celebrate creativity and artistic expression with you. Enjoy with this activities about pirates and Art. Are you ready to make art like a pirate? . At Pirates: Adventures in Art you can choose different artistic activities ( paint pictures on a cave, paint a pirate, create a sea monster, create an amazing masterpiece with Leo and Cleo, build a pirate ship, create your own sculpture ). Click the piece of artwork that you want to use and drag onto your creation ...
  http://losrosalesinenglish.blogspot.com/2011/03/pirates-adventures-in-art.html
*  Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery - Wikipedia
In 1991, the National Museum archaeological team discovered anthropomorphic secondary burial jars in Ayub Cave, Barangay Pinol, Maitum, Sarangani Province, Mindanao, Philippines. The jars are commonly known today as Maitum jars. They are made of earthenware, and are characterized by their design that suggests human figures with complete or partial facial features of the first inhabitants in Mindanao. Furthermore, they give emphasis to the Filipinos' popular belief of life after death. According to Dr. Eusebio Dizon, head of the archaeological team, this type of burial jars are "remarkably unique and intriguing" because they have not been found elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Thus, many archaeologists from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Burma and Indonesia gained interest on this initial find and a number of archaeological - either government or privately sponsored - excavations have been conducted to recover these artifacts. These jars have characteristics that belong to the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maitum_Anthropomorphic_Pottery
*  Septic system could reduce nitrates | ChieflandCitizen.com
Although it hasn't been definitely confirmed about what puts more nitrates into Levy County water, septic systems or fertilizers, experts told the county commission last week ways to reduce contaminants by using a new septic system. Dr. Mark Hooks of the Florida Department of Health spoke at length on advanced septic tank systems, or performance-based systems, that actually remove more nitogen, a byproduct of human waste, before the water from the tank hits the drainfield and eventually the groundwater. In some advanced systems, oxygen is introduced into the solids and creates more bacteria, thereby, breaking the waste down. Gray water is sent to the drainfield where wastewater flows through tubes. With traditional septic systems, there are usually four layers in a septic tank. In descending order, they are: household waste water, scum, wastewater and sludge. It is the nitrates from the sludge that seep into the groundwater. Because of Florida's intricately woven system of ...
  http://www.chieflandcitizen.com/content/septic-system-could-reduce-nitrates?mini=calendar-date%2F2013-04
*  Animal Facts: Porcupine | Canadian Geographic
Porcupines stick close to the trees. Beyond forests, you may find them alongside river undergrowth and maybe in the trees by a rocky ledge. They live in dens found in rock piles, caves, fallen logs and trees. Generally, they stay close to home leaving their dens for food - porcupines eat a variety of shrubs, bark, water plants and they love anything salty.. A peaceful animal, the porcupine will try to run away if it feels there's danger. They'll make loud chattering noises as a warning for predators to leave. If they can't get away, their muscles tighten forcing their quills to come out. It will tuck its head in, lean forward and thump its back feet while swinging its tail as a warning. Sometimes loose quills fly out of the tail or if a predator tries to get too close, the quills will stick them. The quills are an amazing defense mechanism - when they get lodged in the skin, body heat makes the barbs swell, making it even harder and more painful to pull them out.. Animals ...
  http://canadiangeographic.ca/article/animal-facts-porcupine
*  Twig - Nitrates: Food Preservatives : Twig
There's one ingredient that was key in Guy Fawkes' plot to blow up parliament... which also keeps meat fresh in your fridge today.. Potassium Nitrate. It's called potassium nitrate.. A chemical compound consisting of potassium, nitrogen and oxygen. Potassium nitrate forms naturally on rocks in sheltered areas like caves.. And particularly in soils rich ... Please log in to view and download the complete transcript. ...
  https://twigcarolina.com/film/nitrates-food-preservatives-3504/
*  Delilah Boyd: Today's Sermon: We Appreciate Your Faith!
A young monk arrives at the monastery. He is assigned to helping the other monks in copying the old canons and laws of the church by hand. He notices, however, that all of the monks are copying from copies, not from the original manuscript. So, the new monk goes to the head abbot to question this, pointing out that if someone made even a small error in the first copy, it would never be picked up. In fact, that error would be continued in all of the subsequent copies. The head monk says, "We have been copying from the copies for centuries, but you make a good point, my son." So, he goes down into the dark caves... ...underneath the monastery where the original manuscripts are held as archives in a locked vault that hasn't been opened for hundreds of years. Hours go by and nobody sees the old abbot. So, the young monk gets worried and goes down to look for him. He sees him banging his head against the wall, and wailing, "We forgot the "R", we forgot the "R". His forehead is ...
  http://ascrivenerslament.blogspot.com/2005/02/todays-sermon-we-appreciate-your-faith.html