*  Evolution of cave living in Hawaiian Schrankia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with description of a remarkable new cave species -...
Although temperate cave-adapted fauna may evolve as a result of climatic change, tropical cave dwellers probably colonize caves through adaptive shifts to exploit new resources. The founding populations may have traits that make colonization of underground spaces even more likely. To investigate the process of cave adaptation and the number of times that flightlessness has evolved in a group of reportedly flightless Hawaiian cave moths, we tested the flight ability of 54 Schrankia individuals from seven caves on two islands. Several caves on one island were sampled because separate caves could have been colonized by underground connections after flightlessness had already evolved. A phylogeny based on approximately 1500 bp of mtDNA and nDNA showed that Schrankia howarthi sp. nov. invaded ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00477.x/abstract
*  Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve
Elijah Jones Davidson, who discovered the cave in 1874, had emigrated from Illinois to Oregon with his parents, who eventually settled along Williams Creek in Josephine County.[17] Williams, as the community came to be called, is about 12 miles (19 km) northeast of the cave.[7]. Only a few people visited the cave during the next decade. Among them was Thomas Condon, professor of geology at the University of Oregon. Guided by Davidson's brother, in 1884 he and a group of students hiked from Williams to the cavern, which they inspected by candlelight.[18] Shortly thereafter, Walter Burch, an acquaintance of the Davidson family, tried to develop the cave as a business.[18] Burch and his partners opened what they called Limestone Caves and charged visitors $1 each for a guided cave trip, a camping spot, pasture for horses, and cave water they described as ...
  http://hitchhikersgui.de/Oregon_Caves_National_Monument_and_Preserve
*  Aerobic proteobacterial methylotrophs in Movile Cave: genomic and metagenomic analyses | Microbiome | Full Text
Despite the lack of photosynthetically-fixed carbon, the Movile Cave ecosystem (43.825487 N; 28.560677 E, located near Mangalia, Romania and situated 21 m below ground) hosts a diverse range of invertebrates (worms, insects, spiders and crustaceans) that are adapted to life in the dark. Life within this ecosystem is supported by chemoautotrophic primary producers that derive energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and methane (CH4) that enter the cave with thermal fluids, analogous to hydrothermal vents [1, 2]. This hypogenic cave ecosystem, devoid of any input from the surface due to layers of impermeable clays and loess, has been isolated from the surface for ~ 5.5 million years and the majority of the invertebrate species present are endemic to Movile Cave and surrounding aquifers. Cave formation, features, and previous work on Movile Cave microbiology has been ...
  https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-017-0383-2
*  Mark Twain Cave - Wikipedia
Mark Twain Cave was of course not yet called that in its early years, and little known outside of the immediate Hannibal region until 1876 when Twain's landmark novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was published. Soon tourists worldwide were making the journey to see the real-life cave that provided the basis for the novel's fictional "MacDougal's Cave", where Tom and Becky Thatcher's lives were endangered by Injun Joe.[6] The first regular tours by paying customers began in 1886 when local farmer John East would charge tourists a dime to see some of the places inside the cave made famous by the novel. At that time the original opening was still being used, but proved impractical for large crowds so in 1890 a newer entry to the cave was created nearby. For over fifty years tourists saw the cave much as Twain had in his youth, by candlelight or lantern. That changed in 1939 when electric lights were finally ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Twain_Cave
*  Data from: Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears - Dryad
Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong ...
  http://datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.cj965
*  Monastery of the Kiev Caves - OrthodoxWiki
The Venerable Anthony is credited with founding the monastery when he settled in one of the caves that is now part of the Far Caves (also called the Caves of Theodosius). This occurred most probably in the year 1051 which is the traditional date for the foundation of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery. As the community grew to twelve monks new cells were excavated. Among those who joined Anthony in the early years were Theodosius and the Venerable Barlaam. In 1057, Anthony, who desired a life of seclusion, named Barlaam as the first hegumen (abbot) and withdrew from the community to new cave in a hill that today is part of the Near Caves (also called the Caves of Anthony). During the early times when Theodosius was abbot (1062-1074), a wooden structure was built over the Far Caves and the brethren, ...
  https://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Monastery_of_the_Kiev_Caves&oldid=44696
*  Monastery of the Kiev Caves - OrthodoxWiki
The Venerable Anthony is credited with founding the monastery when he settled in one of the caves that is now part of the Far Caves (also called the Caves of Theodosius). This occurred most probably in the year 1051 which is the traditional date for the foundation of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery. As the community grew to twelve monks new cells were excavated. Among those who joined Anthony in the early years were Theodosius and the Venerable Varlaam. In 1057, Anthony, who desired a life of seclusion, named Varlaam as the first hegumen (abbot) and withdrew from the community to new cave in a hill that today is part of the Near Caves (also called the Caves of Anthony). During the early times when Theodosius was abbot (1062-1074), a wooden structure was built over the Far Caves and the brethren, ...
  https://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Monastery_of_the_Kiev_Caves&oldid=44931
*  Monastery of the Kiev Caves - OrthodoxWiki
The Venerable Anthony is credited with founding the monastery when he settled in one of the caves that is now part of the Far Caves (also called the Caves of Theodosius). This occurred most probably in the year 1051 which is the traditional date for the foundation of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery. As the community grew to twelve monks new cells were excavated. Among those who joined Anthony in the early years were Theodosius and the Venerable Barlaam. In 1057, Anthony, who desired a life of seclusion, named Barlaam as the first hegumen (abbot) and withdrew from the community to new cave in a hill that today is part of the Near Caves (also called the Caves of Anthony). During the early times when Theodosius was abbot (1062-1074), a wooden structure was built over the Far Caves and the brethren, ...
  https://orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Monastery_of_the_Kiev_Caves&oldid=66286
*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Redating of Later Stone Age brings it in line with Upper Paleolithic
The transition from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to the Later Stone Age (LSA) in South Africa was not associated with the appearance of anatomically modern humans and the extinction of Neandertals, as in the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Europe. It has therefore attracted less attention, yet it provides insights into patterns of technological evolution not associated with a new hominin. Data from Border Cave (KwaZulu-Natal) show a strong pattern of technological change at approximately 44-42 ka cal BP, marked by adoption of techniques and materials that were present but scarcely used in the previous MSA, and some novelties. The agent of change was neither a revolution nor the advent of a new species of human. Although most evident in personal ornaments and symbolic markings, the change from one way of living to another was not restricted to aesthetics. Our analysis shows that: (i) at Border Cave two assemblages, dated to 45-49 and ,49 ka, show a gradual ...
  http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/07/redating-of-later-stone-age-brings-it.html?showComment=1343792843996
*  Sistema Dos Ojos - Wikipedia
Dos Ojos (from Spanish meaning "Two Eyes"; officially Sistema Dos Ojos) is a flooded cave system located north of Tulum, on the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The exploration of Dos Ojos began in 1987 and still continues. The surveyed extent of the cave system is 82 kilometers (51 mi)[1] and there are 28 known sinkhole entrances, which are locally called cenotes.. Dos Ojos lies broadly parallel to and north of the Sac Actun cave system. Dos Ojos has remained in the top ten, if not the top three, longest underwater cave systems in the world since the late 1980s.[2] Dos Ojos contains the deepest known cave passage in Quintana Roo with 119.1 meters (391 ft) of depth located at "The Pit" discovered in 1996 by cave explorers who came all the way from the main entrance some 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) away. The deep passages include the "Wakulla Room", the "Beyond Main ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dos_Ojos
*  Great Saltpetre Cave
... (RK-5) meets National Register Criterion A, of importance for two uses, each spanning two different Periods of Significance. The Cave served 1798-1815 as an important site of extraction of saltpeter, a necessary ingredient of gunpowder. At the turn of the 19th century, purchasing gunpowder from England was less expensive than producing it in the United States, but efforts were made to become more self-sufficient and to compete with the British prices. Three primary sites in Kentucky, the Great Saltpetre Cave, Mammoth Cave in Edmonson County, and Saltpetre Cave in Carter County, became places of enormous expenditure of capital and labor in an effort to extract the named substance from these caves' floors. The product of these places became especially vital when the U.S. re-entered war with England in 1812. Once that conflict ended, purchasing gunpowder from England again became more economical than ...
  https://www.nps.gov/nr/feature/places/13000565.htm
*  LCQ16: Revitalisation of derelict mines/mine caves to become tourist attractions
2) In the consultation exercise for the Land Use Concept Plans for Mui Wo Facelift conducted by the PlanD in 2007, the Mui Wo residents considered that it would be worthwhile to examine the feasibility of re-opening the Silver Mine Cave in Mui Wo. The Civil Engineering and Development Department (CEDD) commissioned a consultancy study in 2010 to investigate the internal conditions of the mine caves as well as the technical issues involved and improvement measures needed if the mine caves were to open for public visits. The study completed in March 2012 and concluded that it was not desirable to open the upper cave for public visits in view of its geological conditions, natural habitats and environment, and the problems related to fire safety and confined space. As for the lower cave, it has become an important bat habitat. Visitors entering the cave would not only interfere ...
  http://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201405/14/P201405140449_print.htm
*  ORBi: Browsing ORBi
in Cadernos do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe (2008), 33. The state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) is characterized by significant karst regions, which develop ,br /,,br /,in both sandstone and quartzite terrains and display complex suites of underground and ... [more ▼]. The state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) is characterized by significant karst regions, which develop ,br /,,br /,in both sandstone and quartzite terrains and display complex suites of underground and surfaceforms. In the Espinhaço Ridge, Central Minas Gerais, several caves of up to a few hundred metres long, occur in the surroundings of the town of Diamantina. Some of these caves, such as Salitre actually consist of swallow-holes. Other horizontal caves are characterized by corrosion forms generated in the phreatic zone. In some places, such as in the Rio Preto area, these phreatic forms are overprinted by ceiling tubes, suggesting a polyphase karst ...
  http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/browse?type=author&sort_by=1&order=DESC&rpp=20&etal=3&value=Comp%C3%A8re%2C+Philippe+p002118&offset=40
*  Preventing A Cave Calamity
From KGW) I've seen a couple of articles on preventative measures being taken here in the PNW to protect cave-dwelling bats. I mentioned it to an IZ friend earlier today; she is planning to visit Oregon Caves (in the Klamath Mountains of SW Oregon), and said they had warnings on their website asking visitors to not bring clothing, shoes or other gear that had been in eastern caves.. Lava River Cave is a heavily used, semi-developed lava tube, and the longest of its type known in the state. It's quite fun and not too demanding or hazardous. There are others I like better, but I haven't visited any of them in years. Given the environmental services bats provide- especially insect control- please take time to consider and exclude any items that may have been in eastern caves from visits you make to any PNW caves, not just the heavily used ones ...
  http://outsidetheinterzone.blogspot.com/2011/06/preventing-cave-calamity.html
*  World's Oldest Cave Art Found In Spain - Gadling
Archaeologists analyzing prehistoric paintings in Spain have discovered the earliest example of cave art.. El Castillo Cave in Cantabria on Spain's northern coast was one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites investigated for the study. The earliest dates were a minimum of 40,800 years ago for a red disk, 37,300 years for a hand stencil, and 35,600 years for a club-shaped symbol. The red disk is at least 4,000 years older than anything previously found in Europe and arguably the oldest cave art anywhere.. These early dates have sparked an interesting debate. The paintings are from the transition period between Neanderthals and the arrival of modern humans. No cave art has been firmly attributed to the Neanderthals and scholars have long debated the level of their intelligence.. Researchers used uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying art in eleven caves to determine the dates. Like ...
  http://gadling.com/2012/06/15/worlds-oldest-cave-art-found-in-spain/
*  Apologetics Press - Are Blind Cave Fish a Good Example of Organic Evolution?
Q.. Evolutionists often use as a proof of their theory the intriguing case of fish that live in deep-water caves and that have lost their sight permanently, yet still function quite well. Are blind cave fish a good example of organic evolution in action?. A.. Found in the subterranean caverns of the world are rare, unique, and sometimes exotic creatures. Numerous varieties of bats, spiders, insects, and other curious creatures populate these damp, cool environments. Hidden from the Sun, weather, and intrusion of man, these caverns represent a truly intriguing habitat. Another animal also dwells in these cavernous environments-the cave fish. Restricted to the dark confines of the globe, cave fish possess unique qualities that differ from the surface varieties generally seen. The most remarkable distinction between cave fish and their surface counterparts is a ...
  http://www.apologeticspress.org/apPubPage.aspx?pub=1&issue=536&article=150
*  Cave - Solution cave features | Britannica.com
Cave - Solution cave features: Superimposed on the walls of cave passages are many small solutional sculpturings that record further details of water flow. Pockets of various sizes and kinds are cut back into the walls and ceiling. Some of these have ax-blade shapes and form where water seeping into the cave passage is mixed with the water already in the passage. If the seepage water and the passage water have the correct chemistry, corrosive water forms in the mixing zone and dissolves away the joint-controlled wall and ceiling pockets. Other wall and ceiling pockets are rounded kettle holes or circular cylinders that extend into
  https://www.britannica.com/science/cave/Solution-cave-features
*  MAR -Cave Laws: Maryland
Natural Resources Article CHAPTER 341 An act concerning Caves for the purpose of setting forth regulations regarding the use of caves; defining certain terms; prohibiting certain actions; allowing for permits under certain circumstances; and providing penalties for certain violations. By adding to Article - Natural Resources Section 5-1401 through 5-1406, inclusive, to be under the new subtitle 'Subtitle 14. Caves' Annotated Code of Maryland (1974 Volume and 1977 Supplement) SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That section(s) of the Annotated Code of Maryland be repealed, amended, or enacted to read as follows: § 5-1401 Definitions Generally. -- In this subtitle, the following terms have the meanings indicated. (a) "Cave" means any naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnecting passages beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ...
  http://caves.org/region/mar/act_md.htm
*  15681 N Cave Creek Road - Cave Creek Business Center - Cave Creek Business Center, Phoenix, AZ 85032-3663 - Property details...
Property details for 15681 N Cave Creek Road - Cave Creek Business Center - Cave Creek Business Center in Phoenix, AZ 85032-3663. This property is one of many commercial real estate listings on Showcase.com, the premier location to search space for rent or commercial property for sale.
  http://www.showcase.com/property/15681-N-Cave-Creek-Road/Phoenix/Arizona/21029
*  Blind flight? A new troglobiotic orthoclad (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Lukina Jama - Trojama Cave in Croatia
The genus Troglocladius Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, gen. n. is erected based on T. hajdi Andersen, Baranov et Hagenlund, sp. n. collected at 980 m depth in the Lukina jama-Trojama cave system in Croatia. Morphological features such as pale color, strongly reduced eyes and very long legs make it a typical cave animal. Surprisingly, it has also retained large wings and appears to be capable of flight which would make T. hajdi the first flying troglobiont worldwide, disproving previous beliefs that bats are the only animals capable of flying in complete darkness. Morphologically the new species does not readily fit within any described genus, but shares characteristics with genera both in the tribes "Metriocnemini" and "Orthocladiini". Bayesian molecular phylogenetic analysis using the markers COI, 18S rDNAs, 28S rDNA, CADI, and CADIV groups it with the genera Tvetenia, Cardiocladius and Eukiefferiella in the tribe "Metriocnemini". Troglocladius hajdi may be ...
  http://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/15321
*  Eyeless Mexican Cavefish Save Energy by Eliminating the Circadian Rhythm in Metabolism
The eyed surface form and eyeless cave form of the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus experience stark differences in the daily periodicities of light, food and predation, factors which are likely to have a profound influence on metabolism. We measured the metabolic rate of Pachón cave and surface fish at a fixed swimming speed under light/dark and constant dark photoperiods. In constant darkness surface forms exhibited a circadian rhythm in metabolism with an increase in oxygen demand during the subjective daytime, whereas cave forms did not. The lack of circadian rhythm in metabolism leads to a 27% energy savings for Pachón cave fish compared to surface fish when comparing both forms in their natural photoperiods. When surface forms were tested under constant dark conditions they expended 38% more energy than cave forms under equivalent conditions. Elimination of the circadian rhythm in metabolism may be a general feature of ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0107877
*  MGX Minerals Commences Exploration and Permitting at Kootenay and Wonah Silicon Projects; Metallurgy Process Design for Testing...
The main target includes the ridge where steeply dipping Ordovician age quartzite is exposed over a strike length of approximately 850 meters. Geological mapping, geochemical sampling, and surveying identified a series of white quartzite outcroppings (Wonah Quartzite Formation) that form 2 lenses, the 'Central Zone' that has been traced for approximately 500 m, and South Zone traced for 350 m along strike. The Central and South Zones consist of a highly competent quartzite unit that trends N to NNE, is approximately 50 meters in width, and has a steep east dip. There is an ESE trending fault between the Central and South Quartzite Zones that has an approximate 200 m sinstral, horizontal displacement. A total of 11 rock chip quartzite samples were taken from the Central & South Zones by MGX VP Exploration Andris Kikauka (P. Geo.) shortly after acquisition in 2015. Rock chip samples were analyzed by ALS Minerals, North Vancouver, BC, using Li Borate fusion, whole rock analysis ME-XRF-06 (XRF26), ...
  https://stockguru.com/2017/12/18/mgx-minerals-commences-exploration-and-permitting-at-kootenay-and-wonah-silicon-projects-metallurgy-process-design-for-testing-of-solar-grade-silicon-applicability-completed/
*  The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 | Indiana Karst Conservancy
Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 43, Volume 1, Parts 1 to 199] [Revised as of October 1, 2000] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 43CFR37] [Page 519-522] TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS: INTERIOR PART 37--CAVE MANAGEMENT Subpart A--Cave Management--General Sec. 37.1 Purpose. 37.2 Policy. 37.3 Authority. 37.4 Definitions. 37.5 Collection of information. Subpart B--Cave Designation 37.11 Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves. 37.12 Confidentiality of cave location information. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 4301-4309; 43 U.S.C. 1740. [[Page 520]] Source: 58 FR 51554, Oct. 1, 1993, unless otherwise noted. Subpart A--Cave Management--General Sec. 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves on Federal lands administered by the Secretary of the Interior. Sec. 37.2 ...
  http://ikc.caves.org/node/16
*  Very old cave paintings - Houston Chronicle
This undated photograph shows large (2 meter) paintings of horses at the Tito Bustillo Cave, Spain. These overlay earlier red paintings which, from uranium-series dating elsewhere in the cave, might be older than 29,000 years, making them the oldest cave paintings in Europe. The practice of cave art in Europe thus began up to 10,000 years earlier than previously thought, indicating the paintings were created either by the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or, perhaps, by Neanderthals. AFP PHOTO / SCIENCE / Courtesy of Rodrigo De Balbín Behrmann == EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE: 1400 ET (18:00 GMT) JUNE 14, 2012 / RESTRICTED TO EDITORIAL USE / MANDATORY CREDIT: "AFP PHOTO / SCIENCE / Courtesy of Rodrigo De Balbín Behrmann" / NO SALES / NO MARKETING / NO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS / DISTRIBUTED AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS ==Rodrigo De Balbín Behrmann/AFP/GettyImages less ...
  http://www.chron.com/premium/slideshow/Very-old-cave-paintings-44485.php