*  Endocardial-to-mesenchymal transformation and mesenchymal cell colonization at the onset of human cardiac valve development |...
During endocardial cushion formation, endocardial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype by a process called endocardial- ... Pollen differentiation as well as pollen tube guidance and discharge are independent of the presence of gametes ... Initially, these cushions derive from the cardiac jelly that is formed between the myocardial and endocardial layers within the ... While nuclear NFATC1 was highly expressed in the endocardial cells of early cardiac cushions, and also in VECs of elongated ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/143/3/473
*  Congenital heart defect - Wikipedia
On day 19 of development, a pair of vascular elements, the "endocardial tubes", form. The tubes fuse when cells between then ... Notch signaling is involved early in the formation of the endocardial cushions and continues to be active as the develop into ... A number of genes have been associated with cardiac manifestations. Mutations of a heart muscle protein, α-myosin heavy chain ( ... "endocardial cushions", fuse to form the four chambers of the heart. A failure to fuse properly will result in a defect that may ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congenital_heart_defect
*  MicroRNA-23 Restricts Cardiac Valve Formation by Inhibiting Has2 and Extracellular Hyaluronic Acid ProductionNovelty and...
Restricted endocardial expression of Has2 in wild-type endocardial cushions (C) and ectopic Has2 expression in MZdicer mutant ... We observed that in the linear heart tube of zebrafish embryos, Has2 was expressed in few endocardial cells already at 30 hpf ( ... It has been well documented that the cardiac valves originate from the endocardium that locally forms endocardial cushions; ... endocardial cushion. EMT. epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. MEEC. mouse embryonic endothelial cell. miRNA/miR. microRNA. MO ...
  http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/109/6/649
*  Aaron D. Gitler | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Molecular markers of cardiac endocardial cushion development DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS Gitler, A. D., Lu, M. M., Jiang, Y. Q., ... Endocardial cushions are precursors of mature heart valves. They form within the looped heart tube as discrete swellings and ... we provide a detailed comparative gene expression analysis of thirteen endocardial cushion markers. We identify endocardial ... At 18 hpf, when the heart tube is beginning to assemble, three domains of tbx1 expression can be seen: cardiac precursors, ...
  https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/aaron-gitler
*  ACVR1 | Cancer Genetics Web
embryonic heart tube morphogenesis - endocardial cushion cell fate commitment - G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle - ... ALK in cardiac myocytes BIOCARTA. - Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction KEGG. - TGF-beta signaling pathway KEGG. Data from ... cardiac muscle cell fate commitment - cellular response to glucocorticoid stimulus - determination of left/right symmetry - ...
  http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/ACVR1.htm
*  Endocardial cushions - Wikipedia
... called the endocardial cushions seen in the heart tube. Upon sectioning of the heart the atrioventricular endocardial cushions ... a process whereby these cells break cell-to-cell contacts and migrate into the cardiac jelly (towards the interior of the heart ... The endocardial cushions are a subset of cells found in the developing heart tube that will give rise to the heart's valves and ... Endocardial cushions, or atrioventricular cushions, refer to a subset of cells in the development of the heart that play a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocardial_cushions
*  Congenital heart defect - Wikipedia
On day 19 of development, a pair of vascular elements, the "endocardial tubes", form. The tubes fuse when cells between then ... Notch signaling is involved early in the formation of the endocardial cushions and continues to be active as the develop into ... Non-cardiac manifestations[19]. Upper limb abnormalities. Small or absent thymus. Small or absent parathyroids. Facial ... "endocardial cushions", fuse to form the four chambers of the heart. A failure to fuse properly will result in a defect that may ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congenital_heart_defect
*  Isolated Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Recurrent Syncope
S. Li, D. Zhou, M. M. Lu, and E. E. Morrisey, "Advanced cardiac morphogenesis does not require heart tube fusion," Science, vol ... Fourth step includes the valvulogenesis from endocardial cushions. Subsequently, septation of heart is believed to occur as a ... The first step is the migration of two primordial epithelial tubes, followed by fusion leading to formation of heart tube [2]. ... L. A. Taber, "Mechanical aspects of cardiac development," Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, vol. 69, no. 2-3, pp. ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/3742171/
*  Endocardial cushion defect | Nicklaus Children's Hospital
Cardiac catheterization (in some cases), a procedure in which a thin tube (catheter) is placed into the heart to see blood flow ... Endocardial cushion defect occurs while a baby is still growing in the womb. The endocardial cushions are two thicker areas ... Endocardial cushion defect Definition. Endocardial cushion defect (ECD) is an abnormal heart condition. The walls separating ...
  https://www.nicklauschildrens.org/health-information-library/disease/endocardial-cushion-defect?lang=es-CO
*  Transitions in Early Embryonic Atrioventricular Valvular Function Correspond With Changes in Cushion Biomechanics That Are...
... study we examined the mechanical properties and myocardial/endocardial cushion mechanical interaction in 3 stages of cardiac ... which occurs in a quasi-linear fashion along the looped heart tube. During migration, mesenchymal cells secrete collagen (HH21 ... Prior models of endocardial cushion function and their contribution to flow regulation have not accounted for cushion material ... The cushions exhibited simultaneous changes in thickness with the myocardium through the cardiac cycle at the limits of M-mode ...
  http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/100/10/1503
*  FOXC1 Gene - GeneCards | FOXC1 Protein | FOXC1 Antibody
Cushion Mesenchymal Cells Endocardium * Endocardial Tube Cells Endocardium *span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> Adipose ( ... Cardiac Neural Crest Cells Cardiac Neural Crest * Cranial Neural Crest Cells Branchial Arch 1 ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=FOXC1&ortholog_desc=all
*  FOXC2 Gene - GeneCards | FOXC2 Protein | FOXC2 Antibody
Endocardial Cells Endocardium * Cardiac Fibroblasts Myocardium * Cushion Mesenchymal Cells Endocardium * Endocardial Tube Cells ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=FOXC2
*  A null mutation of Hhex results in abnormal cardiac development, defective vasculogenesis and elevated Vegfa levels |...
First, there was a dramatic overabundance of endocardial cushion cells (ECCs) and cardiac jelly in both the AV cushion (AVC) ... is seen in the ventral foregut endoderm adjacent to the heart and in endocardial cells of the developing cardiac tubes, but not ... cells that undergo EMT to form the endocardial cushions and are subsequently involved in the formation of cardiac cushions and ... AV endocardial cushion transformation occurs in vivo between 21-28 somites in the mouse. Cultured AV canal endocardial cushions ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/131/20/5197
*  Prevalence and Spectrum of TBX5 Mutation in Patients with Lone Atrial Fibrillation
... endocardial cushion defects, left heart hypoplasia, and morphological and functional abnormalities in the conduction system, ... Tbx5 is widely expressed in cardiac crescent, linear heart tube, common atrium, ventricles, inferior and superior vena cavae, ... Akazawa H, Komuro I. Cardiac transcription factor Csx/Nkx2-5: its role in cardiac development and diseases. Pharmacol Ther. ... Chamber-specific cardiac expression of Tbx5 and heart defects in Holt-Oram syndrome. Dev Biol. 1999;211:100-8 ...
  http://www.medsci.org/v13p0060.htm
*  Human embryonic heart (48 days), CD 34 and CD 31 immune | Open-i
Nevertheless, endocardial tip cells were also found in cardiac cushions, but they were not related to cushion endothelial ... Within the subepicardium α-SMA+/desmin+ myoid coats of the endothelial tubes were found (Figs. 4and5). In the outer part of the ... Nevertheless, endocardial tip cells were also found in cardiac cushions, but they were not related to cushion endothelial ... vimentin+ endocardial tip cells.Nevertheless, endocardial tip cells were also found in cardiac cushions, but they were not ...
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4305311_pone.0115853.g004&req=4
*  Tetralogy of Fallot and Alterations in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Signaling and Notch Signaling in Mouse Embryos...
Other Cardiac Anomalies Correct looping of the early heart tube is crucial for proper cardiac septation. In half of the E10.5 ... 23-25 Notch has also been described to stimulate endocardial cushion EMT,23,26 implying a potential effect of VEGF on cushion ... these disturbances will exert an effect on cushion EMT and could relate to OFT cushion hyperplasia and associated cardiac ... the development of both the endocardial cushions and the adjacent myocardium is crucial. Within this process, the cushions must ...
  http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/100/6/842
*  Heart development - Wikipedia
By day 19, an endocardial tube begins to develop in each side of this region. These two tubes grow and by the third week have ... Tissue masses called endocardial cushions develop into atrioventricular and conotroncal regions. In these places, the cushions ... The heart tube continues stretching and by day 23, in a process called morphogenesis, cardiac looping begins. The cephalic ... they are referred to as endocardial tubes. At the same time that the tubes are forming other major heart components are also ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_development
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... undergo endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT), and invade the cardiac jelly. At stage HH25 the valvular cushions are ... The early embryonic heart is a U-shaped tube of endocardium surrounded by myocardium. The myocardium secretes cardiac jelly, a ... Pre-EMT endocardial cells can be cultured with or without the myocardium. Post-EMT AV cushion mesenchymal cells can be cultured ... Developmental Biology, Issue 44, quail, chicken, HH14-, HH25, endocardial, explant, mesenchymal, cushion, valve progenitor ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/24944076/the-anti-tumor-efficiency-pterostilbene-is-promoted-with-combined
*  MMP-2 plays an essential role in producing epithelial-mesenchymal transformations in the avian embryo - Duong - 2003 -...
Previous studies also showed that MMP-2 is expressed in migrating chick endocardial cushion cells (Alexander et al., 1997; Cai ... This two-step model has been particularly well documented in the emigration of cardiac cushion cells (Brown et al., 1999; Boyer ... neural crest cells accumulated in the dorsal neural tube or just outside the neural tube, and there was a reduction in the ... and endocardial cushion cells (Alexander et al., 1997; Cai et al., 2000)] and, therefore, predicted to have a role in the ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dvdy.10465/full
*  Neuregulin 1 Sustains the Gene Regulatory Network in Both Trabecular and Nontrabecular MyocardiumNovelty and Significance |...
Nrg1 is known to contribute to endocardial cushion formation.15 As in null embryos,29 AV canal (AVC) and OFT cushions of 9.5 to ... We monitored cardiac pErk1/2 in embryos and found that expression was Nrg1-dependent and levels correlated with cardiac GRN ... The primary heart tube is initially in a state of virtual quiescence, before myocytes within chamber territories expand by ... We show here that Nrg1 signaling supports the cardiac chamber-specific GRN at the level of its core cardiac transcription ...
  http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/107/6/715
*  Aorticopulmonary septum - Wikipedia
Four endocardial cushions appear in the proximal part of the truncus arteriosus in the region of the future semilunar valves; ... Two distal ridge-like thickenings project into the lumen of the tube; these increase in size, and ultimately meet and fuse to ... Jiang X, Rowitch DH, Soriano P, McMahon AP, Sucov HM (2000). "Fate of the mammalian cardiac neural crest..". Development. 127 ( ... Two endocardial thickenings-anterior and posterior-develop in the bulbus cordis and unite to form a short septum; this joins ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aorticopulmonary_septum
*  Tbx20 dose-dependently regulates transcription factor networks required for mouse heart and motoneuron development | Development
Tbx20 is expressed most strongly in the endocardial cushions (red asterisks) at E12.5 (E-E″); at E16.5 (F-F″), its expression ... Tbx20 is expressed both in the myocardium and in the endocardium, both of which are crucial cell types in cardiac cushion ... 7). This abnormality, combined with an absence of rightward heart looping, resulted in a linear heart tube with an hourglass ... S2 in the supplementary material). In both b12 and a6 Tbx20 knockdown embryos, there was a complete lack of endocardial cushion ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/132/10/2463
*  Head and Neck Session 11 Flashcards by Laura Martin | Brainscape
C- cardiac abnormalities- neural crest cells contribute to devlopment of CVS e.g. endocardial cushions and separation of PA and ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/head-and-neck-session-11-2231466/packs/3384166
*  REGENERATION AND SURVIVAL OF CARDIAC PROGENITORS AND CARDIOMYOCYTES WITH A STRETCH ACTIVATED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR - Patent...
In addition, Creb312 gene expression is detected in the endocardium and the mesenchyme of the endocardial cushion of the heart ... looping heart tube stage (data not shown), and full length creb312 mRNA is also highly expressed in the outflow tract, the ... wherein the cardiac cell is a cardiac progenitor cell.13. The method of paragraph 12, wherein the cardiac cell is a ... is generally accompanied by the release of cardiac enzymes, including cardiac creatine kinase (CK). Assays for cardiac enzymes ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100210713
*  BMP receptor IA is required in mammalian neural crest cells for development of the cardiac outflow tract and ventricular...
Endocardial cushion and myocardial defects after cardiac myocyte-specific conditional deletion of the bone morphogenetic ... A,B) At 4 somites, Wnt1-Cre mediates loxP recombination in the forming NCCs of the hindbrain, but not the neural tube. ... ... well-formed endocardial cushions (Fig. 5M,N). Consistent with reduced NCC immigration, the Tie2-lacZ transgene marked the ... their apparent lack of endocardial cushion formation is consistent with the findings of reduced NCCs and persistent truncus ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3004289/