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*  Synthesis of Threose Nucleic Acid (TNA) Triphosphates and Oligonucleotides by Polymerase‐Mediated Primer Extension - Current...
This unit describes the chemical synthesis of α‐L‐threofuranosyl nucleic acid (TNA) triphosphates for thymidine (T), guanosine (G), cytidine (C), and the diaminopurine (D) analog of adenosine and their incorporation into TNA oligonucleotides by enzyme‐mediated polymerization of a DNA primer‐template complex
  http://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-nc0454.html?quicktabs_cp=abstract
*  GMD - Threose - InChI=1S/C4H8O4/c5-1-3(7)4(8)2-6/h1,3-4,6-8H,2H2/t3-,4-/m0/s1
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
  http://gmd.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/Metabolites/F49E7756-40E6-4325-AABD-CAE8087B66F9.aspx
*  DAHP synthase - Wikipedia
3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.54) is the first enzyme in a series of metabolic reactions known as the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Since it is the first enzyme in the shikimate pathway, it controls the amount of carbon entering the pathway. Enzyme inhibition is the primary method of regulating the amount of carbon entering the pathway. Forms of this enzyme differ between organisms, but can be considered DAHP synthase based upon the reaction that is catalyzed by this enzyme. In enzymology, a DAHP synthase (EC 2.5.1.54) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction phosphoenolpyruvate + D-erythrose 4-phosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3-deoxy-D-arabino-hept-2-ulosonate 7-phosphate + phosphate The three substrates of this enzyme are phosphoenolpyruvate, D-erythrose 4-phosphate, and H2O, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DAHP_synthase
*  BIFUNCTIONAL MOLECULES WITH ANTIBODY-RECRUITING AND ENTRY INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AGAINST THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS -...
0121] X' is CH2, O, N--R1', or S, preferably O; R1' is H or C1-C3 alkyl; and Z is a bond, a monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, glycoprotein or glycolipid, preferably a sugar group, more preferably a sugar group selected from the monosaccharides, including aldoses and ketoses, and disaccharides, including those disaccharides described herein. Monosaccharide aldoses include monosaccharides such as aldotriose (D-glyceraldehyde, among others), aldotetroses (D-erythrose and D-Threose, among others), aldopentoses, (D-ribose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, D-lyxose, among others), aldohexoses (D-allose, D-altrose, D-Glucose, D-Mannose, D-gulose, D-idose, D-galactose and D-Talose, among others), and the monosaccharide ketoses include monosaccharides such as ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone, among others), ketotetrose (D-erythrulose, among others), ketopentose (D-ribulose and D-xylulose, among others), ketohexoses (D-Psicone, D-Fructose, D-Sorbose, ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20120269766
*  Erythrose 4-phosphate - Wikipedia
Erythrose 4-phosphate is a phosphate of the simple sugar erythrose. It is an intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle. In addition, it serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. It is used in the first step of the shikimate pathway. At this stage, phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate react to form 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP), in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme DAHP synthase. It also used in 3-hydroxy-1-aminoacetone phosphate biosynthesis, which is a precursor of vitamin B6 in DXP-dependent pathway. Erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase is used to produce erythronate-4-phosphate ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythrose_4-phosphate
*  Frontiers | TyrR, the regulator of aromatic amino acid metabolism, is required for mice infection of Yersinia pestis |...
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, poses a serious health threat to rodents and human beings. TyrR is a transcriptional regulator that controls the metabolism of aromatic amino acids in Escherichia coli. In this paper, TyrR played an important role in Y. pestis virulence. Inactivation of tyrR did not seem to affect the in vitro growth of this organism, but resulted in at least 10,000-fold attenuation compared with the wild-type (WT) strain upon subcutaneous infection to mice. In addition, loads of tyrR mutant within mice livers and spleens significantly decreased compared with the WT strain. Transcriptome analysis revealed that TyrR, directly or indirectly, regulated 29 genes encoded on Y. pestis chromosome or plasmids under in vitro growth condition. Similar to the regulatory function of this protein in E. coli, five aromatic-pathway genes (aroF-tyrA, aroP, aroL, and tyrP) were significantly reduced upon deletion of the tyrR gene. Two genes (glnL and glnG) that encode sensory histidine
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00110/full
*  KEGG PATHWAY: Sulfur metabolism - Eubacterium limosum
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced ...
  http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?elm00920
*  EC 2.5.1.54
Accepted name: 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase. Reaction: phosphoenolpyruvate + D-erythrose 4-phosphate + H2O = 3-deoxy-D-arabino-hept-2-ulosonate 7-phosphate + phosphate. For diagram click here and mechanism here.. Other name(s): 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphoheptonate aldolase; 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptonic acid 7-phosphate synthetase; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-2-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate synthetase; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptolosonate-7-phosphate synthetase; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase; 7-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptonate D-erythrose-4-phosphate lyase (pyruvate-phosphorylating); 7-phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptonate D-erythrose-4-phosphate lyase (pyruvate-phosphorylating); D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase; D-erythrose-4-phosphate-lyase (pyruvate-phosphorylating); DAH7-P synthase; DAHP synthase; DS-Co; DS-Mn; KDPH synthase; KDPH synthetase; deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthetase; phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolase; ...
  http://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC2/5/1/54.html
*  Methods for the electrolytic production of erythrose or erythritol - Dynamic Food Ingredients Corporation
Methods for the production of erythrose and/or erythritol are provided herein. Preferably, the methods include the step of electrolytic decarboxylation of a ribonic acid or arabinonic acid reactant to
  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7955489.html
*  EC 1.1.1.402
Accepted name: D-erythritol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase. Reaction: D-erythritol 1-phosphate + NADP+ = D-erythrulose 1-phosphate + NADPH + H+. Other name(s): eryB (gene name). Systematic name: D-erythritol-1-phosphate 2-oxidoreductase. Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the pathogenic bacterium Brucella abortus, which causes brucellosis in livestock, participates in erythritol catabolism.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Sperry, J.F. and Robertson, D.C. Erythritol catabolism by Brucella abortus. J. Bacteriol. 121 (1975) 619-630. [PMID: 163226]. 2. Sangari, F.J., Aguero, J. and Garcia-Lobo, J.M. The genes for erythritol catabolism are organized as an inducible operon in Brucella abortus. Microbiology 146 (2000) 487-495. [PMID: 10708387]. 3. Barbier, T., Collard, F., Zuniga-Ripa, A., Moriyon, I., Godard, T., Becker, J., Wittmann, C., Van Schaftingen, E. and Letesson, J.J. Erythritol feeds the pentose phosphate pathway via three new ...
  http://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC1/1/1/402.html
*  CHAPTER 3: CARBOHYDRATES
Monosaccharides Structures. Sugars can be defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. Hence the simplest sugars contain at least three carbons. The most common are the aldo- and keto-trioses, tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses. The simplest 3C sugars are glyceraldehye and dihydroxyacetone. Glucose, an aldo-hexose, is a central sugar in metabolism. It and other 5 and 6C sugars can cyclize through intramolecular nucleophilic attack of one of the OH's on the carbonyl C of the aldehyde or ketone. Such intramolecular reactions occur if stable 5 or 6 member rings can form. The resulting rings are labeled furanose (5 member) or pyranose (6 member) based on their similarity to furan and pyran. On nucleophilic attack to form the ring, the carbonyl O becomes an OH which points either below the ring (a anomer) or above ...
  http://biochem-vivek.tripod.com/id27.html
*  Definition for monosaccharide
monosaccharide definition: some of a few carbs, such as for instance tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses, that simply cannot be broken down to easier sugars by hydrolysis. Also referred to as simple sugar.;…
  https://www.azdictionary.com/definition/monosaccharide
*  Triose - Wikipedia
Uma triose é um monossacarídeo contendo três átomos de carbono. Existem apenas duas trioses, uma aldotriose (gliceraldeído) e uma cetotriose (diidroxiacetona). As trioses são importantes na respiração. Nomeadamente, os ácidos láctico e pirúvico são derivados da aldotriose e cetotriose, respectivamente. A nomenclatura de trioses, tetroses, pentoses e hexoses foi desenvolvida por Emil Fischer, a partir dos seus estudos de carboidratos iniciados em 1880. Fischer também endossou os termos aldose e cetose, propostos por Armstrong[quem?]. A D-aldotriose é o D-Gliceraldeído A cetotriose é diidroxiacetona: Diose Tetrose Pentose Hexose Heptose Nomenclature of Carbohydrates, site da IUPAC Este artigo foi inicialmente traduzido do artigo da Wikipédia em inglês, cujo título é «Triose», especificamente desta versão ...
  https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triose
*  transaldolase activity QuickView - Correlation Engine
Catalysis of the reaction: sedoheptulose 7-phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate = D-erythrose 4-phosphate + D-fructose 6-phosphate.
  http://www.nextbio.com/b/search/ov/transaldolase%20activity?id=33317&type=biogroup
*  Characterization of erythrose reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica and its influence on erythritol synthesis | Microbial Cell...
Subsequently, we set out to determine whether Zn2+ supplementation increases erythritol synthesis by the engineered Y. lipolytica. In this experiment we compared AMM pAD-YlER strain harboring the overexpression cassette with its parental strain MK1. The strains were grown in baffled flasks in medium developed for erythritol synthesis, supplemented with 0.25 mM ZnSO4 × 7H2O. Interestingly, we noted a strong increase in erythritol titer for both of the strains, the engineered and the control strain (Fig. 2b). The erythritol titer was improved by 22 and 37% for the engineered (54.1 g/L) and the control strain (51.0 g/L), respectively, when compared to the results obtained in medium without zinc supplementation (Fig. 2a). In addition, for the engineered strain we noted an increase in YERY, which achieved 0.55 g/L/h. Interestingly, a significant difference was observed for the control, which achieved an erythritol titer (51.0 g/L) at a similar level to the engineered strain (44.4 g/L) in medium ...
  https://microbialcellfactories.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12934-017-0733-6
*  Building Custom Polysaccharides in Vitro with an Efficient, Broad-Specificity Xyloglucan Glycosynthase and a Fucosyltransferase
The current drive for applications of biomass-derived compounds, for energy and advanced materials, has led to a resurgence of interest in the manipulation of plant polymers. The xyloglucans, a family of structurally complex plant polysaccharides, have attracted significant interest due to their intrinsic high affinity for cellulose, both in muro and in technical applications. Moreover, current cell wall models are limited by the lack of detailed structure-property relationships of xyloglucans, due to a lack of molecules with well-defined branching patterns. Here, we have developed a new, broad-specificity "xyloglucan glycosynthase", selected from active-site mutants of a bacterial endoxyloglucanase, which catalyzed the synthesis of high molar mass polysaccharides, with complex side-chain structures, from suitable glycosyl fluoride donor substrates. The product range was further extended by combination with an Arabidopsis thaliana alpha(1 -, 2)-fucosyltransferase to achieve the in vitro ...
  http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:438844
*  Walmart Pedigree Beef Liver Chicken and Beef Bacon Cheese Variety Delivery Online in Austin, Dallas, Houston, San Antonio ::...
Buy Walmart Pedigree Beef Liver Chicken and Beef Bacon Cheese Variety online in Houston, San Antonio. Get best deal on all Pedigree Beef Liver Chicken and Beef Bacon Cheese Variety delivery online in Austin at grocery delivery website - Burpy.com
  https://www.burpy.com/walmart/pedigree-beef-liver-chicken-and-beef-bacon-cheese-variety/product-detail/1650068
*  Quick Correction/thought - Gerson did not use raw beef liver... Re: other variables/issues to add/consider (typo edits)...Re:...
...he used raw beef liver JUICE (extracted in a Norwalk) - there is a huge difference! Then, due to bacterial contamination (and likely the unavailability of truly healthy/clean cow s liver), it was switched to dessicated liver supplements or crude extract injection. Thought: as far as meat in concerned, one of the things that is missing is this thread (among other meat issues ) is how much longer & harder the body has to work to extract the nutrients out of meat than it does from plants. The energy and resources expended on the digestive process is HUGE (creation of the various en ...
  https://www.curezone.org/forums/fm.asp?i=1750776
*  Beef Liver with Red Wine Sauce Recipe on Food52
My grandpa always loved liver, especially the beef liver that my grandma would prepare. This recipe is dedicated to him, because he especially loved liver with a sweet/sour red wine sauce. Serve with steamed brown rice and a green salad.
  https://food52.com/recipes/32532-beef-liver-with-red-wine-sauce
*  Fuel price drop 'boosts economy' | RAC Drive
The fall in fuel prices has significantly boosted the UK economy, according to the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR).. The economic consultancy says lower costs at the pumps have raised GDP by 0.5-0.6%.. Savings that the drop in petrol and diesel prices brought consumers and businesses have "filtered through into the economy", with lower prices for some goods, increased consumption and greater investment, the report adds.. This increase in economic activity will also help to create around 121,000 jobs, the CEBR estimates.. It concludes that while continuing the fuel duty escalator - which has been frozen since 2011 - would have brought in additional taxes, it would have been "an unwise policy" because it would have stifled job creation and economic activity.. The report states: "Our previous analysis has shown the savings that falling fuel prices have brought to consumers and businesses.. "Here we extend this analysis to show that falling oil and fuel prices have provided a ...
  https://www.rac.co.uk/drive/news/motoring-news/fuel-price-drop-boosts-economy/
*  Sequence Similarity - 1ECE: ACIDOTHERMUS CELLULOLYTICUS ENDOCELLULASE E1 CATALYTIC DOMAIN IN COMPLEX WITH A...
1ECE: Crystal structure of thermostable family 5 endocellulase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in complex with cellotetraose.
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/sequenceCluster.do?structureId=1ECE
*  RCSB PDB - 1CEN: CELLULASE (CELC) MUTANT WITH GLU 140 REPLACED BY GLN COMPLEXED WITH CELLOHEXAOSE Macromolecule...
1CEN: The crystal structure of a family 5 endoglucanase mutant in complexed and uncomplexed forms reveals an induced fit activation mechanism.
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1CEN
*  RCSB PDB for 1OH7
1OH7: Structures of E. Coli DNA Mismatch Repair Enzyme Muts in Complex with Different Mismatches: A Common Recognition Mode for Diverse Substrates
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/biologyAndChemistry.do?structureId=1OH7
*  Glyptothorax indicus
Occurs only in fast-flowing streams. Prefers backwater of quiet eddies (Ref. 12045). Collected in a large river with high, turbid monsoon flow and with diverse substrate consisting of sand, mud, gravel, pebble, cobble, and boulders (Ref. 85713). ...
  http://www.fishbase.org/summary/24864
*  N-methylimidazole-N-methylimidazole-N-methylpyrrole-aminobutyric acid- N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-alanine...
N-methylimidazole-N-methylimidazole-N-methylpyrrole-aminobutyric acid- N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-N-methylpyrrole-alanine- ...
  http://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=C117602