*  Estradiol, Tamoxifen, and Flaxseed Alter IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra Levels in Normal Human Breast Tissue in Vivo
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of malignancy-associated death in women worldwide. Estrogens are the main sex hormones in women. They are essential for the development and function of normal breast mammary glands; however, prolonged exposure to estrogens increases the risk of breast cancer development and progression. Approximately two-thirds of all breast cancer patients are positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but only 50% of those cases can benefit from antiestrogen therapy.. In this thesis we investigated the effects of estrogen, diet modification, and anti-estrogen drugs on several immune modulators in normal human breast tissue. We used the microdialysis technique to sample the immune modulators in situ in normal human breast tissue, in malignant breast tissue, and in tumor tissue from both the immune competent mice with murine breast cancer and immune deficient mice bearing human breast tumors. Furthermore, we also used ex vivo culture of ...
  http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:580093
*  Expression of estrogen receptors in a normal human breast epithelial cell type with luminal and stem cell characteristics and...
Although approximately two-thirds of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, only a small proportion of epithelial cells in the mammary gland express the ER. The origin of the ER-positive breast cancers is unknown. Recently, we have developed a culture method to grow two morphologically and antigenically distinguishable types of normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) derived from reduction mammoplasty. In this report, we studied the expression of ER in these two types of cells and their transformed cell lines. The results indicate that Type I HBEC with luminal and stem cell characteristics expressed a variant ER (approximately 48 kd) by Western blot analysis. This variant ER contains a deletion in the DNA binding domain (exon 2) as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. The lack of the DNA-binding domain of the variant ER was also confirmed by the ER-estrogen responsive element binding assay, as well as by the immunofluorescence staining of the ER using anti-ER antibodies which recognize ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/carcin/18.2.251
*  Tamoxifen inhibits secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer in vivo
Sex steroid exposure constitutes a risk factor for breast cancer, but little is known about the effects of sex steroids on factors mediating angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, in normal and malignant breast tissue. In this thesis we have investigated the effects of estradiol, progesterone, and the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in normal human breast tissue, endothelial cells, and breast cancer. We have applied the technique of microdialysis to provide in situ sampling of estradiol and VEGF in tumors and normal breast tissue of breast cancer patients in vivo. Furthermore, we present a novel method of culturing normal human breast tissue ex vivo.. Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic effect of estradiol and an anti-angiogenic effect of tamoxifen in the breast. Estradiol increased extracellular levels of VEGF in normal human breast tissue and breast cancer cells in vitro. In addition, ...
  http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:22266
*  The proliferation of normal human breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice is stimulated by estrogen but not progesterone...
In order to resolve the question of which ovarian steroid stimulates normal human mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we have implanted pieces of normal human breast tissue subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. These mice were then treated with slow-release pellets containing estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P) such that serum levels of E2 and P were increased to those seen in normal women. The proliferative activity of the tissue implants was assessed by uptake of tritiated thymidine and steroid receptor expression was measured immunocytochemically. Insertion of a 2 mg E2 pellet 14 days after tissue implantation increased the thymidine labeling index (TLI) from a median of 0.4% (n = 34) to a median of 2.1% after 7 days (n = 43; P , 0.001 by Mann Whitney U test). In contrast, treatment with a P pellet (4 mg) had no effect upon the TLI whereas P (4 mg) in combination with E2 (2 mg) had no effect over and above that of E2 alone. There was a significant correlation between the increase in TLI ...
  http://christie.openrepository.com/christie/handle/10541/99428
*  The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) and Potential Regulators in Normal, Benign and Malignant Human Breast Tissue
Introduction: The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro. Methods:Human breast tissue specimens (malignant n = 75, normal n = 15, fibroadenoma n = 10) were analysed by RQ-PCR targeting NIS, receptors for retinoic acid (RAR¿, RAR¿), oestrogen (ER¿), thyroid hormones (THR¿, THR¿), and also phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K). Breast cancer cells were treated with Retinoic acid (ATRA), Estradiol and Thyroxine individually and in combination followed by analysis of changes in NIS expression. Results:The lowest levels of NIS were detected in normal tissue (Mean(SEM) 0.70(0.12) Log10 Relative Quantity (RQ)) with significantly higher levels observed in fibroadenoma (1.69(0.21) Log10RQ, p,0.005) and malignant breast tissue (1.18(0.07) Log10RQ, p,0.05). ...
  https://aran.library.nuigalway.ie/xmlui/handle/10379/1932
*  Breast size procedures, Information about Breast size procedures
Breast size procedures are performed to increase or decrease the size of thebreast. The two types of breast size procedures are breast augmentation, or implants, and breast reduction. With the earliest experiments in breast size procedures documented in the 1890s by a doctor in Vienna who attempted breastenlargement with paraffin injections, further research along with the public's interest subsided until the introduction of liquid silicone in the 1950s and 1960s. As research continues, from implanting polyvinyl sponges in dogs in1952 to test their validity for use as prostheses in humans, to the search for the "perfect" and safer implant filler today, the demand for breast size procedures remains constant.. Augmentation. Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure used for enlarging the breast, tobalance a difference in size, to adjust a reduction in breast volume following pregnancy or weight loss, and as a reconstructive technique following breast cancer surgery. The classic technique for ...
  http://www.faqs.org/health/topics/90/Breast-size-procedures.html
*  Abbreviated Breast MRI exam increases early cancer detection | Northwest Hospital & Medical Center
Northwest Hospital, along with Via Radiology, is now offering Abbreviated Breast MRI (AB-MR), a new screening exam that improves detection of cancer in women with dense breast tissue. AB-MR takes less than 10 minutes and is as accurate as the longer, more expensive breast MRI that has been used for more than 20 years.. Nearly 50% of women who have mammograms have dense breast tissue. Breast tissue is made up of milk glands, milk ducts, supportive tissue (dense breast tissue), and fatty tissue (non-dense breast tissue). Women with dense breasts have more dense tissue than fatty tissue. The radiologist who looks at your mammogram determines whether you have dense breasts.. A mammogram alone for women with dense breast tissue may not diagnosis early stages of cancer. For these women, an MRI is the most accurate test for early detection. However, because of its high cost, insurers have limited approval for an MRI only to women at high risk for breast cancer. We now have an ...
  http://nwhospital.org/medinfo/abbreviated-breast-mri/
*  Breast Density Alone Found Not to Be a Factor for Breast Cancer Risk - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Although several studies suggest that women with denser breast tissue have an increased risk of breast cancer, a new study by Johns Hopkins researchers discredits breast density as a risk factor in and of itself, instead concluding that age and body fat, especially in the upper belly, contribute to the breast cancer seen in many patients.. "Many studies that link breast density to breast cancer risk used data from mammograms, which can't accurately measure breast density," says Wenlian Zhu, Ph.D., a research associate in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a member of the team reporting the study results online Oct. 21, 2015, in European Radiology. "Our research may help dispel the assertion that breast density alone is something women should be worried about with regard to their breast cancer risk, and it may help minimize confusion and unnecessary concern.". Breast density notification laws have been put into effect in 24 states. According to Zhu, such laws mandate that the ...
  https://www.healthcanal.com/cancers/breast-cancer/69088-breast-density-alone-found-not-to-be-a-factor-for-breast-cancer-risk.html
*  Breast development - Wikipedia
Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life. It occurs across several phases, including prenatal development, puberty, and pregnancy. At menopause, breast development ceases and the breasts atrophy. Breast development results in prominent and developed structures on the chest known as breasts in primates, which serve as both a sexual characteristic and as mammary glands. The process is mediated by an assortment of hormones (and growth factors), the most important of which include estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, and growth hormone. The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly via its secretory product, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and prolactin. These regulators induce the expression of growth factors, such as amphiregulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_development
*  Molecular analysis of the p14 ARF-hdm2-p53 regulatory pathway in breast carcinoma | ScholarBank@NUS
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The main objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the p14ARF-hdm2-p53 regulatory pathway and E2F transcription factors play important roles in breast carcinogenesis. This study was conducted in four phases. The initial project investigated p53 mutations, p14ARF mutations and mRNA expression and hdm2 gene amplification. The genetic alterations were identified in 25% of primary breast cancers and 64% of human breast cell lines with p53 mutations being the predominant aberration. The second phase evaluated p53 expression by immunohistochemistry in invasive breast cancers and detected nuclear reactivity in 35% of the 105 Asian women. p53 immunopositivity correlated with poorer overall survival. The third project examined paired samples of DCIS and normal breast tissue samples and revealed p53 mutations in 20% of the DCIS lesions, but, none of the corresponding normal breast tissues. These findings support the hypothesis that ...
  http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/14077
*  Plus it
Gene expression signatures of benign breast tissues surrounding breast cancers demonstrate marked heterogeneity, comparable to the diversity found in tumor tissues. Relationships between epidemiologic factors and gene expression in the breast cancer microenvironment have not been fully explored. In particular, the correspondence between high mammographic density (MD), a strong breast cancer risk factor reflecting an increased percentage of fibroglandular tissue, and gene expression is ill-defined. To evaluate how MD and breast tissue composition relate to gene expression of extratumoral microenvironment, we used data on 121 breast cancer patients aged 20-74 years from the population-based Polish Women's Breast Cancer Study. Subjects were classified into two groups based on the gene expression of normal breast tissue by the previously reported, biologically-defined extratumoral gene expression signature: Active extratumoral subtype is associated with high expression of genes related to fibrosis ...
  http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/21/11_Supplement/71
*  Global Breast Biopsy Market size and Key Trends in terms of volume and value 2014-2020 by SyndicateMarketResearch.Com -...
Biopsy is the technique used to extract abnormal tissue or group of cells from any part of body for analysis. Breast biopsy is mainly done to detect cancer and also used as a preventive measure. Lump or hardness in a portion of breast is taken off and tested. Breast biopsy is diagnosing method not treatment. Breast biopsy is performed by using image guidance, hollow needle and surgical manner.. The major driving factor of the global breast biopsy market is increasing number of female breast cancer patients that had generated awareness in society which force people to undergo checkup. Breast cancer is spreading highly among the post age women is the other factor for increasing demand of breast biopsy. The region having higher population of female has high chances to fuel the market growth in that region. This diagnosis taken by middle group to elderly group is limited. High cost and specific gender are some of the factors that affect the market growth. The new developing technology in biopsy that ...
  http://www.abnewswire.com/pressreleases/global-breast-biopsy-market-size-and-key-trends-in-terms-of-volume-and-value-20142020-by-syndicatemarketresearchcom_62088.html
*  Evaluation of the association between quantitative mammographic density and breast cancer occurred in different quadrants | BMC...
Given that the premise of the hypothesis in this study depended on bilateral breast symmetry, it would be preferable to analyze each patient's symmetry utilizing more remote mammograms prior to the detectable cancer. Unfortunately we did not have that dataset in our current study, thus were unable to carry out the analysis. Overall, the assessment of symmetry in mammography is potentially limited by the fact that natural distortions between breasts are likely to occur during the course of breast compression routinely used in mammography. As such, symmetry measures can be confounded by the nature of the imaging procedure itself [26]. In our recently published results using 3D MRI in the study of breast density in 58 normal women, 47 pre-menopausal and 11 post-menopausal women [32], we found that bilateral breasts in women without cancer are highly symmetrical (r = 0.97 for breast volume, r = 0.97 for fibroglandular tissue volume, and r = 0.98 for PD). Another study using MRI ...
  https://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-017-3270-0
*  Patent US5111828 - Device for percutaneous excisional breast biopsy - Google Patents
A method for percutaneous excisional breast biopsy and a percutaneous excisional breast biopsy device (PEBB device). In one variation of the method, the following steps are conducted: locating a breast lesion by radiographic techniques; positioning and implanting a localizing needle distal to said breast lesion, said localizing needle containing a hooked guide wire; positioning and implanting said hooked guide wire distal to said breast lesion; making a small incision on the surface of the breast at the point where said localizing needle enters the breast; passing a PEBB device over said localizing needle; inserting said PEBB device through said incision; further inserting said PEBB device and pushing aside the breast tissue; positioning said PEBB device to the desired location proximate said lesion; further inserting into the breast a first cutting surface of said PEBB device to the desired location distant said lesion; manipulating a second cutting surface of said PEBB device and cutting the portion
  http://www.google.com/patents/US5111828?dq=5,581,513
*  Patent US5111828 - Device for percutaneous excisional breast biopsy - Google Patents
A method for percutaneous excisional breast biopsy and a percutaneous excisional breast biopsy device (PEBB device). In one variation of the method, the following steps are conducted: locating a breast lesion by radiographic techniques; positioning and implanting a localizing needle distal to said breast lesion, said localizing needle containing a hooked guide wire; positioning and implanting said hooked guide wire distal to said breast lesion; making a small incision on the surface of the breast at the point where said localizing needle enters the breast; passing a PEBB device over said localizing needle; inserting said PEBB device through said incision; further inserting said PEBB device and pushing aside the breast tissue; positioning said PEBB device to the desired location proximate said lesion; further inserting into the breast a first cutting surface of said PEBB device to the desired location distant said lesion; manipulating a second cutting surface of said PEBB device and cutting the portion
  http://www.google.com/patents/US5111828?dq=5893120
*  Breast hypertrophy - Wikipedia
Breast hypertrophy is a rare medical condition of the breast connective tissues in which the breasts become excessively large. The condition is often divided based on the severity into two types, macromastia and gigantomastia. Hypertrophy of the breast tissues may be caused by increased histologic sensitivity to certain hormones such as female sex hormones, prolactin, and growth factors. Breast hypertrophy is a benign progressive enlargement, which can occur in both breasts (bilateral) or only in one breast (unilateral). It was first scientifically described in 1648. The indication is a breast weight that exceeds approximately 3% of the total body weight. There are varying definitions of what is considered to be excessive breast tissue, that is the expected breast tissue plus extraordinary breast tissue, ranging from as little as 0.6 kilograms (1.3 lb) up to 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) with most physicians defining macromastia as excessive tissue of over 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb). ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_hypertrophy
*  Scientists Uncover New Key to the Puzzle of Hormone Therapy and Breast Cancer - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
PHILADELPHIA - The use of postmenopausal hormone therapy has decreased over time in the United States, which researchers suggest may play a key role in the declining rate of atypical ductal hyperplasia, a known risk factor for breast cancer.. "Postmenopausal hormone treatment is associated with increased rates of benign breast biopsies, and early and late stages of cancer. Atypical ductal hyperplasia is associated with the use of postmenopausal hormone treatment and its rates have decreased with the decline in use of this treatment," said researcher Tehillah Menes, M.D., who was the chief of breast service in the Department of Surgery at Elmhurst Hospital Center, New York, when this study was conducted.. Details of these findings are published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, which is a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.. Atypical ductal hyperplasia is abnormal cells that grow in the milk ducts of the breast. Previous research has shown that women who are ...
  https://www.healthcanal.com/cancers/3922-scientists-uncover-new-key-to-the-puzzle-of-hormone-therapy-and-breast-cancer.html
*  Magnetic resonance imaging of ductal carcinoma in situ | Breast Cancer Research | Full Text
Intraductal cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has been considered a mammographic disease. Before the advent of mammographic screening, only about 2% to 5% of breast cancers were diagnosed in the intraductal stage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has traditionally been considered insensitive for DCIS. More recent studies, however, suggest that, with appropriate diagnostic criteria, contrast-enhanced MRI may be a very sensitive tool for diagnosing DCIS, especially high-grade DCIS. In addition, MRI has been shown to be superior to delineate the intraductal extension of invasive cancers - another reason why preoperative staging with MRI is important. The likelihood with which the mammographic diagnosis of DCIS or DCIS components fails does not correlate with mammographic breast density - in other words, a missed mammographic diagnosis of DCIS is also conceivable in women with involuted breast. The present lecture summarizes the current level of evidence, and discusses the clinical ...
  https://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/bcr2006
*  Researchers find link between bacterial imbalances and breast cancer
Bacteria that live in the body, known as the microbiome, influence many diseases. Most research has been done on the "gut" microbiome, or bacteria in the digestive tract. Researchers have long suspected that a "microbiome" exists within breast tissue and plays a role in breast cancer but it has not yet been characterized. The research team has taken the first step toward understanding the composition of the bacteria in breast cancer by uncovering distinct microbial differences in healthy and cancerous breast tissue.. "To my knowledge, this is the first study to examine both breast tissue and distant sites of the body for bacterial differences in breast cancer," said co-senior author Charis Eng, M.D., Ph.D., chair of Cleveland Clinic's Genomic Medicine Institute and director of the Center for Personalized Genetic Healthcare. "Our hope is to find a biomarker that would help us diagnose breast cancer quickly and easily. In our wildest dreams, we hope we can use microbiomics right before breast ...
  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-10-link-bacterial-imbalances-breast-cancer.amp
*  Breast cancer risks - Women Health Info Blog
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women. Health statistics clearly demonstrate increasing frequency of breast cancer. For example, in 1940 the lifetime risk of breast cancer among women was 5% - in means only one woman among every 20 women had risks for developing breast cancer. In 2012 the lifetime risk of breast cancer increased up to 12 % which means one woman among every 8 women gets breast cancer. In addition, health experts experience increased cases of breast cancer in men. Whole statistics confirm increased breast cancer risks, and it is very important to highlight breast cancer risks and educate women to avoid some risks. If you know risk factors, most of them can be prevented. Modern prevention strategies can save millions of lives.. ...
  https://www.women-info.com/en/breast-cancer-risks/
*  Tamoxifen downregulatesTGF‐β1 protein levels via matrix metalloproteinase activity in breast cancer in vivo
Sex steroids are inevitable in women. However, long-term exposure to sex steroids increases the risk of breast cancer. A complete understanding of sex steroid control of the breast and how it relates to breast cancer risk is still lacking. Angiogenesis and proteolytic enzyme activity are crucial for the process by which tumors evolve into a vascularized, invasive phenotype. Matrix metalloproteinases are potent matrixdegrading enzymes that affect several steps in tumor progression including angiogenesis. In the female reproductive organs, sex steroids regulate angiogenesis and MMP activity, yet little is known how sex steroids affect these crucial events in normal and malignant breast tissue.. This thesis elucidates a link between sex steroids, MMP activity, and angiogenesis. It is shown that estradiol down-regulates while tamoxifen up-regulates the protein expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in human breast cancer xenografts in vivo. The results ...
  http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:23708
*  Prevention of Breast Cancer: As Simple as hCG-A Randomized Clinical Trial in High Risk Women - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Pregnancy has been associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. This has been reproduced in multiple studies and has been seen in multiple races.. People have been evaluating different hormones and practices associated with pregnancy to determine what factors reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in these patients. These pronounced findings have been evaluated in great detail by multiple scientists and one of the hormones which we think might be associated with a reduction in breast cancer is hCG. This statement has been backed by multiple studies which have looked at the direct effect of hCG on the growth and death of breast cancer cells in the lab and in animal models of breast cancer.. We want to determine if hCG is given to patients who are at increased risk of breast cancer will result in an accentuated decrease in breast cancer risk above and beyond the effect received by conventional breast cancer reducing protocols. Our final outcome in this study will be breast density on ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00808522?term=breast%2Ccancer%2Cprevention&recr=Open&rank=6
*  Frontiers | Potential of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Characterization of Malignant, Benign, and Healthy Breast Tissues...
The role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and its association with molecular biomarkers was investigated in 259 patients with breast cancer, 67 with benign pathology and 54 healthy volunteers using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 1.5 T. In 59 breast cancer patients, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) was also acquired. Mean ADC of malignant lesions was significantly lower (1.02 ± 0.17 x 10-3 mm2/s) compared to benign (1.57 ± 0.26 x 10-3 mm2/s) and healthy (1.78 ± 0.13 x 10-3 mm2/s) breast tissues. A cut-off ADC value of 1.23 x 10-3 mm2/s (sensitivity 92.5%; specificity 91.1%; AUC 0.96) to differentiate malignant from benign diseases was arrived by ROC analysis. In 10/59 breast cancer patients, indeterminate DCE curve was seen while their ADC value showed as positive for malignancy implying the potential of the addition of DWI in increasing the specificity of DCEMRI data. Further, the association of ADC with the tumor volume, stage, hormonal
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2016.00126/full
*  Does Breast Density Really Affect Mammogram Results? - Redorbit
Connie K. Ho for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. Based on a new study, the discussion on whether the density of breasts can affect the image resolution of mammograms has been rekindled.. To begin, past studies have stated that women with dense breasts have a greater risk of developing breast cancer than women who have breasts with more fatty tissue. Proponents of these studies have noted that it is difficult for mammograms to catch a developing tumor due to dense tissue and possible cancerous spots that are not noticed on the X-ray. However, a recent project by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) with 9,000 breast cancer patients found that women who have dense breasts do not have a greater risk to die than patients who have breasts that are not dense.. "It's definitely reassuring," commented NCI lead researcher Dr. Gretchen Gierach, author of a report in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, in an article by ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1112679705/breast-density-mammogram-082212/
*  Breast Density, Hormone Levels, and Anticancer Drug Levels in Women With Invasive Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Exemestane or...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter, companion study.. Patients complete a 10-minute questionnaire about factors that might affect changes in breast density at baseline and another questionnaire at 1 year and 2 years post registration. Blood samples are collected at baseline (before initiation of treatment ) and at 1 year post registration for hormone and drug level analysis. Mammograms taken prior to registration (within 12 months prior to enrollment) and at approximately 1 and 2 years post-registration to this study are retrieved and digitized for determination of percent breast density and dense area.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 550 patients will be accrued for this study. ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00316836