*  Generation and analysis of proline mutants in protein G - CaltechAUTHORS
The pyrrolidine ring of the amino acid proline reduces the conformational freedom of the protein backbone in its unfolded form and thus enhances protein stability. The strategy of inserting proline into regions of the protein where it does not perturb the structure has been utilized to stabilize many different proteins including enzymes. However, most of these efforts have been based on trial and error, rather than rational design. Here, we try to understand proline's effect on protein stability by introducing proline mutations into various regions of the B1 domain of Streptococcal protein G. We also applied the Optimization of Rotamers By Iterative Techniques computational protein design program, using two different solvation models, to determine the extent to which it could predict the stabilizing and destabilizing effects of prolines. Use of a surface area dependent solvation model resulted in a modest correlation between ...
*  Proline - Wikipedia
The distinctive cyclic structure of proline's side chain gives proline an exceptional conformational rigidity compared to other amino acids. It also affects the rate of peptide bond formation between proline and other amino acids. When proline is bound as an amide in a peptide bond, its nitrogen is not bound to any hydrogen, meaning it cannot act as a hydrogen bond donor, but can be a hydrogen bond acceptor.. Peptide bond formation with incoming Pro-tRNAPro is considerably slower than with any other tRNAs, which is a general feature of N-alkylamino acids.[11] Peptide bond formation is also slow between an incoming tRNA and a chain ending in proline; with the creation of proline-proline bonds slowest of all.[12]. The exceptional conformational rigidity of proline affects the secondary structure of proteins near a proline residue and may account for ...
*  Rational Design of Protein Stability: Effect of (2S,4R)-4-Fluoroproline on the Stability and Folding Pathway of Ubiquitin
Background Many strategies have been employed to increase the conformational stability of proteins. The use of 4-substituted proline analogs capable to induce pre-organization in target proteins is an attractive tool to deliver an additional conformational stability without perturbing the overall protein structure. Both, peptides and proteins containing 4-fluorinated proline derivatives can be stabilized by forcing the pyrrolidine ring in its favored puckering conformation. The fluorinated pyrrolidine rings of proline can preferably stabilize either a Cγ-exo or a Cγ-endo ring pucker in dependence of proline chirality (4R/4S) in a complex protein structure. To examine whether this rational strategy can be generally used for protein stabilization, we have chosen human ubiquitin as a model protein which contains three proline residues displaying Cγ-exo puckering. Methodology/Principal Findings While ...
*  putP - Sodium/proline symporter - Staphylococcus aureus (strain USA300 / TCH1516) - putP gene & protein
Catalyzes the sodium-dependent uptake of extracellular L-proline. Since most S.aureus strains are L-proline auxotrophs, this transporter may aid the bacterial persistence during an infection of tissues with low proline concentrations.
*  Metabolic implications of stress-induced proline accumulation in plants | SpringerLink
In many plants, free proline accumulates in response to the imposition of a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Controversy has surrounded the extent to which this shift in nitrogen metabolism
*  Atsuktuvų antgalis TORX T27x25mm PROLINE
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*  N-Tosyl-dl-3,4-dehydroproline | C12H13NO4S - PubChem
N-Tosyl-dl-3,4-dehydroproline | C12H13NO4S | CID 613674 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
*  新藥報導:C型肝炎藥物Telaprevir & Boceprevir的安全問題 - 藥‧你小心!
預計在今年(2011)暑假通過 FDA 核准的 C 型肝炎強效新藥,Merck 藥廠的 boceprevir 與 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc. 藥廠的 telaprevir,FDA諮詢委員會(advisory committee)在四月27日與28日分別舉行會議,對藥物的安全性進行評估。. Telaprevir 與 Boceprevir 皆為針對第一基因型慢性 C 型肝炎的藥物,適用於未曾接受過治療、或對先前治療無效、但肝臟仍舊具有執行功能的患者(compensated stage)。. 與目前 C 型肝炎的臨床治療藥物相較之下,Telaprevir與Boceprevir有更強的治療效果,不過,卻也有較嚴重的副作用。現行的 C 肝藥物多半只會引起類似流感的副作用,而 Boceprevir 的潛在副作用則包括貧血、以及多個出現精神疾患的案例,精神疾患包括有自殺或殺人的傾向。. 由於使用 Boceprevir 治療 C 型肝炎的處方中,必須同時搭配使用長效型干擾素(peginterferon ...
1LHH: Role of proline residues in human lysozyme stability: a scanning calorimetric study combined with X-ray structure analysis of proline mutants.
1LHK: Role of proline residues in human lysozyme stability: a scanning calorimetric study combined with X-ray structure analysis of proline mutants.
*  The metabolism of amino acids in the bovine lens. Their oxidation as a source of energy | Biochemical Journal
1. The metabolism by the bovine lens of nine 14C-labelled l-amino acids was studied. These were: alanine, aspartate, glutamate, leucine, lysine, proline, serine, tyrosine and tryptophan. 2. All were taken up by the tissue and incorporated into protein. 3. Aspartate and glutamate, although poorly taken up, were readily metabolized to CO2. Radioactivity from glutamate was also found in glutathione, glutamine, proline and ophthalmic acid. Aspartate was converted into glutamate, glutathione, proline, alanine and lactate. 4. Alanine was largely converted into lactate, which was released into the medium, but incorporation of radioactivity into CO2, glutamate, glutathione, aspartate and lipids also occurred. 5. Radioactivity from leucine was detected in CO2, lipids, glutamate, glutathione, proline and glutamine. 6. Lysine was only slightly broken down by the bovine lens; radioactivity was observed in CO2, glutamate, glutathione, ...
*  hinge region - Everything2.com
The hinge region is a flexible area on the immunoglobulin molecule which contains many residues of the amino acid proline and is where the Fc fragment j...
Proline was synthesized in 1900 by Richard Martin Willstatter (1872-1942) . One year later it was isolated from natural source (casein) by Hermann Emil Fischer (1852-1919). In 1904 Fischer proposed the term "proline" as the previous one (α-pyrrolidin-carbonsaure) was too long for use. ...
*  NWMN RS09430 - AureoWiki
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesglycine betaine/L-proline transport ATP binding subunit (TIGR01186; HMM-score: 11.4) ...
*  Just a Flexible Linker? The Structural and Dynamic Properties of CBP-ID4 Revealed by NMR Spectroscopy. | SBRC
Here, we present a structural and dynamic description of CBP-ID4 at atomic resolution. ID4 is the fourth intrinsically disordered linker of CREB-binding protein (CBP). In spite of the largely disordered nature of CBP-ID4, NMR chemical shifts and relaxation measurements show a significant degree of α-helix sampling in the protein regions encompassing residues 2-25 and 101-128 (1852-1875 and 1951-1978 in full-length CBP). Proline residues are uniformly distributed along the polypeptide, except for the two α-helical regions, indicating that they play an active role in modulating the structural features of this CBP fragment. The two helical regions are lacking known functional motifs, suggesting that they represent thus-far uncharacterized functional modules of CBP. This work provides insights into the functions of this protein linker that may exploit its plasticity to modulate the relative orientations of neighboring folded domains of CBP and fine-tune its interactions with a multitude of ...
*  proline 3-hydroxylase - Creative Enzymes
Requires iron(II) for activity. Unlike the proline hydroxylases involved in collagen biosynthesis [EC (procollagen-proline dioxygenase) and EC (procol
*  translating multiple DNA sequence to protein sequence
use strict; #use warnings; use Encode; for my $file (@ARGV) { open my $fh, ',:encoding(UTF-8)', $file; my $input = join q{}, ,$fh,; close $fh; while ( $input =~ /(^,.*?\w?)$([^,]*)/smxg ) { my $name = $1; my $seq = $2; $seq =~ s/\n//smxg; my $trans = codon2aa($seq); print '$name\t$trans\n'; } } sub codon2aa { my($codon) = @_; $codon = uc $codon; my(%genetic_code) = ( 'TCA' =, 'S', # Serine 'TCC' =, 'S', # Serine 'TCG' =, 'S', # Serine 'TCT' =, 'S', # Serine 'TTC' =, 'F', # Phenylalanine 'TTT' =, 'F', # Phenylalanine 'TTA' =, 'L', # Leucine 'TTG' =, 'L', # Leucine 'TAC' =, 'Y', # Tyrosine 'TAT' =, 'Y', # Tyrosine 'TAA' =, '_', # Stop 'TAG' =, '_', # Stop 'TGC' =, 'C', # Cysteine 'TGT' =, 'C', # Cysteine 'TGA' =, '_', # Stop 'TGG' =, 'W', # Tryptophan 'CTA' =, 'L', # Leucine 'CTC' =, 'L', # Leucine 'CTG' =, 'L', # Leucine 'CTT' =, 'L', # Leucine 'CCA' =, 'P', # Proline 'CCC' =, 'P', # Proline 'CCG' =, 'P', # Proline 'CCT' =, 'P', # Proline ...
*  Gentaur Molecular :Biosera \ L Proline 100g \ PM-P1419/100
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*  Proline Keyboard Accessories & Parts | Guitar Center
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*  Rankena galvutėms ''L'' 3/4'' 450mm CV PROLINE
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*  KitchenAid Proline Bowl Lift Stand Mixer - KSM7586PSR
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*  Panasonic AG-HSC1U ProLine Camcorder Reviews & Tests - alaTest.co.uk
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*  Boceprevir - Drugs.com
Boceprevir is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Boceprevir is available on the Drugs.com website.
1L56: Analysis of the effectiveness of proline substitutions and glycine replacements in increasing the stability of phage T4 lysozyme.