*  Activation of Pedunculopontine Glutamate Neurons Is Reinforcing | Journal of Neuroscience
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus, delineated by its cholinergic neuron population and ... 1995) Glutamatergic and cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to dopamine neurons in the substantia ... The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing ... 1989) The tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus: a brain-stem output of the limbic system critical for the conditioned place ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/1/38
*  Discharge Profiles across the Sleep-Waking Cycle of Identified Cholinergic, GABAergic, and Glutamatergic Neurons in the...
Distributed within the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT and PPT), cholinergic neurons in the ... Projections of brainstem core cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons of cat to intralaminar and reticular thalamic nuclei. ... The cholinergic pontomesencephalic neurons are located in the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT and PPT) ... possibly cholinergic neurons in the rat laterodorsal tegmental nucleus: comparison with monoamine neurons. Neurosci Lett 77:277 ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/13/4708
*  Frontiers | Harnessing the power of theta: natural manipulations of cognitive performance during hippocampal theta-contingent...
The lower range, 3-7 Hz, can occur during immobility and depends upon the integrity of cholinergic forebrain systems. Several ... The lower range, 3-7 Hz, can occur during immobility and depends upon the integrity of cholinergic forebrain systems. Several ... and those located in the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei of the brainstem. While brainstem cholinergic ... Semba, K., Reiner, P. B., and Fibiger, H. C. (1990). Single cholinergic mesopontine tegmental neurons project to both the ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2015.00050/full
*  Pedunculopontine nucleus - Wikipedia
... or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, PPTN or PPTg) is a collection of cholinergic neurons located in the brainstem, caudal to ... Winn P (October 2006). "How best to consider the structure and function of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: evidence ... It has two divisions, one containing cholinergic neurons, the pars compacta, and one containing mostly glutamatergic neurons, ... Tsang EW, Hamani C, Moro E, Mazzella F, Poon YY, Lozano AM, Chen R (2010). "Involvement of the human pedunculopontine nucleus ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedunculopontine_nucleus
*  Neurotransmitter - Wikipedia
Brainstem cholinergic nuclei include the pedunculopontine nucleus (Ch5), the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (Ch6), the medial ... The thalamic projection is dominated by cholinergic neurons originating from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of pons and ... Brainstem cholinergic nuclei (BCN):. Pedunculopontine nucleus, laterodorsal tegmentum, medial habenula, and. parabigeminal ... Cholinergic pathways: Forebrain cholinergic nuclei (FCN):. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial septal nucleus, and diagonal band ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuro_transmitter
*  Cholinergic neuron - Wikipedia
In the brainstem acetylcholine originates from the Pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus collectively ... Most research involving cholinergic neurons involves the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. However, cholinergic neurons only ... Cholinergic neurons, along with non-cholinergic neurons, have sleep/wake regulatory functions in the basal forebrain that can ... which causes cholinergic neurons to become vulnerable. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are highly dependent on the constant ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholinergic_neuron
*  Urotensin II-related peptide - Wikipedia
... and also the brainstem cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (PPT ... "The urotensin II receptor is expressed in the cholinergic mesopontine tegmentum of the rat". Brain Research. 923 (1-2): 120-7. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urotensin_II-related_peptide
*  Urotensin-II - Wikipedia
... and also the brainstem cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (PPT ... that U-II affected the excitatory neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the inhibitory neurons of the arcuate nucleus. U- ... When the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular nucleus, two different areas of the brain which are known to control blood ... Pre-pro U-II in both humans and rats are primarily expressed in the motorneurons of the brainstem and spinal cord although it ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urotensin-II
*  Zona incerta - Wikipedia
... from brainstem cholinergic nuclei such as the Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and pedunculopontine nucleus upon its neuron's ... Brainstem Zona incerta receives input from many parts of the brainstem nuclei including the periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, ... parafascicular nucleus and central lateral nucleus) and higher-order nuclei such as the lateral posterior nucleus. The zona ... zona incerta output to the ventral lateral nucleus neurons in the cerebello-thalamocortical loop and to brainstem motor neurons ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zona_incerta
*  Neurotransmitter - Wikipedia
Brainstem cholinergic nuclei include the pedunculopontine nucleus (Ch5), the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (Ch6), the medial ... The thalamic projection is dominated by cholinergic neurons originating from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of pons and ... cholinergic and also glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and pedunculopontine nucleus, ... and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons originate from the raphe nuclei within the brainstem as well; the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmitter
*  Cholinergic Modulation of Vibrissal Receptive Fields in Trigeminal Nuclei | Journal of Neuroscience
Deschênes M, Hu B (1990) Membrane resistance increase induced in thalamic neurons by stimulation of brainstem cholinergic ... a number of retrogradely labeled cells were found bilaterally in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, and immunostaining ... Cholinergic influence of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus on neuronal activity in the rat lateral geniculate nucleus. J ... Cholinergic innervation of the SpVi by PPTg neurons. A, B, PPTg neurons were retrogradely labeled by an FG injection in the ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/40/9135
*  Plus it
... and lateral dorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine nuclei (Peyron et al., 1998), suggesting that orexin neurons affect the ... These peptides activate wake-active monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons in the hypothalamus and brainstem to maintain long ... Although "sleep-active" neurons have been found in the VLPO and the median preoptic areas, curiously, sleep-active neurons are ... 2003) Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice. Neuron 38:701-713. ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/46/11814
*  Urotensin-II receptor - Wikipedia
... urotensin II receptor mRNA was shown to be restricted to the brainstem cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) ... and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (PPT) both of which are important for REM sleep. These two different results are ... REM sleep is controlled by the cholinergic neurons in the PPT and LDT. Local injection of urotensin II into the PPT to leads to ... The studies also showed there was no effect on the non-cholinergic neurons. Wakefulness and slow wave sleep were not affected ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urotensin-II_receptor
*  Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus - Wikipedia
The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (or lateroposterior tegmental nucleus) is a nucleus situated in the brainstem, spanning the ... The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) sends cholinergic (acetylcholine) projections to many subcortical and cortical ... dopamine neurons), cortex (with bidirectional connections with the prefrontal cortex). The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus may ... Its location is one-third of the way from the pedunculopontine nucleus to the thalamus, inferior to the pineal gland. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laterodorsal_tegmental_nucleus
*  Neurosteroids and cholinergic systems: implications for sleep and cognitive processes and potential role of age-related changes...
Serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus projections to the cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine tegmental ... 5α THPROG modulate the basal forebrain and brainstem projection cholinergic neurons but not striatal cholinergic interneurons. ... Kayama Y, Ohta M, Jodo E (1992) Firing of 'possibly' cholinergic neurons in the rat laterodorsal tegmental nucleus during sleep ... Changes in NADPH-diaphorase neurons of the rat laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei in aging. Mech Ageing Dev 90: ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-005-0254-6
*  1 - Cara withdraw instaforex ke paypal
Cholinergic neurons, vara acetylcholine (ACh), are located in the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental (LDTg and PPTg) ... nuclei in the brainstem, from where they project along with ;aypal reticular wihdraw dorsally to the thalamus and ventrally to ... 7) [59], thus freeing NF-κB to translocate to the nucleus and initiate transcription [60]. ... generative motor neuron disease that causes the bodys muscles to atrophy. ...
  http://ozoneforex.com/cara-withdraw-instaforex-ke-paypal.html
*  Lateral hypothalamus - Wikipedia
... the serotonergic raphe nuclei, and cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The histaminergic, ... and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons originate from the raphe nuclei within the brainstem as well; the ... histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN), serotonergic raphe nuclei, cholinergic laterodorsal and pedunculopontine nuclei ( ... Evidence suggest that OX1 neurons that synapse onto the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve and parts of the brain stem may play ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_hypothalamus
*  Arousal - Wikipedia
1). The thalamic projection is dominated by cholinergic neurons originating from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of pons ... and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons originate from the raphe nuclei within the brainstem as well; the ... The neurons arise in the ventral tegmental area in the midbrain, and projects to the nucleus accumbens, the striatum forebrain ... The PT in the brain stem is also an important component of the ARAS. Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiological_arousal
*  Acetylcholine - Wikipedia
In the brainstem acetylcholine originates from the Pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus collectively ... Cholinergic neurons are capable of producing ACh. An example of a central cholinergic area is the nucleus basalis of Meynert in ... deep cerebellar nuclei, pontine nuclei, locus coeruleus, raphe nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus and inferior olive. It also ... preganglionic neurons in the central nervous system send projections to neurons located in autonomic ganglia; these neurons ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholine
*  Locus coeruleus - Wikipedia
... cholinergic and also glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and pedunculopontine nucleus, ... including the lateral tegmental regions. These neurons project largely within the brainstem and spinal cord. NE, along with 5HT ... The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem ... Melanin granules inside the neurons of the LC contribute to its blue colour. Thus, it is also known as the nucleus pigmentosus ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locus_coeruleus
*  Ketamine Activates Breathing and Abolishes the Coupling between Loss of Consciousness and Upper Airway Dilator Muscle...
The effects of ketamine observed in our study cannot be explained by direct effects at the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, ... Ketamine's cortical33,34 and brainstem effects32 differ from anesthetics such as isoflurane and propofol that potentiate GABAA ... In contrast to GABAAergic anesthetics, ketamine stimulates cholinergic, monoaminergic, and orexinergic arousal systems.32 ... a potential disinhibitory effect on premotor neurons could explain ketamine's enhancement of muscle tone and function. ...
  http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1933630
*  Parafacial zone - Wikipedia
This ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) is comprised of cholinergic laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmentum (LDT/ ... the nucleus accumbens core (specifically, the D2-type medium spiny neurons in the core which co-express adenosine A2A receptors ... melanin-concentrating hormone neurons) and brainstem [parafacial zone; (10)] have been identified. Cherasse Y, Urade Y ( ... Raphe nuclei and dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA), substantia nigra (SN) and periaqueductal gray projections that ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parafacial_zone
*  PSYC Call for Commentators: BIOCHEMICAL BASIS OF COMA (969 lines)
During REM sleep, cholinergic activity in the peribrachial pedunculopontine and lateral dorsal tegmental cholinergic nuclei ... as on the activity of strategically placed brain stem nuclei such as the pedunculopontine nucleus and the intralaminar nuclei ... Furthermore, in deep sleep thalamo-cortical neurons hyperpolarize because of cholinergic disfacilitation leading to ... cholinergic mechanism generates the key midbrain pedunculopontine and lateral dorsal tegmental nuclei in EEG sleep spindles. ...
  http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1999-September/040643.html
*  A Neurochemical Perspective on States of Consciousness | SpringerLink
Cholinergic projections from the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei to the pontine gigantocellular field in the ... Urotensin II modulates rapid eye movement sleep through activation of brainstem cholinergic neurons. J Neurosci 25:5465-5474. ... Electrophysiological effects of ghrelin on pedunculopontine tegmental neurons in rats: an in vitro study. Peptides 30:745-757. ... Neurotransmitter actions on oral pontine tegmental neurons of the rat: an in vitro study. Brain Res 804:144-148.PubMedGoogle ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-60761-462-3_3
*  Parkinson's disease: Microglial/macrophage-induced immunoexcitotoxicity as a central mechanism of neurodegeneration - Surgical...
... tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus, and cholinergic nuclei of the basal forebrain, including Meynart's nucleus. In stage 3, ... which further enhanced the destruction of DA neurons in the midbrain, brainstem, and spinal cord.[. 95 ] Others have found ... might have direct activation of microglia within the nuclei above the level of the lower brainstem nuclei (DMV, LC nuclei) ... As was shown in other studies using immune-based models, the DA neurons in the ventral tegmental nucleus, which is close to the ...
  http://surgicalneurologyint.com/surgicalint-articles/parkinsons-disease-microglialmacrophage-induced-immunoexcitotoxicity-as-a-central-mechanism-of-neurodegeneration/