*  A novel senescence-evasion mechanism involving Grap2 and Cyclin D interacting protein inactivation by Ras associated with...
Ras associated with diabetes (Rad) is a Ras-related GTPase that promotes cell growth by accelerating cell cycle transitions. Rad knockdown induced cell cycle arrest and premature senescence without additional cellular stress in multiple cancer cell l
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Novel-Senescence-Evasion-Mechanism-Involving/20460530.html
*  CCZ1 - Vacuolar fusion protein CCZ1 homolog - Homo sapiens (Human) - CCZ1 gene & protein
Acts in concert with MON1A, as a guanine exchange factor (GEF) for RAB7, promotes the exchange of GDP to GTP, converting it from an inactive GDP-bound form into an active GTP-bound form (PubMed:23084991).
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P86791
*  RCSB PDB - 1C1Y: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF RAP.GMPPNP IN COMPLEX WITH THE RAS-BINDING-DOMAIN OF C-RAF1 KINASE (RAFRBD)....
1C1Y: The 2.2 A crystal structure of the Ras-binding domain of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf1 in complex with Rap1A and a GTP analogue.
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1C1Y
*  The Panopticon: Out of the Sketchbook
Kondiloma akuminatum ialah vegetasi oleh Human Papiloma Virus tipe tertentu, bertangkai, dan permukaannya berjonjot. Tipe HPV tertentu mempunyai potensi onkogenik yang tinggi, yaitu tipe 16 dan 18. tipe ini merupakan jenis virus yang paling sering dijumpai pada kanker serviks. Sedangkan tipe 6 dan 11 lebih sering dijumpai pada kondiloma akuminatum dan neoplasia intraepitelial serviks derajat ringan. Kondiloma akuminatum ialah vegetasi oleh Human Papiloma Virus tipe tertentu, bertangkai, dan permukaannya berjonjot. Tipe HPV tertentu mempunyai potensi onkogenik yang tinggi, yaitu tipe 16 dan 18. tipe ini merupakan jenis virus yang paling sering dijumpai pada kanker serviks. Sedangkan tipe 6 dan 11 lebih sering dijumpai pada kondiloma akuminatum dan neoplasia intraepitelial serviks derajat ringan. ...
  http://the-panopticon.blogspot.com/2009/12/out-of-sketchbook.html?showComment=1261262519189
*  The Panopticon: Out of the Sketchbook
Kondiloma akuminatum ialah vegetasi oleh Human Papiloma Virus tipe tertentu, bertangkai, dan permukaannya berjonjot. Tipe HPV tertentu mempunyai potensi onkogenik yang tinggi, yaitu tipe 16 dan 18. tipe ini merupakan jenis virus yang paling sering dijumpai pada kanker serviks. Sedangkan tipe 6 dan 11 lebih sering dijumpai pada kondiloma akuminatum dan neoplasia intraepitelial serviks derajat ringan. Kondiloma akuminatum ialah vegetasi oleh Human Papiloma Virus tipe tertentu, bertangkai, dan permukaannya berjonjot. Tipe HPV tertentu mempunyai potensi onkogenik yang tinggi, yaitu tipe 16 dan 18. tipe ini merupakan jenis virus yang paling sering dijumpai pada kanker serviks. Sedangkan tipe 6 dan 11 lebih sering dijumpai pada kondiloma akuminatum dan neoplasia intraepitelial serviks derajat ringan. ...
  http://the-panopticon.blogspot.com/2009/12/out-of-sketchbook.html?showComment=1261265351632
*  RALB ELISA & Assay Kits
Order RALB ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Human and more. Compare RALB ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
  http://www.antibodies-online.com/neurotrophin-signaling-pathway-pathway-29/ralb-elisa-kit-24486/
*  Produktübersicht anti-RALB Antikörper
Monoklonale und polyklonale RALB Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für RALB Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
  http://www.antikoerper-online.de/neurotrophin-signal%C3%BCbertragung-pathway-29/ralb-antibody-18580/
*  The exocyst is required for trypanosome invasion and the repair of mechanical plasma membrane wounds | Journal of Cell Science
Given that the exocyst plays a role in spatially targeting vesicles to the plasma membrane (Heider and Munson, 2012), we also investigated whether the depletion of exocyst components had a differential effect on the repair of polarized (mechanical) and non-polarized (pore-forming toxin SLO) wounds. After SLO exposure, cells were incubated under conditions that were permissive (Ca2+) or non-permissive (no Ca2+) for plasma membrane repair, and exposed to the membrane-impermeant dye propidium iodide. Cells treated with control or Exo70-specific siRNA were equally capable of resealing their plasma membrane after SLO permeabilization in the presence of Ca2+, as indicated by the block in uptake (Fig. 2C, right panels). As expected, without Ca2+, permeabilized cells did not reseal, allowing propidium iodide influx (Fig. 2C, left panels). Flow cytometric quantification of propidium-iodide-positive cells confirmed that depletion of Exo70 (Fig. 2D) or Sec8 (Fig. 2E) did not affect the ability of the cells ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/128/1/27
*  Different metastasis promotive potency of small G-proteins RalA and RalB in in vivo hamster tumor model | Cancer Cell...
Molecular pathways regulating tumor metastasis to distant organs are still poorly understood. Research in this area is hampered by multiplicity and complexity of steps and factors involved in this process and by the absence of criteria determining the metastatic behavior.. Common in vivo models used in different studies are based either on mouse cell lines or on human cultures injected into immunocompromised animals. The model system used here includes HET-SR line that is characterized by high tumorigenicity (minimal subcutaneous inoculation dose - 200 cells) and low lung specific spontaneous metastasis (0-5 metastatic nodules per lung) in syngeneic immunocompetent animals [32-35].. According to mouse models of tumor progression it was previously considered that major Ras-downstream pathways are Raf-MAPK and PI3K signaling cascades. However, further investigation has shown that Ras-RalGEF-Ral signaling in humans dominated in driving Ras mediated progression ...
  https://cancerci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2867-11-22
*  Wei Guo | Department of Biology
Luo, G., Zhang, J., Luca, F., Guo, W. Mitotic phosphorylation of Exo84 disrupts exocyst assembly and arrests cell growth. J. Cell Biol. (2013) 202 (1): 97-111. Ren, J. and Guo, W. ERK1/2 regulates post-Golgi exocytosis through phosphorylation of the exocyst component Exo70. Developmental CELL (2012) 22(5):967-978.. Liu, J., Zhao, Y., Sun, Y., Yang, C., He, B., Goldman Y., Svitkina, T., Guo, W. Exo70 stimulates actin branching for lamellipodia formation and cell migration. Current Biology (2012) 22:1510-1515.. Feng, S, Knödler A, Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Huang, S., Peränen, J., Guo, W. A Rab8 GEF-effector interaction network regulates primary ciliogenesis. J. Biol. Chem. (2012) 287:15602-15609.. Sakamori, R, Das, S, Feng, S, Stypulkowski, E, Harada, A., Brakebusch, C., Guo, W., Gao N. Cdc42 and Rab8a control stem cell division, survival, and differentiation in mouse intestine. J Clin Invest. (2012) 122(3):1052-65.. Das, A. and Guo, W. Rabs and exocyst in ciliogenesis, lumenogenesis and beyond. ...
  https://www.bio.upenn.edu/people/wei-guo
*  AS27 15897 - Exocyst complex component 3 - Aptenodytes forsteri (Emperor penguin) - AS27 15897 gene & protein
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A087QWY3
*  N322 02940 - Exocyst complex component 3 - Cariama cristata (Red-legged seriema) - N322 02940 gene & protein
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A091M0R9
*  GTP Hydrolysis of TC10 Promotes Neurite Outgrowth through Exocytic Fusion of Rab11- and L1-Containing Vesicles by Releasing...
GTP Hydrolysis of TC10 Promotes Neurite Outgrowth through Exocytic Fusion of Rab11- and L1-Containing Vesicles by Releasing Exocyst Component Exo70. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
  http://books.duhnnae.com/2017/jun8/149831306945-GTP-Hydrolysis-of-TC10-Promotes-Neurite-Outgrowth-through-Exocytic-Fusion-of-Rab11-and-L1-Containing-Vesicles-by-Releasing-Exocyst-Component-Exo70.php
*  Publications - Laboratory of Cell Biology
Zhang CH, Brown MQ, van de Ven W, Zhang ZM, Wu B, Young MC, Synek L, Borchardt D, Harrison R, Pan SQ, Luo N, Huang YMM, Ghang YJ, Ung N, Li RX, Isley J, Morikis D, Song JK, Guo W, Hooley RJ, Chang CEA, Yang ZB, Žárský V, Muday GK, Hicks GR, Raikhel NV. (2016) Endosidin2 targets conserved exocyst complex subunit EXO70 to inhibit exocytosis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 113(1):E41-E50. ...
  http://www.cellbiology.cz/publications
*  OriGene - EXOC7 (NM 015219) cDNA Clone
EXOC7 - EXOC7 (untagged)-Human exocyst complex component 7 (EXOC7), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
  http://www.origene.com/Human_cDNA/SC100441.aspx
*  EXOC4 Gene - GeneCards | EXOC4 Protein | EXOC4 Antibody
Complete information for EXOC4 gene (Protein Coding), Exocyst Complex Component 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=60412
*  KEGG T01010: 399470
xla:399470 K07827 GTPase KRas , (RefSeq) ralb, KRAS2, k-ras, xralb; v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog B (ras related; GTP binding protein) (A) MTEYKLVVVGAGGVGKSALTIQLIQNHFVDEYDPTIEDSYRKQVVIDGETCLLDILDTAG QEEYSAMRDQYMRTGEGFLCVFAINNIKSFEDIHHYREQIKRVKDSEDVPMVLVGNKCDL PSRTVDTKQAQDLARSYGIPFIETSAKTRQRVEDAFYTLVREIRQFRLKKMSKEEKTPGC VKFKKCRVM ...
  http://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?-f+-n+a+xla:399470
*  The integrin β tail is required and sufficient to regulate adhesion signaling to Rac1 | Journal of Cell Science
Rac1 can be regulated by signaling pathways that activate guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), and/or inhibit GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) or guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) ( Kjoller and Hall, 1999). Recent studies have demonstrated that integrin engagement during cell adhesion enhances Rac1 GTP-loading and also triggers the membrane-targeting of Rac1, the dissociation of RhoGDI, and the interaction of Rac1 with its downstream effectors ( del Pozo et al., 2000; del Pozo et al., 2002). In our study, we demonstrate that integrin β tails are both required and sufficient to signal increases in Rac1 GTP-loading.. Our result that clustering isolated β tails can trigger Rac1 activation indicates that proteins that bind to β tails can initiate the pathway leading to increases in Rac1 activity. Although we do not know the identity of these β tail binding protein(s), we have recently ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/115/22/4285
*  Scaffolding Through Phosphatidic Acid-Enriched Domains | Science Signaling
Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a plasma membrane lipid produced by enzymes such as diacylglycerol kinase in response to growth factor stimulation. Raf-1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK), as well as the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sos, interact with PA. Kraft et al. now show that the kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) proteins also bind PA and that this interaction appears to be important for activation of MAPK signaling. The addition of exogenous dioleoyl phosphatidic acid (DOPA) in the form of small unilamellar vesicles stimulated phosphorylation of the ERK MAPKs in several cell lines; however, DOPA vesicles failed to stimulate the activity of the MAPKKK Raf-1 or the MAPKK MEK1 in vitro. Using a tryptophan fluorescence assay, the authors showed that peptides corresponding to the PA binding region (PABR) of KSR1 or Raf-1 bound DOPA in vitro and that the Raf-1 PABR ...
  http://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2/52/ec6
*  SmgGDS stabilizes nucleotide-bound and -free forms of the Rac1 GTP-binding protein and stimulates GTP/GDP exchange through a...
The Rac proteins, Rac1 and Rac2, are essential components of the NADPH oxidase system of phagocytes and regulate the actin assembly associated with membrane ruffling. These functions are controlled by the GTP-bound form of Rac. The biochemical interaction between Rac and its only known GDP-dissociation stimulator (termed smgGDS) was characterized. SmgGDS was able to stimulate the incorporation of guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate GTP[gamma S] into the RhoA, Rac2, Rac1, Rap1A and CDC42Hs GTP-binding proteins, but the activity was greatest toward RhoA and Rac2. Isoprenoid modification of these proteins was not absolutely required for the interaction with smgGDS. Interestingly, the activity of smgGDS toward Rac1 could not be observed in a [3H]GDP/GTP exchange assay under conditions where it stimulated incorporation of GTP[gamma S] into Rac1. We determined that smgGDS prevented the loss of Rac1 activity during the [3H]GDP/GTP exchange assay by demonstrating ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/303/3/761
*  RICH-1 interacts with Abelson tyrosine kinase, and the scaffolding proteins NHERF-2 and CIN85
The Rho GTPases, which are related to the Ras family of proto-oncogenes, have been found to have important roles in regulating the morphogenic and migratory properties of eukaryotic cells. In addition, these proteins have been shown to regulate aspects of cell signaling, cell growth, cell division and cell survival. The Rho GTPases cycle between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. In resting cells, Rho GTPases are sequestered in the cytoplasm by forming an inactive complex with guanine dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), and are, thus, unable to exchange guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases exchange guanine nucleotides at slow rates in vivo, and these reactions can be catalyzed by two different classes of proteins. Upon cell activation, guanine exchange factors stimulate the exchange of ...
  http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:163228
*  Dictyostelium ACAP-A is an ArfGAP involved in cytokinesis, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton dynamics | Journal of Cell...
The ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) proteins are GTP-binding proteins that control vesicular transport and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton (D'Souza-Schorey and Chavrier, 2006; Gillingham and Munro, 2007; Donaldson and Jackson, 2011). These proteins cycle between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound forms with distinct functions. The tight control of this cycle relies on two key families of proteins. Arf-Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Arf-GEFs) catalyze the exchange of GDP, whereas Arf-GTPase activating proteins (Arf-GAPs) induce hydrolysis of GTP bound to Arf proteins. Besides their catalytic functions, both GEFs and GAPs can serve as scaffold for numerous effector proteins and can thus regulate cellular physiology in an Arf-independent manner (Inoue and Randazzo, 2007; Randazzo et al., 2007).. In humans, 31 predicted ArfGAPs have been classified ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/126/3/756
*  Guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 purified from human neutrophils | Biochemical Journal
The guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 protein purified from human neutrophils were examined using both the protein kinase A-phosphorylated and the non-phosphorylated forms of the protein. Binding of GTP[S] (guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) or GDP was found to be slow in the presence of free Mg2+, but very rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The binding of guanine nucleotides was found to correlate with the loss of endogenous nucleotide from the rap1 protein, which was rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The relative affinities of GTP and GDP for the binding site on rap1 were modulated by the presence of Mg2+, with a preferential affinity (approx. 15-fold) for GTP observed only in the absence of this bivalent cation. The dissociation of GDP from rap1 was not affected by the G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex. Phosphorylation of rap1 in vitro by protein kinase A did not modify any of the observed ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/267/2/407
*  Intracellular calcium translocation: mechanism of activation by guanine nucleotides and inositol phosphates | Journal of...
The movements of Ca2+ within cells in response to external stimuli are complex. Internal Ca2+ release activated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) is now widely established. However, the mechanism of InsP3-induced Ca2+ release, the identity and control of the InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ pool and its relationship to other internal and external Ca2+ pools all remain uncertain. We have characterized a highly sensitive and specific guanine nucleotide-regulatory mechanism that induces rapid and profound movements of intracellular Ca2+ via a mechanism distinct from that activated by InsP3. Using permeabilized neural or smooth muscle cells, application of submicromolar concentrations of GTP induces rapid release of Ca2+ from a compartment that contains within it the InsP3-releasable Ca2+ pool. Although of similar GTP-sensitivity as G-protein-activated events, the apparent dependence on GTP hydrolysis and blockade by GTP gamma S suggest a mechanism distinct from those ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/139/1/105
*  Plus it
By what mechanisms might Epac and PKA signaling be differentially regulated? A number of studies have shown that Epac and PKA are activated at different cAMP concentrations. PKA responds to relatively low levels of cAMP and is activated in the low to mid nanomolar range (Dostmann and Taylor, 1991). FRET studies in A431 cells revealed that cellular PKA activity becomes saturated at relatively low cAMP concentrations but Epac activation requires much higher cAMP levels (∼10-20 μm), and declining cAMP levels result in a drop in Epac FRET activity long before a decline in PKA activity is detected (Ponsioen et al., 2004). Biochemical analysis has shown that cAMP displays an almost 500-fold lower affinity for Epac than PKA (Enserink et al., 2002; Rehmann et al., 2003). Perhaps, then, when intracellular levels of cAMP are high, as in embryonic neurons, Epac is activated and mediates growth cone attraction to cAMP-dependent guidance cues. When cAMP levels decline, as in postnatal neurons, Epac may ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/49/15434