*  Trabecular bone volume fraction mapping by low-resolution MRI.
Trabecular bone volume fraction (TBVF) is highly associated with the mechanical competence of trabecular bone. TBVF is ordinarily measured by histomorphometry from bone biopsies or, noninvasively, by means of high-resolution microcomputed tomography
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Trabecular-bone-volume-fraction-mapping/11443716.html
*  Bone cells in a fractured compact bone, SEM - Stock Image C031/9796 - Science Photo Library
Bone cells (osteocytes, blue) in bone lacunae (pink) from a fractured compact bone (yellow), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). A bone-producing cell is called an osteoblast. During bone formation osteoblasts become progressively trapped in the bone matrix at sites called lacunae (pink). The osteoblast produces osteoid, the organic bone matrix that is a mass of collagen fibres and glycoprotein cement. As soon as osteoid is formed, calcium salts crystallize inside it to form mineralized, compact bone. Osteoblasts that become trapped in lacunae (pink) in bone become osteocytes. The osteocyte (blue) has many processes or thread-like extensions that enter the bone through the bone canaliculi, a network of minute channels linking nearby lacunae. Compact bone is made of collagen fibres and ground ...
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/796723/view
*  Bone and Joint - Natural Factors - BioSil Bone Collagenizer Matrix - 40 Vegetarian Capsules
BioSil Bone Collagenizer Matrix 40 Vegetarian Capsules With ch-OSA Advanced Collagen Generator Collagen is crucial to your bone health. Collagen provides the binding sites for calcium and other bone minerals. When bone collagen diminishes, bone mineral density decreases. In addition, collagen gives bones the vital flexibility they need. New bone research reveals that collagen, in conjunction with deposited calcium, gives bones their ability to withstand physical stress, as with sudden impact. Unlike calcium that you can ingest and receive the benefits, you cannot eat collagen expecting to add collagen to you bones. The key is stimulating the cells that naturally generate bone collagen, called osteoblasts. BioSil's new Bone Collagenizer Matrix is clinically proven to increase bone collagen formation ...
  https://www.totaldiscountvitamins.com/product/47884/bone_and_joint
*  Country Life (Biochem) - Bone Solid 240 Capsules - Save 36%
Save 36% Country Life (Biochem) - Bone Solid 240 Capsules Bone Solid Triple Action With Boron, MCHA and Vitamin K With Patented FruiteX-B Clinically Studied MCHA and Vitamin K Clinically Shown to: 1. Increase Mineral Utilization* 2. Strengthen Bones* 3. Support Bone Metabolism* Did you know that bone loss begins for many of us at age 30? Whether you are a man or woman, you will begin to lose bone density year after year. An important step is to regularly replenish and increase your body's intake of calcium as well as vitamins K1, K2 and D3. Introducing Bone Solid, a specially formulated product that contains a unique natural form of calcium, as well as other minerals that your body recognizes as similar to its own natural bone composition.* Through Bone Solid's Triple Action, your body's calcium will be better replenished and increased:* The calcium ...
  https://www.nutritionexpress.com/health+concerns/womens+health/pms/calcium+bone/calcium+magnesium+more/country+life+biochem+bone+solid+240+capsules.aspx
*  Natural Factors - BioSil Bone Collagenizer Matrix - 40 Vegetarian Capsules
BioSil Bone Collagenizer Matrix 40 Vegetarian Capsules With ch-OSA Advanced Collagen Generator Collagen is crucial to your bone health. Collagen provides the binding sites for calcium and other bone minerals. When bone collagen diminishes, bone mineral density decreases. In addition, collagen gives bones the vital flexibility they need. New bone research reveals that collagen, in conjunction with deposited calcium, gives bones their ability to withstand physical stress, as with sudden impact. Unlike calcium that you can ingest and receive the benefits, you cannot eat collagen expecting to add collagen to you bones. The key is stimulating the cells that naturally generate bone collagen, called osteoblasts. BioSil's new Bone Collagenizer Matrix is clinically proven to increase bone collagen formation ...
  http://www.totaldiscountvitamins.com/create_review/47884/joint_support
*  Bones, muscles, respiratory and circulatory systems. - A-Level Healthcare - Marked by Teachers.com
Introduction. Unit 12- Physical Activities Skeletal system The human body has 206 bones. They are divided in to two parts, the Axial skeleton and the Appendicular skeleton. The Axial is made up of the skull, sternum, ribs and spine. The Appendicular is made up of the shoulder, hip, arm, leg and pelvic bone. In the skeleton system there are 4 types of bones, 6 types of joints and 3 classes of levers. There are four groups of bones they are long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones. * The long bones are found in the thigh, legs, arms and forearms. They are longer than wider. They have compact bone in the middle, so that they are stronger and do not bend, they have spongy bone at the end so they are more flexible to move. * The short bones are usually found in the wrists and ankles. They are ...
  http://www.markedbyteachers.com/as-and-a-level/healthcare/bones-muscles-respiratory-and-circulatory-systems.html
*  How Many Bones Are in Your Body? | Wonderopolis
How does that old song go again? The knee bone's connected to theā€¦? Shin bone? Thigh bone? Both? Aarrgghh! We can't remember.. Anyway, we were WONDERing about bones the other day and wanted to know how many we had. We tried to count them, but then we realized they're all under our skin! It would be much easier if we had see-through skin or a best friend who was just a skeleton.. Do you have any idea how many bones you have? Did you realize that the number of bones you have changes from when you're a baby to when you're grown up? It's true!. Babies start out with over 300 bones. Since babies have a lot of growing to do, some of the bones they'll have as adults start out in multiple pieces. Over time, these bones grow together to form one larger bone.. By the time you're an adult, you'll have exactly 206 bones. Over half of ...
  https://wonderopolis.org/wonder/how-many-bones-are-in-your-body
*  Bone tissue - Wikipedia
The bone cells include osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteogenic cells (stem cells), and lining cells.. Osteoclasts are very large multinucleate cells that are responsible for the breakdown of bones. The breakdown of bone is very important in bone health because it allows for bone remodeling. Osteoclasts are formed by the conjoining of many different cells created from the bone marrow that travel in the circulatory system. Osteoclasts are usually found grouped in the small pits on bone surfaces called Howship's lacunae.[5] The pits are sites of bone resorption. After latching on to the site of the bone where it is supposed to resorb it, the osteoclast releases a number of enzymes which break down the bone tissue. The final product of the resorption of the bone is calcium and phosphorus ions. This reabsorption process ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cortical_bone
*  Response to: 'Denosumab, cortical bone and bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis' by Rossini et al | Annals of the Rheumatic...
Dear Editor,. We thank Rossini et al for their comments1 on our recent study on inhibitory effect by denosumab on the progression of bone erosions in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).2 They addressed their observation from point of view of bone in patient with RA. We think their view brings treatment of RA closer to treatment of osteoporosis.. Activated osteoclasts decrease bone mineral density (BMD) and stimulate bone erosion in patients with RA.3 Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) promotes osteoclast differentiation, maturation, and activation.4-7 Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL that inhibits osteoclast formation, function, and survival. Denosumab treatment increases BMD in cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, denosumab has been shown to improve cortical bone microstructure in subjects with osteoporosis or low bone ...
  http://ard.bmj.com/content/75/10/e71
*  Patent US6458375 - Malleable paste with allograft bone reinforcement for filling bone defects - Google Patentsuche
The invention is directed toward a sterile malleable bone composition for application to a bone defect site to promote new bone growth at the site comprising a mixture of demineralized osteogenic bone powder with a particle size ranging from about 250 to about 750 microns and surface demineralized cortical bone rods having a diameter ranging from 1.0 mm to 5.00 mm or larger bone chips. The surface demineralized cortical bone rods have diameter to length ratio ranging from 1:2 to 1:20. The demineralized bone powder range from about 25 to about 30% of the weight of the composition and the cortical bone rods range from 5% to about 10% of the weight of the composition with the carrier being selected from the high molecular weight hydrogel in aqueous solution having a high molecular weight over 700,000 Daltons and ranging from about 2.0% to about 5.0% by weight ...
  http://www.google.de/patents/US6458375?hl=de
*  What is bone cancer (sarcoma)?
Bone is made up of cells that grow and collagen fibres (tough, elastic fibres) as well as minerals like Calcium that give it the hardness. There are two main types of cells within the hard bone tissue that mould the bone. These cells are Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts.. Osteoblasts form the bone by laying down bone material. Osteoclasts dissolve the particles of bone and cause resorption. These cells are active throughout life and work in tandem balance to keep the bone constantly growing and dissolving. There is a slow but constant turnover of bone.. Another type of cell is chondrocytes which make cartilage. These make the hard tissues that cover the ends of bones in joints. In the centre of some larger bones is the soft bone marrow that is the place where blood cells are manufactured.. Although bone cancers ...
  https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-bone-cancer-
*  Developmental and Acquired Anomalies in Bone Cells, Matrix and Structure | MEDCHROME
The bone is enclosed in a tough, fibrous, connective tissue covering called the periosteum, which is continuous with the ligaments and tendons that anchor bones. The periosteum contains blood vessels that enter the bone and service its cells. At both ends of a long bone is an expanded portion called an epiphysis; the portion between the epiphyses is called the diaphysis. The diaphysis is not solid but has a medullary cavity containing yellow marrow. The medullary cavity is bounded at the sides by compact bone. The epiphyses contain spongy bone. Beyond the spongy bone is a thin shell of compact bone and, finally, a layer of hyaline cartilage called the articular cartilage. The medullary cavity and the spaces of spongy bone are lined with endosteum, a thin, fibrous membrane.. i. Cortical (80 ...
  http://medchrome.com/basic-science/pathology/developmental-and-acquired-anomalies-in-bone-cells-matrix-and-structure/
*  cattle bone powder mill machinery at kerala
Crushed Bone - Haddi Ka Chura Suppliers, Traders & ManufacturersFind here Crushed Bone manufacturers, suppliers & exporters in India. . we are one of the major exporter of Crush Bone and Meat Bone Meal (MBM) . We ensure to offer Crushed Bones (Animal bone) to the customers at highly .. Khataulie Manure Mills Private Limited ... 114, Asramam, Quilon, Kollam- 691002, Kerala.cattle bone powder mill machinery at kerala,Crushed Bone - Crushed Bone Manufacturers, Dealers & ExportersGet here crushed bone manufacturers, suppliers, dealers, distributors & exporters from India. . Main Products : Crushed Cattle Bone Powder, Cuttlefish Bone, Cuttlefish Bone Powder, Cuttle Fish Bone . Raja Crushing & Fertilizer mills. ...
  http://emdp.co.in/9962_open-stone-crusher-plant.html
*  Diabetes and bone - new insights into signalling mechanisms and bone quality | Frontiers Research Topic
Diabetes is known to have a number of complications such as atherosclerosis, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. However, diabetes may also affect bone and compromise bone biomechanical competence beyond what is revealed through changes in bone mineral density. Bone disease may thus ne a novel hitherto overlooked complication of diabetes. Diabetes may affect bone in a number of ways: 1) glucose may affect collagen by foming advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as pentosidine, which may lower bone biomechanical competence, 2) hyperglycaemia and AGE may affect bone cells leading to a state of low bone turnover and thus osteoporosis, 3) hyperglycaemia may lead to excess loss of calcium in the urine and thus a negative calcium balance. Furthermore many differences between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) affect bone as ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/911/diabetes-and-bone---new-insights-into-signalling-mechanisms-and-bone-quality
*  Calcium and bone mineral metabolism in children with chronic illnesses. - Semantic Scholar
Increased longevity and improved medical management of children with chronic illnesses has led to a focus on the short- and long-term consequences of these conditions on bone health. Bone loss is influenced by diet, malabsorption, and disease-related imbalances in bone turnover. It may be exacerbated by common medications, especially corticosteroids. Assessment of bone mass and quality, calcium absorption, kinetically derived rates of bone turnover, and biochemical markers of bone turnover have increased our knowledge of the pathophysiology of bone loss in these children as well as provided insights into possible therapeutic interventions. Increased intake of calcium and vitamin D, while useful, is unlikely to prevent or resolve bone loss in many chronically ill children. Emphasis on combination of nutritional interventions with exercise and newer ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Calcium-and-bone-mineral-metabolism-in-children-wi-Abrams-O-Brien/2b978f3d4230d204dd4fa8bbc16caf4bc0dca02f
*  Human Skeletal System Structure - Anatomy Human Chart
Human Skeletal System Structure - human body skeletal structure, human skeletal system structure, human skeletal system structure and function, internal structure of the human skeletal system, structure and function of human skeletal system, structure of a human skeletal system, structure of human skeletal system, structure of the human skeletal system
  http://anatomyhumanchart.com/human-skeletal-system-structure/
*  Accretion of Bone Quantity and Quality in the Developing Mouse Skeleton - Miller - 2007 - Journal of Bone and Mineral Research ...
In this work, we found that bone mineral formation proceeded very rapidly in mice by 1 day of age, where the degree of mineralization, the tissue mineral density, and the mineral crystallinity reached 36%, 51%, and 87% of the adult values, respectively. However, even though significant mineralization had occurred, the elastic modulus of 1-day-old bone was only 14% of its adult value, indicating that the intrinsic stiffening of the bone lags considerably behind the initial mineral formation.. Introduction: To meet the mechanical challenges during early development, the skeleton requires the rapid accretion of bone quality and bone quantity. Here, we describe early bone development in the mouse skeleton and test the hypothesis that specific compositional properties determine the stiffness of the tissue.. Materials and Methods: Tibias of female BALB mice were harvested at eight time-points (n = 4 each) ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1359/jbmr.070402/abstract
*  Broken Bones Fractures<...
Bones are rigid, but they do bend or 'give' somewhat when an outside force is applied. However, if the force is too great, the bones will break, just as a plastic ruler breaks when it is bent too far. The severity of a fracture usually depends on the force that caused the break. If the bone's breaking point has been exceeded only slightly, then the bone may crack rather than break all the way through. If the force is extreme, such as in an automobile crash or a gunshot, the bone may shatter. If the bone breaks in such a way that bone fragments stick out through the skin, or a wound penetrates down to the broken bone, the fracture is called an 'open' fracture. This type of fracture is particularly serious because once the skin is broken, infection in both the wound and the bone can occur. ...
  http://www.osmifw.com/orthopedic-diseases-disorders/broken-bones-fractures/
*  Long bone - Wikipedia
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bones: long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid. Long bones, especially the femur and tibia, are subjected to most of the load during daily activities and they are crucial for skeletal mobility. They grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with an epiphysis at each end of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage ("articular cartilage"). The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result of endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate. Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone (GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The long bones include the femora, tibiae, and fibulae of the legs; the humeri, radii, and ulnae of the arms; metacarpals and metatarsals of the hands and feet, the phalanges of the fingers and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_bone
*  Cancer and Bone Metastasis | Frontiers Research Topic
In spite of decades of research, cancer is still the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cancers are complex diseases that occur due to genetic and epigenetic changes. While current therapies have contributed to increased overall survival in cancer patients, especially with localized disease, therapies to treat metastatic disease have been less successful. Malignant tumor cells metastasize to different distant organs, with many of the most common tumors (breast, lung, prostate) metastasizing frequently to the bone. Once tumor cells have established in the bone microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms, they alter the bone microenvironment to change the balance of bone turnover leading to an increase in bone destruction (osteolytic) and/or bone formation (osteoblastic). These changes in bone remodeling result in an increased fracture risk and severe bone ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/6335/cancer-and-bone-metastasis
*  Osteoporosis overview --Doctors Lounge
The underlying mechanism in all cases of osteoporosis is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Either bone resorption is excessive, or bone formation is diminished. Bone matrix is manufactured by the osteoblast cells, whereas bone resorption is accomplished by osteoclast cells. Trabecular bone is the sponge-like bone in the center of long bones and vertabrae. Cortical bone is the hard outer shell of bones. Because osteoblasts and osteoclasts inhabit the surface of bones, trabecular bone is more active, more subject to bone turnover, to remodeling. Long before any overt fractures occur, the small spicules of trabecular bone break and are reformed in the process known as remodeling. Bone will grow and change shape in ...
  https://www.doctorslounge.com/index.php/reference/diseases/160
*  Hierarchical analysis and multi-scale modelling of rat cortical and trabecular bone | Journal of The Royal Society Interface
The aim of this study was to explore the hierarchical nature of the two major bone types in rats. By using a variety of analytical techniques, we were able to characterize the structural and compositional properties of cortical and trabecular bone, as well as to determine the best mathematical model to predict the tissue's mechanical properties.. Our hierarchical analysis demonstrated that the differences between cortical and trabecular bone reside mainly at the micro- and macrostructural levels. Our findings are consistent with those of previous studies: modulus of elasticity and yield strength values were significantly lower in trabecular bone specimens [7,24,26,27,29,30]. Although not evidenced in our study, Choi & Goldstein [7] made the same asseveration, emphasizing the higher mineral density values seen in trabecular bone. These findings can be explained by the configuration of lamellar/collagen fibres within the ...
  http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/12/106/20150070
*  Differences in skeletal microarchitecture and strength in African-American and white women - Putman - 2013 - Journal of Bone...
In this study, we found that African-American women had more favorable values for a variety of cortical and trabecular bone densitometric and microarchitectural indices, resulting in higher estimated bone strength that persisted even after adjustment for clinical covariates and aBMD. Total vBMD was higher in African-American women than in white women at both the radius and the tibia in unadjusted analyses. In the radius, this difference was largely a result of higher trabecular vBMD, whereas in the tibia the difference was largely a result of higher cortical vBMD in the African-American women. In general, the differences in bone microarchitecture between African-American women and white women tended to be more pronounced in measures of cortical than trabecular bone. Adjustment for weight and other covariates attenuated racial differences to a greater extent in the tibia than in the radius, suggesting that the etiology of the racial ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.1953/full?globalMessage=0&systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+usage+report+download+page+will+be+unavailable+on+Friday+24th+November+2017+at+21%3A00+EST+%2F+02.00+GMT+%2F+10%3A00+SGT+%28Saturday+25th+Nov+for+SGT+
*  Brevet US7019192 - Composition for filling bone defects - Google Brevets
The invention is directed toward a formable bone composition for application to a bone defect site to promote new bone growth at the site which comprises a new bone growth inducing compound of demineralized lyophilized allograft bone particles. The particle size ranges from about 0.1 mm to about 1.0 cm and is mixed in a hydrogel carrier containing a sodium phosphate saline buffer, the hydrogel component of the carrier ranging from about 1.0 to 5.0% of the composition and a pH between 6.8-7.4 with one or more additives of a cellular material, growth factor, demineralized bone chips or mineralized bone chips.
  http://www.google.fr/patents/US7019192
*  Brevet US20060264952 - Methods of Using Minimally Invasive Actuable Bone Fixation Devices - Google Brevets
Method for bone reinforcement, fixation and treatment of diseased or fractured bones including a supporting structure optionally coated with therapeutic agent is provided. The supporting structure or device used in the method may be collapsible upon deployment at the surgical site, and include fixation features such as anchors to securely position in place once deployed. Bone cement or other material may be provided to alternatively secure the positioned supporting structure for treatment. The disclosed method includes, for example, a method of repairing a bone fracture comprising: accessing a fracture along a length of a bone through a bony protuberance at an access point at an end of a bone; advancing a bone fixation device into a space through the access point at the end of the bone; bending a portion of the bone fixation device along its length to ...
  http://www.google.fr/patents/US20060264952