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*  Heart and ventilation rate changes during tonic immobility in Ornate Tinamou (Nothoprocta ornata) and High Andean chicken ...
This response is called tonic immobility (TI) and is a well-established test of fear to evaluate fearfulness. Long durations of ... The time following induction of tonic immobility (i.e. after holding the bird on its back for 15 s) was characterized by a ... The main objective for this study was to analyse duration of tonic immobility and heart and ventilation rate during tonic ... During tonic immobility a progressive decrease in heart and ventilation rate was observed in all species, significant in all ...
  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:826171
*  Publication : USDA ARS
... as tested by duration of tonic immobility. Increased degree of fluctuating asymmetry at 18 weeks in 5-HT treated birds (P,0.05 ... Birds treated with excess serotonin in the egg were found to be less aggressive but have a greater fear response compared to ... Birds treated with the pharmaceutical serotonin agonist in the egg showed no difference in behavioral response. Our data ... and at 18 weeks compared to saline control birds only (P,0.05). External 5-HT also increased fearfulness response (P,0.05) ...
  https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=259205
*  Apitherapy News: June 2013
5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic immobility test and showed less home-cage ... Honey bee venom toxins trigger immunological, physiological and neurological responses within victims. The high occurrence of ... 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of ... probably with birds, before the last ice age… ... Bee Venom Spray Stimulates Immune Response. *Historical Aspects ...
  http://apitherapy.blogspot.com/2013_06_01_archive.html
*  Early domestication? : Phenotypic alterations of Red Junglefowl selected for divergent fear of humans
... response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/ ... This generated three groups of animals, high (H), low (L) and intermediate (I) fearful birds. The birds in each generation were ... Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds ... exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions ...
  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?dswid=-9101&pid=diva2%3A1036456&c=37&searchType=SIMPLE&language=sv&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%22872902%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all
*  DiVA - Search result
... response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/ ... Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/ ... exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions ... Genetic Variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 Are Associated with the IgE Response to the Ascaris Resistance Marker ABA-1 and the Birch ...
  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?searchType=SUBJECT&language=en&onlyFullText=false&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211557%22%7D%5D%5D
*  DiVA - Search result
... response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/ ... Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/ ... exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions ... without eliciting an immune response. To determine if the oviduct alters its gene expression in response to sperm entry, ...
  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?dswid=0&searchType=SUBJECT&language=en&onlyFullText=false&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211557%22%7D%5D%5D
*  DiVA - Søkeresultat
... response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/ ... Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/ ... exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions ... Immune response, in itself, was found to be costly in terms of reduced survival, confirming that trade-offs involving ...
  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?dswid=-666&searchType=SUBJECT&language=no&onlyFullText=false&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211562%22%7D%5D%5D
*  DiVA - Sökresultat
... response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/ ... Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds ... exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions ... Brains of S5 birds with high fear scores (S5 high) were heavier both in absolute terms and when corrected for body weight. The ...
  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?dswid=-9101&faces-redirect=true&language=sv&searchType=SIMPLE&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%22872902%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all
*  DiVA - Search result
... response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/ ... This generated three groups of animals, high (H), low (L) and intermediate (I) fearful birds. The birds in each generation were ... response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/ ... Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds ...
  http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?dswid=-9393&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%22872902%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=en&query=
*  A medium density genetic map and QTL for behavioral and production traits in Japanese quail | BMC Genomics | Full Text
During this test, tonic immobility was induced by restraining the animal on its back: the longer the time needed for the bird ... were co-located with tonic immobility or response to a novel object QTL [10,16]. It was later shown that chickens with ... behaviors measuring the emotional reactivity of the birds (reaction to an unknown object, tonic immobility reaction), and ... All the birds were measured for several social behaviors (social reinstatement, response to social isolation, sexual motivation ...
  https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-014-1210-9
*  Effects of corticosterone injection at embryonic day eleven on broiler growth and tonic immobility - Zootecnica International
c) Tonic immobility. Tonic immobility is used to assess the fear response in birds, with the speed of the response indicating ... d) Tonic immobility test. All birds undertook a tonic immobility test (TI) at 14 days of age. Birds were placed onto their back ... c) Tonic immobility. At day 14, no significant difference was seen between response times in the tonic immobility test between ... Behavioural changes were also observed in males, using tonic immobility testing, at day 14 (P , 0.05). These changes show that ...
  https://zootecnicainternational.com/featured/effects-corticosterone-injection-embryonic-day-eleven-broiler-growth-tonic-immobility/
*  Apitherapy News: Eating Drone Larvae Suppresses Blood Glucose, Cholesterol
5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic immobility test and showed less home-cage ... avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness.. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and ... 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of ...
  http://apitherapy.blogspot.co.nz/2013/06/eating-drone-larvae-suppresses-blood.html
*  Vent pecking - Wikipedia
... and tonic immobility duration. Vent pecking can be related to disease or immune challenge as it sometimes becomes prevalent in ... In The Welfare of Domestic Fowl and Other Captive Birds, I.J.H. Duncan and P. Hawkins (eds), Springer, pp. 237-258 Potzsch, C.J ... Does enhancement of specific immune responses predispose laying hens for feather pecking? Poultry Science, 88: 536-542 doi: ... and tonic immobility duration in chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 113: 87-97 Butterworth, A. and Weeks, C., (2010). ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vent_pecking
*  Apparent death - Wikipedia
Tonic immobility is considered to be a fear-potentiated response induced by physical restraint and characterised by reduced ... TI in quail reduces the probability of the birds being predated by cats. To induce tonic immobility, the animal is gently ... In rabbits, the physiological and behavioral responses to induced tonic immobility have been found to be indicative of a fear- ... latency to first head or eye movements and the duration of immobility, sometimes called the 'righting time'. Tonic immobility ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_death
*  Farm Animals - WUR
2004), a short tonic immobility response (reflecting reduced fearfulness) and an active response during manual restraint ( ... We study whether feather pecking in laying hens represents a form of compulsive spectrum disorders and could serve as a bird ... the tonic immobility test and the manual restraint test. 'Bold' hens would show an active response in the open field at a young ... tonic immobility, T-maze, memory test,..) and when being undisturbed. Plumage conditions and body weights are monitored and a ...
  https://www.wur.nl/nl/Onderzoek-Resultaten/Leerstoelgroepen/Dierwetenschappen/Gedragsecologie/Farm-animals.htm
*  Insights on the Host Stress, Fear and Growth Responses to the Deoxynivalenol Feed Contaminant in Broiler Chickens (pdf) |...
Tonic immobility reaction) A total of 40 birds (10 birds per group) were tested individually for the duration of tonic ... The number of induction trials to attain tonic immobility lasting at least 20 seconds and the duration of tonic immobility ... If the bird righted in less than 20 seconds, it was considered that tonic immobility had not been induced and the restraint ... Fear levels Birds fed DON showed longer tonic immobility duration and higher inductions (P,0.05) suggesting that feeding of DON ...
  http://paperity.org/p/60714241/insights-on-the-host-stress-fear-and-growth-responses-to-the-deoxynivalenol-feed
*  Undergraduate Research Symposium Abstracts from Biology 2006 A-K
... fear response, measured as the duration of tonic immobility (TI), stress, measured by both plasma corticosterone (CORT) and the ... An historic problem faced by the poultry industry is the negative impact of elevated ammonia (NH3) bird quality and welfare. ... Impact of Msh2 Deficiency on Rad51 Foci Formation in Response to Oligonucleotides. Stephanie Callahan, Katie Maguire, and Eric ... Fear behaviors such as freezing (immobility) and time spent in the hide box were measured. It is anticipated that the lesioned ...
  http://www1.udel.edu/chem/white/HHMI2/Symp06/BiolAbst06A-K.html
*  The broiler's last day of life
2005), prolonged tonic immobility (Cashman et al., 1989; Jones, 1992), or increased heart rate and increased body temperature ( ... A catcher would grasp a broiler by the leg and inverted the bird. After catching 6 to 8 birds this way, the catcher carried ... feed withdrawal provokes behavioral and physiological responses, such as a glucagon-mediated response, indicating that broilers ... Effects of transportation on the tonic immobility fear reactions of broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 30:211-221. Chen, T. C., C. D. ...
  https://www.slideshare.net/charmkey5/the-broilers-last-day-of-life-30967509
*  Neuroscience of sleep - Wikipedia
... lack of motor response in the form of antennal immobility, etc. The fact that both the forms of sleep are found in mammals and ... The correlates of sleep found for mammals are valid for birds as well i.e. bird sleep is very similar to mammals and involves ... the tonic immobility reflex. Most theories of dream function appear to be conflicting, but it is possible that many short-term ... However, the proportion of REM sleep in birds is much lower. Also, some birds can sleep with one eye open if there is high ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroscience_of_sleep
*  Embryonic environment and transgenerational effects in quail | Genetics Selection Evolution | Full Text
Tonic immobility (day 11-12). Duration of tonic immobility ("TI duration") is a behavioral and physiological response which is ... If a bird failed to right itself after 3 min, a maximum score of 180 s was recorded. If tonic immobility was not induced after ... Transmission arrows have solid lines for Epi+ birds and broken ones for Epi− birds. Homologous birds 9E+ and 9E− have mirror- ... as measured through the duration of tonic immobility and social motivation. Emotions are complex responses that reflect ...
  https://gsejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12711-017-0292-7
*  Bruce Charlton's Notions: August 2016
Tonic immobility. Tonic immobility is the final defence in the chain of anti-predator responses: nature has one last desperate ... the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds used to... protect birds, the Salvation Army used to be a Christian denomination ... reported extreme immobility [58]. Rape victims may be insensitive to pain during tonic immobility [27]. Tonic immobility may be ... Tonic immobility evolved as a fear response for present threats. With humans such responses may be activated by fear but ...
  http://charltonteaching.blogspot.co.uk/2016_08_01_archive.html
*  Anti-predator adaptation - Wikipedia
... called tonic immobility. Tonic immobility is a reflex response that causes the fawn to enter a low body position that simulates ... Similar calls are found in other species of monkey, while birds also give different calls that elicit different responses. In ... This response, referred to as "alarm bradycardia", causes the fawn's heart rate to drop from 155 to 38 beats per minute within ... Birds avoid eating both species because their wing patterns honestly signal their unpleasant taste. A spine is a sharp, needle- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-predator_adaptation
*  Deception in animals - Wikipedia
Birds often feign death to escape predation; for example tonic immobility in quail reduces the probability of attacks by cats. ... In response to hearing ultrasound emitted by hunting bats, they produce loud ultrasonic clicks to mimic the unpalatable tiger ... "tonic immobility" or "thanatosis". A wide range of animals, e.g. lizards, birds, rodents, and sharks, behave as if dead as an ... Jones, B.; Faure, J. M. (1981). "Tonic immobility ("righting time") in laying hens housed in cages and pens". Applied Animal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deception_in_animals
*  Effects of High Ambient Temperature on Blood Parameters in Red Jungle Fowl, Village Fowl and Broiler Chickens
... influence blood parameters and heat shock protein 70 expression in broiler chickens showing short or long tonic immobility ... Response to selection in two temperatures for fast and slow growth to nine weeks of age. Genetics, 97: 443-456.. PubMed , ... Quantitative observations on the pulmonary anatomy of the domestic fowl and other ground-dwelling birds. Ph.D. Thesis, ... Avian blood leucocyte responses to stress. World Poult. Sci. J., 49: 34-43.. CrossRef , Mitchell, M.A. and D.A. Sandercock, ...
  http://medwelljournals.com/ref.php?doi=javaa.2010.1201.1207