*  List of Betula species - Wikipedia
Subgenera of genus Betula (Birch), are; Bark on twigs rich in methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). Female catkins erect. Diploid (2n = 28). Betula lenta - Sweet Birch or Cherry Birch Betula lenta subsp. uber - Cherry Creek Birch Hexaploid (6n = 84). Betula allegheniensis - Yellow Birch (B. lutea) Decaploid (10n = 140). Betula austrosinensis - South China Birch Betula globispica - Betula insignis - Betula medwediewii - Caucasian Birch Duodecaploid (12n = 168). Betula megrelica - chromosome number not reported Betula corylifolia - Hazel-leaf Birch Betula grossa - Japanese Cherry Birch Betula insignis - Bark on twigs contains some methyl salicylate. Female ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Betula_species
*  Buy Betula pendula Youngii - Weeping Birch tree 1.75-2.0m - available for sale online
Betula pendula Youngii - Weeping Birch tree 1.75-2.0m is available to buy online, or for sale at our tree nursery in Essex near London - Betula pendula Youngii - Weeping Birch tree . Plant Information: Size: 1.
  http://kingco.co.uk/trees/small-garden-trees?product_id=515
*  تأثیر متیل‌جاسمونات و سالیسیلیک اسید بر تولید بتولین و بتولینیک اسید در کشت سوسپانسیون سلولی توس (Betula pendula Roth.)
این پژوهش با هدف افزایش تولید بتولین و بتولینیک اسید با استفاده از کشت سوسپانسیون سلولی گیاه توس (Betula pendula Roth.) و محرک‌های متیل‌جاسمونات و سالیسیلیک اسید انجام شد. در این تحقیق ابتدا رشد سلولی طی دوره 16 روزه بررسی شد. سپس دو محرک متیل‌جاسمونات (در غلظت‌های 0، 50،100،150 و 200 میکرومولار) و سالیسیلیک اسید (در غلظت‌های 0،‌ 100، 200، 300 و 400 میکرومولار) به‌طور جداگانه به محیط کشت‌های 8 روزه اضافه شدند و سلول‌ها 1، 2، 3، 5 و 7 روز پس از اعمال تیمارها برداشت شدند. وزن تر، خشک و درصد زنده‌مانی سلول‌ها بررسی شد و میزان بتولین و بتولینیک اسید با استفاده از دستگاه HPLC ارزیابی ...
  http://ijmapr.areeo.ac.ir/article_109322.html
*  Silver Birch (Betula Pendula) Photographic Print by Consumer Institute/NSIL at Art.com
Silver Birch (Betula Pendula) Photographic Print by Consumer Institute/NSIL. Find art you love and shop high-quality art prints, photographs, framed artworks and posters at Art.com. 100% satisfaction guaranteed.
  https://www.art.com/products/p14441588618-sa-i6716411/consumer-institute-nsi-silver-birch-betula-pendula.htm?sorig=cat&sorigid=0&dimvals=5528551&ui=76897af77eaf4d4e94800bf6e51498de
*  Rapid induced resistance of silver birch affects both innate immunity and performance of gypsy moths: the role of plant...
In this study we tested the effects of rapid induced resistance of the silver birch, Betula pendula, on the performance and immune defense of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. We also measured the effects of defoliation on the concentrations of plant secondary metabolites, particularly on phenolics and terpenoids. It was found that severe natural defoliation (by moth larvae) of silver birch led to an increase in lipophilic flavonoids on the leaf surface. The concentration of some simple phenolics and monoterpenes (linalool and geraniol) also increased, while that of several glycosides of quercetin decreased. The female pupal weights and survival rates of moths decreased, and larval development time increased, when the insects fed on defoliated trees. However, the feeding of caterpillars with the leaves of defoliated trees led to an increase in lysozyme-like activity in their hemolymph, with an increase in their ability to encapsulate potential parasites. Our ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11829-012-9202-7
*  Phenolic Compounds of the Inner Bark ofBetula pendula: Seasonal and Genetic Variation and Induction by Wounding | SpringerLink
The contents of individual phenolic compounds in the inner bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Samples from 21 mature trees originating from three micropropagated parent trees were collected six times over a 1-year period. Significant seasonal variation in the quantities of ten compounds and four chromatographically unresolved compound pairs was found. A majority of the compounds also exhibited significant quantitative variation among birch clones. There were no qualitative differences associated with the season or among the clones. However, wounding of the bark induced the production of new types of bark phenolics: several ellagitannins were detected in the callus tissues of birch for the first time. ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10886-012-0199-2
*  White Birch, betula papyrifera
The White Birch is a small to medium sized deciduous tree. As far as trees go, it doesn't live very long, only about 140 years. Small heart shaped leaves are found at the ends of drooping twigs and branches. The Paper Birch has both male and female flowers called catkins. These turn into little winged nutkins, which ripen in early August to mid September. The wings help the seeds to fly away from the parent so there is no competition for food and water. You can identify this tree by it white bark which peels easily and is marked by narrow horizontal stripes. White Birch trees can either have one slender stem or several stems. The White Birch is also known as the Paper Birch, Canoe Birch, and Silver Birch. It can reach heights of 70 to 80 feet.. Hardy to zone 3 ...
  http://datreestore.com/whbibepa.html
*  Hengebj rk (Betula pendula)
Te av bj rkeblad er et av de beste urin- og svettedrivende midler vi har i urtemedisinen. Den kraftige urindrivende virkningen kan bidra til drive ut nyre- og bl restein, og bj rke-te kan ogs ta knekken p skadelige bakterier i nyrene og urinveiene. Bj rkeblad-te kan virke lindrende ved bl.a. leddgikt, vanlig gikt og urinsyregikt. Det var tidligere vanlig drikke bj rkeblad-te som en blodrensende v rkur . Av bj rka har man som medisin ogs brukt barken, sevjen, en eterisk olje og en lut fremstilt av asken. Hengebj rk og vanlig bj rk brukes p samme m te i urtemedisinen. ...
  http://www.rolv.no/bilder/galleri/medplant/betu_pen.htm
*  ITIS Standard Report Page: Betula pendula
Hosted by the USGS Core Science Analytics and Synthesis. Page designed through the cooperative efforts of interagency ITIS Teams. Point of Contact: itiswebmaster@itis.gov.
  https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=19495
*  Environmental effects on the dynamics of the shoot population of mountain birch trees. - AMAP Project Portal
Bud dynamic in mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, is affected by biotic and abiotic factors such as temperature, light and herbivory. Climate probably has a large impact on module life history strategies i.e. survival, sexual and vegetative reproduction. (Modules are here defined as partially autonomous, repetitive and multicellular subunits within a tree.) Trade-off between present reproduction and future growth and/or reproduction occurs if resources are limiting. There is no direct trade-off between male catkin production and axillary bud production in mountain birch since male catkins are produced at the terminal bud of long-shoot. This bud is aborted when no catkin is present. However, same resources are used for both male catkin production and axillary bud production indicating that trade-offs occur in mountain birch. In my study I have simulated herbivory in order to study what effect trade-offs have on growth of ...
  http://projects.amap.no/project/environmental-effects-on-the-dynamics-of-the-shoot-population-of-mountain-birch-trees/
*  RCSB PDB - 1FM4: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE BIRCH POLLEN ALLERGEN BET V 1L Methods Report Page
1FM4: Crystal Structure of a Hypoallergenic Isoform of the Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1 and its Likely Biological Function as a Plant Steroid Carrier
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/materialsAndMethods.do?structureId=1FM4
*  Birch polypore fungus - Stock Image B250/1623 - Science Photo Library
Birch polypore (Piptoporus betulinus) growing on the trunk of a silver birch tree (Betula pendula). This parasitic bracket fungus is found only on birch trees. The visible part of the fungus is the fruiting body that produces the spores, which are held in pores on the underside of the bracket. The fungus uses a fine mycelium network to extract nutrients from the trunk of the tree. It is generally only found on weakened trees, and the fungus can kill a birch tree over time. - Stock Image B250/1623
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/14474/view
*  Buy Betula utilis Jacquemontii - Himalayan Birch tree 10/12cm girth - available for sale online
Betula utilis Jacquemontii - Himalayan Birch tree 10/12cm girth is available to buy online, or for sale at our tree nursery in Essex near London - Betula utilis Jacquemontii - Himalayan Birch tree. Plant Information: Size: 10/12cms girth standard.
  http://kingco.co.uk/betula-utilis-jacquemontii-himalayan-birch-tree-10-12cm-girth.html
*  Birch Leaves - Cut (Betula verruscosa) 8oz | Smallflower.com
Get the highest quality of apothecary products today from Smallflower. Come check out our Birch Leaves - Cut (Betula verruscosa) (8oz).
  http://www.smallflower.com/smallflower/birch-leaves-cut-betula-verruscosa-8oz-loose-herbs-11219
*  Betula alleghaniensis - Michigan Flora
In a diversity of habitats, from lowland hardwoods, especially in the southern part of the state, to hemlock-white pine-northern hardwoods forest of the north, becoming especially common in the western Upper Peninsula. As is true of the other birches, the pistillate scales and bark of B. alleghaniensis are variable. Very old trees, as in virgin stands in the Upper Peninsula, may have very furrowed or checkered dark bark. Trees in swamps of the southern Lower Peninsula may have dark brown or blackish bark, which peels very little if at all; such trees hardly resemble the widespread typical yellow birch with light yellow-brown, peeling bark, and have sometimes been erroneously referred to B. lenta (which differs in having smaller, nearly or quite glabrous and less densely ciliate scales in the pistillate aments). Betula lenta and B. alleghaniensis both have a characteristic odor and flavor of wintergreen in the crushed bark of young twigs. ...
  http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=550
*  Photo 945-22: Dwarf Birch (Betula nana) in Botanic Gardens of...Institute. St.Petersburg, Russia
Picture Archives - Album 945 (Sablino - Saint Petersburg, Russia, May 21 - 22, 2011) - Photo 22 (Dwarf Birch (Betula nana) in Botanic Gardens of Komarov Botanical Institute. Saint Petersburg, Russia, May 22, 2011)
  http://asergeev.com/pictures/archives/compress/2011/945/22.htm
*  Dwarf Birch (Betula nana) Biopix photo/image 73230
Photo/image Dwarf Birch (Betula nana), Family: Betulaceae. Location Sarek nationalpark, Sweden. Photographer: A Neumann, Photoid 73230
  http://www.biopix.info/dwarf-birch-betula-nana_photo-73230.aspx
*  Betula in Flora of North America @ efloras.org
2. Betula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 982. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 433, 1754. Birch [Latin betula, birch] Trees or shrubs , to 30 m; trunks often several, branching excurrent, becoming deliquescent. Bark of trunks and branches dark brown to chalky white, smooth, often exfoliating; lenticels dark, prominent, sometimes horizontally expanded. Wood nearly white to reddish brown, light and soft to moderately heavy and hard, texture fine. Branches, branchlets, and twigs nearly 2-ranked; young twigs differentiated into long and short shoots, sometimes with taste and odor of wintergreen. Winter buds sessile, slender, terete, apex acute; scales several, imbricate, smooth. Leaves mostly on short shoots, nearly 2-ranked. Leaf blade ovate to deltate, elliptic, or nearly orbiculate, 0.5--10(--14) × 0.5--8 cm, thin, margins doubly serrate or serrate (or crenate to shallowly round-lobed in dwarf northern species); surfaces glabrous to tomentose, sometimes abaxially ...
  http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=103887
*  Caloptilia betulicola - Wikipedia
Caloptilia betulicola, the red birch slender, is a moth of the Gracillariidae family. It is found from Scandinavia and the north of European Russia to the Pyrenees and Alps and from Ireland to Poland and Slovakia. In the east it is found up to China, Japan and the Russian Far East. The wingspan is 14-16 millimetres (0.55-0.63 in). There are two generations per year, with adults on wing in June and July and again in September and October. The larvae feed on Betula pendula and Betula pubecens. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine starts with an inconspicuous epidermal corridor. Later, a blotch is formed, that quickly develops into a tentiform mine. Generally, the mine is lower-surface, but upper-surface mines are not rare. The frass is deposited in a mass of grains in a corner of the mine. After leaving the mine, the larva moves twice. First it lives in a rolled or folded leaf margin and later in a leaf that is rolled downwards, starting from the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caloptilia_betulicola
*  Somedays Lovin Betula Knit Dress in Black
Buy Betula Knit Dress in Black by Somedays Lovin of Black color for only $59.95 at Glue Store. Womens Black Betula Knit Dress by Somedays Lovin. Key Features: - Über comfy micro-knit fabrication - Wide scoop neckline - Low back and long sleeves Material: Cotton / Polyester / Elastane Sizing: Our model Ashley is wearing a size S/8.
  http://www.gluestore.com.au/somedayslovin-betula-knit-dress-in-black.html
*  shaidatulmaisarah: Review Betula by Birkenstock Relax Sandals Unisex BirkoFlor
In general as far as I know customers who bought Betula by Birkenstock Relax Sandals Unisex BirkoFlor or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on Betula by Birkenstock Relax Sandals Unisex BirkoFlor, best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
  http://shaidatulmaisarah.blogspot.com/2014/01/review-betula-by-birkenstock-relax_24.html
*  Home - Betula Manus
betula manus fertigt nach einem patentierten Verfahren hochwertige Griffe und Oberflächen aus Birkenrinde. Die Verarbeitung dieses Rohstoffes erfordert Erfahrung und verlangt große Sorgfalt. Mit Liebe zum Detail gelingt es die angenehme Haptik sowie die einzigartigen Eigenschaften aus dem Grundmaterial heraus zu schälen. Optisch ist jedes Stück ein Unikat. betula manus fertigt in Manufaktur. Nachhaltig, sozial und ökologisch verantwortlich zu produzieren ist nicht nur Slogan, sondern Kern unseres unternehmerischen Handelns. Als Menschen fühlen wir uns der Natur verpflichtet.
  http://www.betula-manus.de
*  Betula alleghaniensis | Find Me A Cure
Botanical Name: Betula alleghaniensis Family: Betulaceae Genus: Betula Subgenus: Betulenta Species: B. alleghaniensis Kingdom: Plantae Division: Angiosperms
  https://findmeacure.com/2016/07/14/betula-alleghaniensis-2/
*  Oxygen radical production by blood eosinophils is reduced during birch pollen season in allergic patients - Download PDF
Woschnagg, C.; Rak, S.; Venge, P., 1996: Oxygen radical production by blood eosinophils is reduced during birch pollen season in allergic patients
  https://eurekamag.com/research/002/914/002914195.php
*  rBet v 1 PR-10, Birch - Phadia - Setting the Standard - Phadia.com
One example of a diagnostic application of recombinant birch allergens is found in a study examining allergen-specific serum IgE antibodies using the recombinant allergens Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4, as examined in birch-sensitive patients from the province of Cuneo, in northwestern Italy. It was reported that of 372 patients, 215 (58%) had serum IgE antibodies to Bet v 1, 166 (45%) to Bet v 2, and 35 (9%) to Bet v 4. Mono-sensitisation to Bet v 1 occurred in 146 (39%) of patients; in 96 (26%) to Bet v 2; and in only 4 (1%) to Bet v 4. Thirty-nine sera (11%) did not contain allergen-specific IgE antibodies to any of these three individual birch pollen allergens. All 372 sera (100%) had IgE antibodies against natural Birch pollen extract; 162 (44%) contained IgE antibodies reacting with Apple extract (75% of Bet v 1 positive sera). The study concluded that the 3 recombinant birch pollen allergens alone could identify 90% of ...
  http://www.phadia.com/en/Products/Allergy-testing-products/ImmunoCAP-Allergen-Information/Tree-Pollens/Allergen-Components/rBet-v-1-PR-10-Birch/