Flame retardant - Wikipedia
Halogenated compounds with aromatic rings can degrade into dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, particularly when heated, such as ... The earliest flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were banned in the U.S. in 1977 when it was discovered that ... and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in the United States population: 2003-2004". Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (4): 1377 ... compounds contain both phosphorus and a halogen. Such compounds include tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (brominated tris) and ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flame_retardant
Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and...
O. Humblet, P. L. Williams, S. A. Korrick et al., "Dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in mother's serum and the ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical ... In this paper we compare the elimination kinetics of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into ... Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and ...https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/483832/
Patente US4276179 - Removing halogenated hydrocarbons from aqueous media by utilizing a ... - Google Patentes
... and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are removed from aqueous media including waste water from chemical manufacturing ... Method for removing polychlorinated biphenyl compounds from water. US4764282 *. 26 Sep 1986. 16 Ago 1988. The Uniroyal Goodrich ... Although the use of many of these compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2,-bis(chlorophenyl) ... based on the gram molecular weight of the compound or mixture of compounds. For a further discussion of the properties of these ...http://www.google.es/patents/US4276179?dq=flatulence
Triad Project Profile: Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Using...
... and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 'hot spots.' Previous investigations had identified several locations on the 13.7-acre site ... Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Using Immunoassay PCB Test Kits and ... Site to collect real time data in conjunction with field decision-making to map the boundaries of volatile organic compounds ( ...https://triadcentral.clu-in.org/user/includes/dsp_profile.cfm?Project_ID=16
The little bacteria that can - diversity, genomics and ecophysiology of 'Dehalococcoides' spp. in contaminated environments -...
Criado, M.R., Pereiro, I.R., and Torrijos, R.C. (2002) Determination of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds in indoor air ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor1260). Various. Adrian et al. (2009). Dehalococcoides sp. VS. VC. Ethene. Cupples et al. ( ... Although many chlorinated compounds may be transformed under aerobic conditions, the majority of polychlorinated compounds, ... Kube, M., Beck, A., Zinder, S.H., Kuhl, H., Reinhardt, R., and Adrian, L. (2005) Genome sequence of the chlorinated compound- ...http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-7915.2009.00147.x/full
List of MeSH codes (D02) - Wikipedia
... biphenyl compounds MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.185.060 --- aminobiphenyl compounds MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.185.100 --- benzidines ... polybrominated biphenyls MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.185.698 --- polychlorinated biphenyls MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.220 --- ... trialkyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.910 --- triethyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.950 --- trimethyltin compounds ... mustard compounds MeSH D02.455.526.728.468 --- mustard gas MeSH D02.455.526.728.650 --- nitrogen mustard compounds MeSH D02.455 ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D02)
Endocrine disruptor - Wikipedia
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chlorinated compounds used as industrial coolants and lubricants. PCBs are ... "Negative association between plasma levels of adiponectin and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 in obese women under non-energy- ... Fürst P (October 2006). "Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, ... Endocrine disrupting compounds encompass a variety of chemical classes, including drugs, pesticides, compounds used in the ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrine_disruptor
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds - Wikipedia
Polychlorinated/polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are "dioxin-like". Under certain ... Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs ... polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and exposure through ... "Persistent organochlorine and organobromine compounds in mother's milk from Sweden 1996-2006: compound-specific temporal trends ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dioxins_and_dioxin-like_compounds
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans - Wikipedia
California's Air Toxics "Hot Spots" List (Assembly Bill). Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds Polychlorinated biphenyl " ... and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): observations on pregnant women from central Taiwan. Food Addit Contam. 2007 ... Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the ... Polychlorinated Dibenzofuran and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyl in Healthy Japanese Men. J Health Sci. VOL.47; NO.2; PAGE. ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polychlorinated_dibenzofurans
Polychlorinated biphenyl - Wikipedia
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were ... Bay mud Organochlorine compound Polybrominated biphenyl Zodiac, a novel by Neal Stephenson which involves PCBs and their impact ... Safe, Stephen; Hutzinger, Otto (1984). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs): Biochemistry, ... some of the hydrogen atoms in biphenyl are replaced by chlorine atoms. There are 209 different chemical compounds in which one ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polychlorinated_biphenyl
ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES | Science Inventory | US EPA
Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound have identical physical and abiotic chemical properties, but usually differ in biological properties such as microbial degradation, uptake and transport across membranes, metabolism rate, and toxicity. Chirality in the environment has become recognized as an important phenomenon since the mid-1980s, and related research has centered on the need to understand the environmental fate and effects of pesticides and PCBS. This article provides a brief back- ground on chiral chemistry in general and the importance of chirality in the drug industry, followed by a summary of examples of the enantioselectivity ofpesticide and PCB occurrencesand degradation in the environmentasgleaned from the scientific literature. The main ...https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65889
Routine analysis of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in human serum by parallel dual-column gas chromatography with...
This was research into the creation of systems that were capable of using electron capture detection from a parallel dual-column gas chromate to determine the major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and to create a research study to begin to discover how to include the source and route of exposure and the toxicokinetic processes within human subjects ...http://swehsc.pharmacy.arizona.edu/content/routine-analysis-101-polychlorinated-biphenyl-congeners-human-serum-parallel-dual-column-gas
The Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyl on Circulating Leptin and Thyroid Hormone Status in Sprague-Dawley Rats, Rattus...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent environmental chemicals that are known thyroid hormone disrupters. Frequently the disruption of one endocrine axis and the timing of the disruption have an impact on other interdependent hormonal responses. Although the mechanisms for the interdependency of thyroid hormones and leptin have not been fully characterized, both are linked to development and regulation of metabolism. Furthermore, PCB accumulation in depot fat could potentially alter leptin production. In the present study 15-and 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed gestationally and lactationally to 1.25 ppm of Aroclor 1254®, a mixture of 52 PCB congeners, via maternal diet, to determine the effect on leptin and thyroid hormones. Additionally, young adult female rats were fed 1.25 PCB for 21 days and the same hormones were assessed. Serum leptin concentrations were determined by a sensitive murine leptin ELISA (DSL, Inc., Webster, TX). Serum thyroid hormone ...https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/handle/1811/44803
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00238365 - Coplanar PCBs and the relative contribution of coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs to...
An analysis of the relative contribution of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to the total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalents (TEQs) in human serum was performed. Blood samples were collected from 46 males employed in a pulp and paper mill and 16 males living in the local community (controls). The samples were analhttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00238365.html
Effects of Maternal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Notch Signaling in the Fetal Rat Brain| Research Project...
PCBs are industrial chemicals that have neurotoxic effects, and studies indicate that they interfere with normal functions of the endocrine system. Although the manufacturing of PCBs was banned in the 1970s, they remain a major contaminant of the environment and of human tissues. Epidemiological studies show that exposure to PCBs during intrauterine development is highly associated with measurable neurological deficits in the offspring. In addition, deficits associated with PCBs are inversely associated with maternal thyroid hormone (TH) levels. This suggests that PCBs interfere with TH action in the fetal brain. Using in situ hybridization to measure HES-1 and HES-5 mRNA (direct markers of Notch activity), our laboratory has found that both maternal thyroid status and maternal exposure to PCBs influences Notch signaling in the fetal rat brain. We found that Aroclor 1254 produces a dose-dependent increase in HES-1 expression in the ventricular zone. Recent evidence suggests that Notch signaling ...https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/6647
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20034456 - Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of breast cancer.
Background and aims: Despite the endocrine system activity exhibited by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), recent studies have shown little association between PCB exposure and breast cancer mortality. To evaluate the relation between PCB exposure and breast cancer incidence, a more sensitive endpoint than mortality, we studied women exposed to PCBs while employed in capacitor manufacturing facilithttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20034456.html
40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute
a)Specialized definitions. (1)PCB Manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces polychlorinated biphenyls. (2)Electrical capacitor manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces or assembles electrical capacitors in which PCB or PCB-containing compounds are part of the dielectric. (3)Electrical transformer manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces or assembles electrical transformers in which PCB or PCB-containing compounds are part of the dielectric. (4) The ambient water criterion for PCBs in navigable waters is 0.001 µg/l. (b)PCB manufacturer - (1)Applicability. (i) These standards or prohibitions apply to: (A) All discharges of process wastes; (B) All discharges from the manufacturing or incinerator areas, loading and unloading areas, storage areas, and other areas which are subject to direct contamination by PCBs as a result of the manufacturing process, including but not limited to: (1) Stormwater and other runoff except as ...https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/40/129.105
HS Codes - Slovakia v 27.10.91 - Containing polychlorinated biphenyls
Lookup HS Codes for Slovakia v 27.10.91 Containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) or polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Slovakia.https://www.avalara.com/hs-codes/v/27/10/91/slovakia/
Field and Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants on Thyroid...
The objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the current status of thyroid function in developing Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from Great Lakes sites with different chemical pollutant exposures and (2) to determine, using laboratory studies on developing chickens (Gallus domesticus), if the disruption of avian thyroid function by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; key contaminants at many Great Lakes sites) is similar mechanistically to that in laboratory mammals. Herring gulls, a fish-eating, top-predator, have been used as a sentinel species to monitor the concentrations and biological effects of environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes for more than 25 years. Past research has focused on mortality, developmental abnormalities and reproductive effects of chemical pollutants in the lakes. Studies of thyroid histology and developmental effects suggest that thyroid function is disrupted in these gulls. This study examines the thyroid status of developing gulls in ...https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/444
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in...
Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and Methods: In a group of 180 subjects, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (fT4), 29 PCBs (expressed both in lipid weight and in wet weight) and 18 HO-PCBs were measured in serum. Results: In regression models, adjusted for gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels, serum levels of 3HO-PCB118 and 3HO-PCB180, and PCB95lw, PCB99lw and PCB149lw were independent, significant predictors of fT4. A stepwise, multiple regression with gender, age, current ...http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/4/421
Quantitative Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Using GCxGC-NCI-QTOF Chromatography Today
The most common technique used for the analysis of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at trace level is gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Click to read more...https://www.chromatographytoday.com/news/gas-chromatography/64/jsb-joint-analytical-systems/quantitative-analysis-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-using-gcxgc-nci-qtof/43590
Welcome to CDC stacks | Environmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and p,p´-DDE and Sperm Sex-Chromosome Disomy -...
Chromosomal abnormalities contribute substantially to reproductive problems, but the role of environmental risk factors has received little attention.,We evaluated the association of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) exposures with sperm sex-chromosome disomy.,We conducted a cross-sectional study of 192 men from subfertile couples. We used multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomes X, Y, and 18 to determine XX, YY, XY, and total sex-chromosome disomy in sperm nuclei. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of 57 PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for disomy by exposure quartiles, controlling for demographic characteristics and semen parameters.,The median percent disomy was 0.3 for XX and YY, 0.9 for XY, and 1.6 for total sex-chromosome disomy. We observed a significant trend of increasing IRRs for increasing quartiles of p,p'-DDE in XX, XY, and total ...https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/22737
Temporal trends in the levels of polychlorinated dioxins, -furans, -biphenyls and polybrominated diethyl ethers in bank voles...
Dioxin-like chemicals and brominated flame retardants are ubiquitous in the environment, despite the introduction of international prohibitions and restrictions. These chemicals do not remain in the vicinity of their source, instead they can be transported over long distances, in fact even to pristine areas in the northern latitudes. However, there have been rather few time series experiments monitoring the trends in the levels of chlorinated and brominated forms of these chemicals in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in the liver and muscle of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in a remote area in Finnish Lapland during 1986-2007. Five time points were selected: years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2007. The levels of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs declined from 1986 until 2003 in both females and males, but tended to ...https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Temporal-trends-in-the-levels-of-polychlorinated-d-Murtomaa-Hautala-Viluksela/f479c030f5a8899e60ea4ca307448789e50528f7
Welcome to CDC Stacks | Mortality among 24,865 workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in three electrical...
The objective of this analysis was to evaluate mortality among a cohort of 24,865 capacitor-manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at plants in Indiana, Massachusetts, and New York and followed for mortality through 2008. Cumulative PCB exposure was estimated using plant-specific job-exposure matrices. External comparisons to US and state-specific populations used standardized mortality ratios, adjusted for gender, race, age and calendar year. Among long-term workers employed 3 months or longer, within-cohort comparisons used standardized rate ratios and multivariable Poisson regression modeling. Through 2008, more than one million person-years at risk and 8749 deaths were accrued. Among long-term employees, all-cause and all-cancer mortality were not elevated; of the a priori outcomes assessed only melanoma mortality was elevated. Mortality was elevated for some outcomes of a priori interest among subgroups of long-term workers: all cancer, ...https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/34028
PCBs, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Endometriosis,
Several studies have suggested that exposure to persistent pollutant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may increase the risk of developing endometriosishttps://www.endonews.com/environmental-toxins-and-endometriosis
PLOS Medicine: Reduced Antibody Responses to Vaccinations in Children Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls
A study of two birth cohorts in the Faroe Islands, where diets may include whale blubber contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), suggests exposure to PCBs may reduce immune response to childhood vaccinations.http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0030311
ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
PCBs are a group of synthetic organic chemicals that can cause a number of different harmful effects. There are no known natural sources of PCBs in the environment. PCBs are either oily liquids or solids and are colorless to light yellow. Some PCBs are volatile and may exist as a vapor in air. They have no known smell or taste. PCBs enter the environment as mixtures containing a variety of individual chlorinated biphenyl components, known as congeners, as well as impuritieshttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/PHS/PHS.asp?id=139&tid=26
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00196925 - NIOSH Testimony on Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Electrical Transformers by R. A....
This testimony discusses the concerns of NIOSH on the proposed rule from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in electrical transformers. NIOSH suggests that the rule is directed primarily toward allowing the use of PCB containing transformers as replacements for existing non PCB containing transformers in certain emergency situations where a non PCBhttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00196925.html
"Associations of Peripubertal Serum Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl" by Jane S. Burns, Mary M. Lee et al.
BACKGROUND: Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like and nondioxin-like, have been linked to alterations in puberty.http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/cellbiology_pp/202/
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20026168 - Industrial hygiene summary report for workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls...
This industrial hygiene summary report summarizes information about workers who manufactured large and small capacitors using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a plant operating from 1938 through 1977. The first step in making a capacitor was to wind bales of foil and paper together tightly. This winding and the insertion of connecters was done automatically. Tops for the capacitors were assemblhttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20026168.html
Mortality in male and female capacitor workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. | Base documentaire | BDSP
A mortality study was conducted in workers with at least 90 days exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs between 1946 and 1977. Vital status was established for 98.7% of the 7075 workers studied. In hourly male workers, the mortality from all cancers was significantly below expected standardized mortality ratio SMR=81 ; 95% confidence...http://www.bdsp.ehesp.fr/Base/187325/
PolyChlorinated Biphenyl chọn lọc - TaiLieu.VN
Linh hoạt thay thế cho Chất thải xử lý ô nhiễm Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) và các hợp chất thơm khác được khử trùng bằng clo được phân phối trong đất, bùn cặn, cửa sông, vv, tại hơn 400 trang web trong Hoa Kỳ một mình. Clo béo hydrocarbon (CAHs), rộng rãi được sử dụng để tẩy dầu mỡ và làm sạch động cơ, phụ tùng ô tô, và các thành phần điện tử, chất gây ô nhiễm nghiêm trọng tại 358 lớn các trang web trong chất thải nguy hại Hoa Kỳ. ...http://tailieu.vn/tag/polychlorinated-biphenyl.html
Reducing the Risk of Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Older School Buildings | nacchovoice
By Tina Yuen, MPH MCP CPH, Program Analyst The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in buildings, especially school buildings, is an emerging environmental public health issue. In 2009, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued new guidance for school administrators and building managers with information to help minimize possible exposures. As local health departments (LHDs) are…https://nacchovoice.naccho.org/2014/03/12/reducing-the-risk-of-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-older-school-buildings/
Abundances, Depositional Fluxes, and Homologue Patterns of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Dated Sediment Cores from the Pearl...
Article Abundances, Depositional Fluxes, and Homologue Patterns of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Dated Sediment Cores from the Pearl River Delta, China. Despite the recent efforts to investigate the distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutan...https://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/abundances-depositional-fluxes-and-homologue-patterns-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-dated-sediment-4551
Brickley Environmental The Health Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls - Brickley Environmental
Polychlorinated Biphenyls or 'PCBs' can be found in hazardous waste and are widely known to cause a number of serious health problems - including cancer.http://brickleyenv.com/the-health-effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls/