*  Trypanosoma cruzi: RNA structure and post-transcriptional control of tubulin gene expression | UMIACS
Changes in tubulin expression are among the biochemical and morphological adaptations that occur during the life cycle of Trypanosomatids. To investigate the mechanism responsible for the differential accumulation of tubulin mRNAs in Trypanosoma cruzi, we determine the sequences of [alpha]- and [beta]-tubulin transcripts and analyzed their expression during the life cycle of the parasite. Two [beta]-tubulin mRNAs of 1.9 and 2.3 kb were found to differ mainly by an additional 369 nucleotides at the end of the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Although their transcription rates are similar in epimastigotes and amastigotes, [alpha]- and [beta]-tubulin transcripts are 3- to 6-fold more abundant in epimastigotes than in trypomastigotes and amastigotes. Accordingly, the half-lives of [alpha]- and [beta]-tubulin mRNAs are significantly higher in epimastigotes than in amastigotes. Transient transfection experiments ...
*  The actin-MRTF-SRF transcriptional circuit controls tubulin acetylation via α-TAT1 gene expression | JCB
The role of formins in microtubules is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which INF2, a formin mutated in degenerative renal and neurological hereditary disorders, controls microtubule acetylation. We found that silencing of INF2 in epithelial RPE-1 cells produced a dramatic drop in tubulin acetylation, increased the G-actin/F-actin ratio, and impaired myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)/serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, which is known to be repressed by increased levels of G-actin. The effect on tubulin acetylation was caused by the almost complete absence of α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (α-TAT1) messenger RNA (mRNA). Activation of the MRTF-SRF transcriptional complex restored α-TAT1 mRNA levels and tubulin acetylation. Several functional MRTF-SRF-responsive elements were consistently identified in the α-TAT1 gene. The effect of INF2 silencing on microtubule acetylation ...
*  Two Drosophila beta tubulin isoforms are not functionally equivalent. | JCB
We have tested the functional capacity of different beta tubulin isoforms in vivo by expressing beta 3-tubulin either in place of or in addition to beta 2-tubulin in the male germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. The testes-specific isoform, beta 2, is conserved relative to major metazoan beta tubulins, while the developmentally regulated isoform, beta 3, is considerably divergent in sequence. beta 3-tubulin is normally expressed in discrete subsets of cells at specific times during development, but is not expressed in the male germ line. beta 2-Tubulin is normally expressed only in the postmitotic germ cells of the testis, and is required for all microtubule-based functions in these cells. The normal functions of beta 2-tubulin include assembly of meiotic spindles, axonemes, and at least two classes of cytoplasmic microtubules, including those associated with the differentiating ...
*  Tubulin alpha-4A chain
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013 ...
*  Patterns of tubulin isotype synthesis and usage during mitotic spindle morphogenesis in Physarum. - Oxford Neuroscience
Tubulin synthesis in the naturally synchronous plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a markedly periodic event restricted to the late G2 period of the cell cycle. Mitosis in the plasmodium is intranuclear, and there are no cytoplasmic microtubules at any stage of the cell cycle. We have combined a biochemical investigation of the synthesis of the plasmodial tubulin isotypes and their participation in the mitotic spindle with a microscopic study (immunofluorescence) of the development of spindle microtubules throughout the cell cycle. We have shown that all four tubulin isotypes identified in the plasmodium (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2) are present in the mitotic spindle. The stoichiometry of isotype usage in the mitotic spindle generally reflects the overall abundance of isotypes in the plasmodium as a whole: beta 2 greater than alpha 1 greater than alpha 2 greater than beta 1. We have also shown that tubulins synthesized in the G2 ...
*  Regulation of three beta-tubulin mRNAs during rat brain development. - Semantic Scholar
The nucleotide sequence of a complete rat brain beta-tubulin T beta 15 has been determined from three overlapping cDNA clones. The overall length of the T beta 15 sequence is 1589 bp and shows between 84.5% and 88.6% homology within the coding region as compared with chick and human beta-tubulin sequences. On the other hand, the 3'-non-coding region is highly divergent. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequences from different species demonstrates that the amino acid changes are not randomly distributed, but rather there are several conserved and two highly variable regions common to beta-tubulin polypeptides from various sources. The T beta 15 sequence encodes a dominant neuronal 1.8-kb beta-tubulin mRNA species. Two other minor beta-tubulin mRNA species of 2.6 and 2.9 kb are present in rat brain. By using two synthetic oligonucleotide probes complementary to the carboxyl-terminal divergent region and to the ...
*  Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene is an alpha tubulin gene that encodes a protein 99% identical to the mouse testis-specific Tuba3 and Tuba7 gene products. This gene is located in the 13q11 region, which is associated with the genetic diseases Clouston hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and Kabuki syndrome. ...
*  The plant Spc98p homologue colocalizes with γ-tubulin at microtubule nucleation sites and is required for microtubule...
The molecular mechanisms responsible for microtubule (MT) nucleation have not yet been identified in higher plants. Unlike other eukaryotic cells, no centrosome-like organelles are present to nucleate MT assembly. In animal cells, the centrosome functions as a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), and in fungi, the spindle pole body (SPB) plays this role. MT nucleation is initiated by γ-tubulin ring complexes, or γ-TuRCs ( Zheng et al., 1995), which are recruited from the cytoplasm to the MTOC and activated ( Schiebel, 2000). The smallest complex unit capable of MT nucleation, the γ-tubulin small complex (γ-TuSC), was identified in yeast ( Knop and Schiebel, 1997) and in Drosophila ( Oegema et al., 1999; Gunawardane et al., 2000). The γ-TuSC, which is thought to be a γ-TuRC precursor, contains γ-tubulin, known as a universal nucleator ( Oakley, 1992) and two additional proteins, spindle pole body components Spc98p and Spc97p or their homologues. These ...
*  alpha Tubulin Antibodies: Novus Biologicals
alpha Tubulin Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our alpha Tubulin Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
*  Deubiquitination of γ-tubulin by BAP1 prevents chromosome instability in breast cancer cells. - Semantic Scholar
Microtubule nucleation requires the γ-tubulin ring complex, and during the M-phase (mitosis) this complex accumulates at the centrosome to support mitotic spindle formation. The posttranslational modification of γ-tubulin through ubiquitination is vital for regulating microtubule nucleation and centrosome duplication. Blocking the BRCA1/BARD1-dependent ubiquitination of γ-tubulin causes centrosome amplification. In the current study, we identified BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) as a deubiquitination enzyme for γ-tubulin. BAP1 was downregulated in metastatic adenocarcinoma breast cell lines compared with noncancerous human breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, low expression of BAP1 was associated with reduced overall survival of patients with breast cancer. Reduced expression of BAP1 in breast cancer cell lines was associated with mitotic abnormalities. Importantly, rescue experiments including expression of full length but not the ...
*  The where, when and how of microtubule nucleation - one ring to rule them all | Journal of Cell Science
The function of microtubules depends on their arrangement into highly ordered arrays. Spatio-temporal control over the formation of new microtubules and regulation of their properties are central to the organization of these arrays. The nucleation of new microtubules requires γ-tubulin, an essential protein that assembles into multi-subunit complexes and is found in all eukaryotic organisms. However, the way in which γ-tubulin complexes are regulated and how this affects nucleation and, potentially, microtubule behavior, is poorly understood. γ-tubulin has been found in complexes of various sizes but several lines of evidence suggest that only large, ring-shaped complexes function as efficient microtubule nucleators. Human γ-tubulin ring complexes (γTuRCs) are composed of γ-tubulin and the γ-tubulin complex components (GCPs) 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, which are members of a conserved protein family. Recent work has ...
*  Megakaryocyte lineage-specific class VI β-tubulin suppresses microtubule dynamics, fragments microtubules, and blocks cell...
Class VI β-tubulin (β6) is the most divergent tubulin produced in mammals and is found only in platelets and mature megakaryocytes. To determine how this unique tubulin isotype affects microtubule assembly and organization, we expressed the cDNA in
*  Antievolution.org - Antievolution.org Discussion Board -Topic::Telic Thoughts Thread
MTs are cylindrical polymers 25 nanometers (nm = 10-9 meter) in diameter, comprised of 13 longitudinal protofilaments which are each chains of the protein tubulin (Figure 8). Each tubulin is a peanut-shaped dimer (8 nm by 4 nm by 5 nm) which consists of two slightly different monomers known as alpha and beta tubulin, (each 4 nm by 4 nm by 5 nm, weighing 55,000 daltons). Tubulin subunits within MTs are arranged in a hexagonal lattice which is slightly twisted, resulting in differing neighbor relationships among each subunit and its six nearest neighbors (Figure 9). Thus pathways along contiguous tubulins form helical pathways which repeat every 3, 5 and 8 rows (the Fibonacci series). Alpha tubulin monomers are more negatively charged than beta monomers, so each tubulin (and each MT as a whole) is a ferroelectric dipole with positive (beta monomer) and negative (alpha monomer) ends.[xxiii ...
*  anti-beta Tubulin antibody | GeneTex
beta Tubulin antibody (tubulin, beta) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-beta Tubulin pAb (GTX101279) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
*  anti-beta Tubulin antibody | GeneTex
beta Tubulin antibody (tubulin, beta) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-beta Tubulin pAb (GTX112659) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
*  Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences - Study of the enzymes of alpha-tubulin detyrosination
Microtubules, which are composed of alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimers, form a dynamic network involved in several cellular processes including mitosis, cell motility, intracellular transport and organization of subcellular compartments, cell shape and polarization. The posttranslational modifications of microtubules are centrally involved in their diverse functions. In the detyrosination/tyrosination cycle, the C-terminal tyrosine of alpha-tubulin of is removed by a carboxypeptidase (TCP) and re-added by a ligase (TTL). Tyrosination is critical for mitosis, neuronal physiology, and heart function ...
*  Anti-Detyrosinated alpha Tubulin antibody (ab48389) Protocols
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Detyrosinated alpha Tubulin antibody (ab48389) : Western blot protocols, Immunohistochemistry protocols…
*  gamma tubulin Antibody 66320-1-Ig | Proteintech
gamma tubulin Antibody 66320-1-Ig has been identified with ELISA, IF, IHC, WB. 66320-1-Ig detected 48-55 kDa band in NCCIT, HepG2, HSCT6, NIH/3T3 cell with 1:1000-1:8000 dilution...
*  Plus it
Cellular microtubules composed of α-β-tubulin heterodimers that are essential for cell shape, division, and intracellular transport are valid targets for anticancer therapy. However, not all the conserved but differentially expressed members of the β-tubulin gene superfamily have been investigated for their role in these settings. In this study, we examined roles for the hematologic isoform β-tubulin VI and functional genetic variants in the gene. β-tubulin VI was highly expressed in blood cells with a substantial interindividual variability (seven-fold variation in mRNA). We characterized DNA missense variations leading to Q43P, T274M, and R307H, and a rare nonsense variant, Y55X. Because variations in the hematologic target of microtubule-binding drugs might alter their myelosuppressive action, we tested their effect in cell lines stably expressing the different β-tubulin VI full-length variants, finding that the T274M ...
*  alpha Tubulin 4a Lysates: Novus Biologicals
alpha Tubulin 4a Lysates available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our alpha Tubulin 4a Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
*  beta Tubulin Antibody 66240-1-Ig | Proteintech
beta Tubulin Antibody 66240-1-Ig has been identified with ELISA, IF, IHC, IP, WB. 66240-1-Ig detected 50-55 kDa band in HeLa cells with 1:5000-1:100000 dilution...
*  Antibody Problems
On Tue, 8 Jan 2008, DK wrote: , In article ,467348b1-ee72-436f-a36a-5f32fa6d58da from v4g2000hsf.googlegroups.com,, patingsadagat ,arnigambe from gmail.com, wrote: , , ,I've been trying to produce antibodies against my protein of interest. , ,At first, I produced a His-6x tagged protein in E. coli and purified , ,the resulting protein using several purification methods. We then sent , ,the protein samples to a local antibody production company. After 2 , ,months, they sent us sera from rabbits before immunization (0 W), 4, 6, , ,7 and 8 weeks after immunization. They also sent a protein A/G-purified , ,fraction of the 8W serum. However, when I used the serum for , ,immunostaining, I obtained unexpected localization patterns which was , ,similar to that of alpha tubulin localization in HeLa cells. I , ,therefore tested all fractions using tubulin protein and to my dismay, , ,all, including the 0W sera could detect the tubulin protein. I do not , ,totally ...
*  New Details on Microtubules and How the Anti-Cancer Drug Taxol Works | Berkeley Lab
To be able to distinguish the α-tubulin from the β-tubulin, we had to resolve our images at better than 8 Å, which most prior cryo-EM studies were unable to do," Nogales says. "For that, we marked the subunits with kinesin, a protein motor that distinguishes between α- and β-tubulin.". Nogales and her colleagues found that GTP hydrolysis and the release of the phosphate (GTP becomes GDP) leads to a compaction of the E-site and a rearrangement of the α-tubulin monomer that generates a strain on the microtubule that destabilizes its structure. Taxol binding leads to a reversal of this E-site compaction and α-tubulin rearrangement that restores structural stabilization.. "Remarkably, Taxol binding globally reverses the majority of the conformational changes we observe when comparing the GMPCPP and GDP states," Nogales says. "We propose that GTP hydrolysis leads to conformational strain in the microtubule that would be released ...
*  gammaTub37C - Tubulin gamma-2 chain - Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) - gammaTub37C gene & protein
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. The gamma chain is found at microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) such as the spindle poles or the centrosome, suggesting that it is involved in the minus-end nucleation of microtubule assembly. Required for oocyte activation and consequently for organization of the female meiotic spindle (PubMed:9155007, PubMed:9698447). Essential for centrosome organization and assembly of biastral mitotic spindles in embryos. Plays a role in stabilizing the augmin complex on the meiotic spindle (PubMed:23785300).
*  Op18/Stathmin Mediates Multiple Region-Specific Tubulin and Microtubule-Regulating Activities | JCB
Here, we have performed a deletion analysis of Op18, the prototype member of a novel class of MT regulators, and identified regions involved in differential modulation of tubulin GTP metabolism. How these in vitro activities segregate from tubulin binding properties and specific MT-regulating activities in intact cells was determined to address the mechanism by which Op18 exerts its regulatory role. These analyses were facilitated by the maintenance of protein stability by all the truncations tested, which indicated that Op18 lacks distinct domain structures. Using these truncated Op18 proteins, physically separated tubulin binding motifs of both the NH2- and COOH-terminal regions were found to transmit distinct tubulin-directed signals. These signals were manifested on the level of modulation of both exchange and hydrolysis of tubulin-bound GTP (Fig. 2). By analyzing the activities of deleted Op18 derivatives in K562 cells, ...