*  Outbreak of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111 Infections Associated with a Correctional Facility Dairy - Colorado,...
On April 20, 2010, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) was notified by correctional authorities regarding three inmates with bloody diarrhea at a minimum-security correctional facility. The facility, which houses approximately 500 inmates, is a designated work center where inmates are employed or receive vocational training. Approximately 70 inmates work at an onsite dairy, which provides milk to all state-run correctional facilities in Colorado. CDPHE immediately began an investigation and was later assisted by the High Plains Intermountain Center for Agricultural Health and Safety at Colorado State University and by CDC. This report describes the results of the investigation, which determined that the illnesses were caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111 (STEC O111) infections. During April-July, 10 inmates at the facility received a diagnosis of laboratory-confirmed STEC O111 infection, and a retrospective prevalence study of ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6109a1.htm?s_cid=mm6109a1_w
*  Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O118:H16 in Latin America - Volume 9, Number 8-August 2003 -...
To the Editor: We report the first isolation of a multiple antimicrobial drug-resistant strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O118:H16 from cattle in Latin America. The strain was isolated during a study of fecal STEC in 205 healthy and 139 diarrheic cattle on 12 beef farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in February 2000; one case of STEC was found in a 1-month-old calf with diarrhea. This bovine STEC O118:H16 strain showed resistance to eight antimicrobial substances; the following resistance (R)-genes were detected: ampicillin (blaTEM1-like), kanamycin and neomycin (aphA1), streptomycin (strA/B), sulphametoxazol (sul2), tetracyclin (tet[A]), trimethoprim (no dfrA1, A5, A7, A12, A14, or A17), and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazol. The STEC O118:H16 strain from Brazil was found to be similar for virulence genes (Shiga toxin 1 [stx1], intimin beta 1 [eae β1], and EHEC-hemolysin [E-hlyA]) and for antimicrobial drug resistance ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/9/8/03-0062_article
*  Welcome to CDC Stacks | Geographic Divergence of Bovine and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes, New...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern worldwide. To compare the local and large-scale geographic distributions of genotypes of STEC O157:H7 isolates obtained from various bovine and human sources during 2008-2011, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion (SBI) typing. Using multivariate methods, we compared isolates from the North and South Islands of New Zealand with isolates from Australia and the United States. The STEC O157:H7 population structure differed substantially between the 2 islands and showed evidence of finer scale spatial structuring, which is consistent with highly localized transmission rather than disseminated foodborne outbreaks. The distribution of SBI types differed markedly among isolates from New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. Our findings also provide evidence for the historic introduction into ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/26352
*  Membrane tubes induced by shiga toxin B-subunit co-loca | Open-i
Membrane tubes induced by shiga toxin B-subunit co-localize with SDPR and caveolin 1A. Co-localization between over-expressed SDPR-GFP and STB-Cy3 in energy dep
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2712677_ukmss-5023-f0006&req=4
*  Studies of the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome
phdthesis{459b26a0-a17b-4ce3-b220-8f091d4aa15b, abstract = {Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by non-immune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute kidney failure. The most common form of HUS is associated with gastrointestinal Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection. EHEC are non-invasive strains with Shiga toxin as the unique virulence factor. The aim of this study was to describe host-pathogen interactions during EHEC infection using patient samples, an established mouse model and blood cells in vitro.,br/,,br, In the first study the mechanism by which hemolysis is induced was investigated. Red blood cells from HUS patients and from controls were utilized to demonstrate complement activation on red blood cells in patients and show that Shiga toxin could induce hemolysis mediated by complement activation. Shiga toxin ...
  https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/5384820
*  Welcome to CDC Stacks | Expansion of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Use of Bovine Antibiotic Growth Promoters -...
Antibiotics are routinely used in food-producing animals to promote growth and prevent infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of bovine antibiotic growth promoters (bAGPs) on the propagation and spread of Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding phages in Escherichia coli. Co-culture of E. coli O157:H7 and other E. coli isolated from cattle in the presence of sublethal concentrations of bAGPs significantly increased the emergence of non-O157, Stx-producing E. coli by triggering the SOS response system in E. coli O157:H7. The most substantial mediation of Stx phage transmission was induced by oxytetracyline and chlortetracycline, which are commonly used in agriculture. bAGPs may therefore contribute to the expansion of pathogenic Stx-producing E. coli ...
  https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/39366
*  A hemolytic-uremic syndrome-associated strain O113:H21 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli specifically expresses a...
Shiga toxin-producing (Stx) Escherichia coli (STEC) O113:H21 strains are associated with human diarrhea and some of these strains may cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The molecular mechanism underlying this capacity and the differential host cell response to HUS-causing strains are not yet completely understood. In Brazil O113:H21 strains are commonly found in cattle but, so far, were not isolated from HUS patients. Here we conducted comparative gene co-expression network (GCN) analyses of two O113:H21 STEC strains: EH41, reference strain, isolated from HUS patient in Australia, and Ec472/01, isolated from cattle feces in Brazil. These strains were cultured in fresh or in Caco-2 cell conditioned media. GCN analyses were also accomplished for cultured Caco-2 cells exposed to EH41 or Ec472/01. Differential transcriptome profiles for EH41 and Ec472/01 were not significantly changed by exposure to fresh or Caco-2 conditioned media. Conversely, global gene expression ...
  http://pubtransformer.com/Pubmed?pmid=29253906
*  In silico analysis of Shiga toxins (Stxs) to identify new potential vaccine targets for Shiga toxin-producingEscherichia coli |...
Shiga toxins belong to a family of structurally and functionally related toxins serving as the main virulence factors for pathogenicity of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associating
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40203-017-0022-4
*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | Shiga Toxin: Expression, Distribution, and Its Role in the Environment | Notes
In this review, we highlight recent work that has increased our understanding of the production and distribution of Shiga toxin in the environment. Specifically, we review studies that offer an expanded view of environmental reservoirs for Shiga toxin producing microbes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We then relate the abundance of Shiga toxin in the environment to work that demonstrates that the genetic mechanisms underlying the production of Shiga toxin genes are modified and embellished beyond the classical microbial gene regulatory paradigms in a manner that apparently
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/3/6/608/notes
*  Subtractive hybridization and identification of putative adhesins in a Shiga toxin-producing eae-negative Escherichia coli. -...
Adherence to epithelial cells by specific adhesins is a characteristic of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The eae-encoded protein intimin is the main adhesin implicated in intestinal colonization in vivo. We recently showed that STEC strains isolated in Chile displayed a wide variety of adhesins; here we demonstrate that some of these STEC strains are eae-negative and still adhere to epithelial cells at a level 100-fold higher than enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157 : H7 prototype strain EDL933. This phenotype is associated with the presence of adherence factors different from the intimin protein. Subtractive hybridization between EHEC EDL933 and STEC eae-negative strain 472-1 was used to identify regions implicated in adhesion. In addition to the saa gene, we identified 18 specific genes in STEC 472-1, 16 of which had nucleotide identity to Salmonella ST46 phage genes; the two remaining ones shared identity to a gene encoding a hypothetical ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Subtractive-hybridization-and-identification-of-pu-Vidal-Prado/63c6cbf823aaf988e3cdb68d9b4e8744360da6a7
*  UMR Ecologie Microbienne Lyon - Autres ...
Bonanno L, Petit M-A, Loukiadis E, Michel V, Auvray F. 2016. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates Dudley, EG. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 82:2177-2186. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03463-15 ...
  http://www.ecologiemicrobiennelyon.fr/spip.php?rubrique87
*  ASMscience | Vaccination of Cattle against |span class='jp-italic'|Escherichia coli|/span| O157:H7
Human infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) is relatively rare, but the consequences can be serious, especially in the very young and the elderly. Efforts to control the flow of STEC O157 during beef processing have meaningfully reduced the incidence of human STEC O157 infection, particularly prior to 2005. Unfortunately, despite early progress, the incidence of STEC O157 infection has not changed meaningfully or statistically in recent years, suggesting that additional actions, for example, targeting the cattle reservoir, are necessary to further reduce STEC O157 illness. Ideally, preharvest interventions against STEC O157 should reduce the likelihood that cattle carry the organism, have practical application within the beef production system, and add sufficient value to the cattle to offset the cost of the intervention. A number of STEC O157 antigens are being investigated as potential vaccine targets. Some vaccine products have ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.EHEC-0006-2013
*  Thermodynamic Analysis of the Structural Stability of the Shiga Toxin B-Subunit †
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the user's device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the user's data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
  https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.acs-doi-10_1021_bi034591s
*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | Mouse in Vivo Neutralization of Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 2 with Monoclonal Antibodies
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) food contaminations pose serious health concerns, and have been the subject of massive food recalls. STEC has been identified as the major cause of the life-threatening complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Besides supportive care, there currently are no therapeutics available. The use of antibiotics for combating pathogenic E. coli is not recommended because they have been shown to stimulate toxin production. Clearing Stx2 from the circulation could potentially lessen disease severity. In this study, we tested the in vivo neutralization of Stx2 in mice using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We measured the biologic half-life of Stx2 in mice and determined the distribution phase or t1/2 α to be 3 min and the clearance phase or t1/2 β to be 40 min. Neutralizing mAbs were capable of clearing Stx2 completely from intoxicated mouse blood within minutes. We also examined the persistence of these mAbs over time ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/5/10/1845
*  Farm Rich Products Test Positive for E. coli O121 - 27 Now Sick - 2 With HUS
A total of 27 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O121 (STEC O121) have been reported from 15 states. 81%
  http://www.marlerblog.com/legal-cases/farm-rich-products-test-positive-for-e-coli-o121-27-now-sick-2-with-hus/
*  Marco Farms, Inc recalls veal, beef, and pork products due to possible E. Coli contamination - Abccolumbia.com | | Arabic Press...
These items were distributed to retail stores and food service locations in Illinois, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Virginia.. The problem was discovered when the Illinois State Meat Inspection Service notified FSIS on May 2, 2017, about positive non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) samples made with source material produced by Marcho Farms, Inc. There have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions due to consumption of these products.. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreaks are rare, but tend to primarily be due to contaminated food and person-to-person transmission. Like E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is a potentially deadly bacterium that can cause dehydration, bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps 2-8 days (3-4 days, on average) after exposure the organism. While most people recover within a week, some develop a ...
  http://arabicpressrelease.ae/marco-farms-inc-recalls-veal-beef-and-pork-products-due-to-possible-e-coli-contamination-abccolumbia-com/
*  Prevalence and molecular characterization of Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from humanand sheep in Al-Madinah...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains have emerged as important foodborne pathogens of global public health concern, causing life-threatening diseases. Sheep and their products have been documented as important reservoirs for STECs, especially E. coli O157. The aim of this study was to investigate STECs from diarrheal human and sheep in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected between June and August, 2015 from diarrheal humans (n = 134) and sheep (n = 87). Presumptive E. coli humanand sheep-isolated strains were identified for their serotypes, the associated virulence genes (Shiga toxin [stx1, stx2], haemolysin [ehxA] and intimin [eae]) by polymerase chain reaction and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to demonstrate the genetic relatedness between Serotype O157:H7 human- and sheep-isolated strains. Forty eight (48/221; 21.7%) STECs were recovered ...
  http://repository.taibahu.edu.sa/handle/123456789/17833
*  Manganese Blocks Intracellular Trafficking of Shiga Toxin and Protects Against Shiga Toxicosis | Science
Infections with Shiga toxin (STx)-producing bacteria cause more than a million deaths each year and have no definitive treatment. To exert its cytotoxic effect, STx invades cells through retrograde membrane trafficking, escaping the lysosomal degradative pathway. We found that the widely available metal manganese (Mn2+) blocked endosome-to-Golgi trafficking of STx and caused its degradation in lysosomes. Mn2+ targeted the cycling Golgi protein GPP130, which STx bound in control cells during sorting into Golgi-directed endosomal tubules that bypass lysosomes. In tissue culture cells, treatment with Mn2+ yielded a protection factor of 3800 against STx-induced cell death. Furthermore, mice injected with nontoxic doses of Mn2+ were completely resistant to a lethal STx challenge. Thus, Mn2+ may represent a low-cost therapeutic agent for the treatment of STx infections.. ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/335/6066/332
*  Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strains can colonize cattle for several months and - biobender.com
Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strains can colonize cattle for several months and may, thus, serve as gene reservoirs for the genesis of highly virulent zoonotic enterohemorrhagic (EHEC). for virulence-associated genes (VAGs). All STECper isolates belonged to only four genoserotypes (O26:H11, O156:H25, O165:H25, O182:H25), which formed three genetic clusters (ST21/396/1705, ST300/688, ST119). In contrast, STECspo isolates were scattered among 28 genoserotypes and 30 MLSTs, with O157:H7 (ST11) and O6:H49 (ST1079) being the most prevalent. The microarray analysis identified 139 unique gene patterns that clustered with the genoserotypes and MLSTs of the strains. While the STECper isolates possessed heterogeneous phylogenetic backgrounds, the accessory genome clustered these isolates together, separating them from the STECspo isolates. Given the vast genetic heterogeneity of bovine STEC strains, defining the genetic patterns distinguishing STECper from STECspo isolates will ...
  http://biobender.com/2017/09/shiga-toxin-producing-stec-strains-can-colonize-cattle-for-several-months-and/
*  Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC)
Today's topic: Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC). Action requested: Consider STEC infection in persons with diarrhea and who have recently eaten food from Chipotle restaurants.. Background: As of October 30, 2015, 19 cases of STEC had been reported in King, Skagit, Clark, and Cowlitz counties; additional cases have been reported in Oregon. Although the outbreak appears to be linked to food served at Chipotle restaurants, the food or other source of contamination hasn't yet been determined and remains under investigation. Chipotle restaurants in Washington State have voluntarily closed until further information on the cause of the outbreak is available.. Recommendations: ...
  http://www.snohd.org/Providers/Health-Alerts/ArtMID/4375/ArticleID/1225/Shiga-toxin-producing-E-coli-STEC
*  Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections linked to cervids (deer, elk) | Marler Blog
After yesterday's announcement from the Oregon Department of Health that deer droppings were the culprit in the strawberry E. coli outbreak that has
  http://www.marlerblog.com/case-news/shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli-stec-infections-linked-to-cervids-deer-elk/
*  Pathogenicity of Shiga Toxin Producing E.coli - Alison O'Brien
The Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype 0157:H7 is the most common infectious cause of bloody diarrhea, or hemorrhagic colitis (HC), in...
  http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R37-AI020148-31
*  ARTICLES | Physiological Reviews
Protein toxins such as ricin and Shiga toxin with intracellular targets have to be endocytosed and translocated to the cytosol to inhibit the protein synthesis and thereby kill the cell. Ricin is internalized by both clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytic mechanisms, whereas Shiga toxin seems to be taken up exclusively from clathrin-coated pits. After endocytosis, internalized membrane and content are delivered to endosomes, where sorting for further routing in the cell takes place. Toxins that remain membrane bound at low endosomal pH can be recycled to the cell surface or transcytosed in polarized epithelia. A large proportion of internalized toxin is transported to lysosomes for degradation. Most importantly, a fraction of the internalized ricin and Shiga toxin molecules is delivered to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Shiga ...
  http://physrev.physiology.org/content/76/4/949.long
*  Multivalent Cd20-binding Molecule Comprising Shiga Toxin A Subunit Effector Polypeptides And Enriched Compositions Therefof ...
The present invention provides multivalent CD20-binding molecules, and compositions thereof, such as enriched compositions comprising large proportions of multivalent CD20-binding molecule relative to monovalent CD20-binding molecule. Certain multivalent CD20-binding molecules of the present invention comprise 1) two or more CD20 binding regions and 2) one or more Shiga toxin effector
  http://www.freshpatents.com/-dt20170928ptan20170275382.php