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*  Generalized tonic-clonic seizure | definition of generalized tonic-clonic seizure by Medical dictionary
benign childhood epilepsy with rolandic or centrotemporal spikes. *benign familial neonatal convulsions ... reflex seizure (sensory seizure) an epileptic seizure in response to a sensory stimulus, which may be tactile, visual, auditory ... Synonym(s): cryptogenic epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy, grand mal seizure, grand mal, idiopathic epilepsy (2) , ... 2. a convulsion or attack of epilepsy.. absence seizure the seizure seen in petit mal epilepsy, marked by a momentary break in ...
  http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/generalized+tonic-clonic+seizure
*  Hippocampal neuropathology of domoic acid-induced epilepsy in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) - Buckmaster - 2014...
California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are abundant human-sized carnivores with large gyrencephalic brains. They develop epilepsy after experiencing status epilepticus when naturally exposed to domoic acid. We tested whether sea lions previously exposed to DA (chronic DA sea lions) display hippocampal neuropathology similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained from control and chronic DA sea lions. Stereology was used to estimate numbers of Nissl-stained neurons per hippocampus in the granule cell layer, hilus, and pyramidal cell layer of CA3, CA2, and CA1 subfields. Adjacent sections were processed for somatostatin immunoreactivity or Timm-stained, and the extent of mossy fiber sprouting was measured stereologically. Chronic DA sea lions displayed hippocampal neuron loss in patterns and extents similar but not identical to those reported previously for human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similar to ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cne.23509/abstract
*  Diazemuls (Diazepam Injectable Emulsion) - RxMed.com
DIAZEMULS®. Pharmacia & Upjohn Diazepam Injectable Emulsion Anxiolytic - Sedative Action And Clinical Pharmacology: Diazemuls is an injectable emulsion of diazepam, a drug with known anxiolytic-sedative and muscle relaxant properties. Diazepam has been found useful for short-term symptomatic relief of excessive anxiety and tension in patients with anxiety neurosis, although anxiety and tension associated with the stresses of everyday life usually do not require treatment with anxiolytic drugs.. Diazepam must first be released from the oil phase of the emulsion before it can exert a therapeutic effect. In fact, peak blood levels of diazepam are reached only after 15 minutes following i.v. injection of Diazemuls, and after 2 hours following i.m. administration. Subsequent to a rapid distribution phase, diazepam undergoes a longer elimination phase, which varies with age, from approximately 20 hours at age 20 to approximately 80 hours at age 80.. Diazepam is metabolized in the liver to ...
  https://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.1.monographs/cps-_monographs/cps-_
*  Myoclonus Epilepsy Associated with Ragged-Red Fibers (MERRF) Diagnosis Discussed by Researchers - EpilepsyU
Involuntary muscle twitches, generalized epilepsy, and cerebellar ataxia - these symptoms are typically indicative of a mitochondrial myopathy. Yet with the different types of mitochondrial myopathies, it may be difficult to determine the precise diagnosis for patients affected with these varied symptoms. A group from Universidade Federal do Paraná in Brazil asked the question, "When Should MERRF (Myoclonus Epilepsy Associated with Ragged-Red Fibers) Be the Diagnosis," and identified some of the clinical and laboratory manifestations associated with MERRF. Their work was published in Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, the official journal of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology.. After the first patients were diagnosed with MERRF in 1973, researchers have been working to understand the pathology and cause of the disease. Patients exhibit myoclonus epilepsy (involuntary muscle contractions) and show signs of ragged-red fibers in muscle biopsy. Less prevalent ...
  http://epilepsyu.com/blog/myoclonus-epilepsy-associated-with-ragged-red-fibers-merrf-diagnosis-discussed-by-researchers/
*  DSpace at EWHA: A 6-month longitudinal study of bone mineral density with antiepileptic drug monotherapy
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can affect bone metabolism, but the exact mechanisms or differences in individual drugs are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone metabolism induced by different AEDs in Koreans with epilepsy. Subjects included 33 drug-naïve, newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy aged between 18 and 50. BMD at right calcaneus and various markers for bone metabolism were measured before and after 6 months of AED monotherapy including carbamazepine, valproic acid, and lamotrigine. Carbamazepine caused a significant decrease in BMD, which was accompanied by a decrease in the level of vitamin D (25-OHD 3). BMD and vitamin D were not affected by 6 months of valproic acid or lamotrigine therapy. Interestingly, valproic acid and lamotrigine, but not carbamazepine, significantly increased osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation. All AEDs almost doubled the parathyroid ...
  http://dspace.ewha.ac.kr/handle/2015.oak/219846
*  Seizure suppression via glycolysis inhibition with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) - Stafstrom - 2008 - Epilepsia - Wiley Online Library
2DG protects against seizures evoked by a 6-Hz stimulation in mice and audiogenic seizures in Fring's mice, and rapidly suppresses interictal and ictal epileptic discharges in hippocampal circuits in vitro, demonstrating acute anticonvulsant properties. Chronic antiepileptic effects of 2DG are demonstrated by its slowing of kindling progression. These two time courses-acute and chronic-probably involve different cellular and molecular mechanisms.. The chronic antiepileptic effects of 2DG have been associated with repression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase B (trkB), which are required for kindling progression (He et al., 2004). 2DG suppression of seizure-induced increases in BDNF and trkB is mediated by the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) and its NADH-sensitive corepressor carboxy-terminal-binding protein (CtBP) acting at the promoter regions of BDNF and trkB genes. In pathological conditions such as seizures, ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01848.x/full?globalMessage=0&systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+unavailable+on+Saturday+7th+Oct+from+03.00+EDT+%2F+08%3A00+BST+%2F+12%3A30+IST+%2F+15.00+SGT+to+08.00+EDT+%2F+13.00+BST+%2F+17%3A30+IST+%2F+20.00+SGT+and+Sunday+8th+Oct+from+03.00+EDT+%2F+08%3A00+BST+%2F+12%3A30+IST+%2F+15.00+SGT+to+06.00+EDT+%2F+11.00+BST+%2F+15%3A30+IST+%2F+18.00+SGT+for+essential+maintenance.+Apologies+for+the+inconvenience+caused+
*  Panayiotopoulos syndrome - Wikipedia
Panayiotopoulos syndrome (named after C. P. Panayiotopoulos) is a common idiopathic childhood-related seizure disorder that occurs exclusively in otherwise normal children (idiopathic epilepsy) and manifests mainly with autonomic epileptic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus. An expert consensus has defined Panayiotopoulos syndrome as "a benign age-related focal seizure disorder occurring in early and mid-childhood. It is characterized by seizures, often prolonged, with predominantly autonomic symptoms, and by an EEG [electroencephalogram] that shows shifting and/or multiple foci, often with occipital predominance." Panayiotopoulos syndrome occurs exclusively in otherwise normal children and manifests mainly with infrequent autonomic epileptic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus. Onset of seizures is from age 1 to 14 years with 76% starting between 3-6 years. Autonomic seizures consist of episodes of disturbed autonomic function with nausea, retching and vomiting ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panayiotopoulos_syndrome
*  Causes of seizures - Wikipedia
There are many causes of seizures. The factors that lead to a seizure are often complex and it may not be possible to determine what causes a particular seizure, what causes it to happen at a particular time, or how often seizures occur. Malnutrition and overnutrition may increase the risk of seizures. Examples include the following: Vitamin B1 deficiency (thiamine deficiency) was reported to cause seizures, especially in alcoholics Vitamin B6 depletion (pyridoxine deficiency) was reported to be associated with pyridoxine-dependent seizures. Vitamin B12 deficiency was reported to be the cause of seizures for adults and for infants. Folic acid in large amounts was considered to potentially counteract the antiseizure effects of antiepileptic drugs and increase the seizure frequency in some children, although that concern is no longer held by epileptologists. Those with various medical conditions may suffer seizures as one of their symptoms. These include: Angelman syndrome Arteriovenous ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_seizures
*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Neurological Disorders: Epilepsy: Progressive Myoclonic: Unverricht-Lundborg Disease
Progressive myoclonus eplilepsy or Unverricht-Lundborg disease is a recessively inherited epileptic disorder of young children and adults due to misfunction of cystatin B. Detailed pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown. First clinical symptoms occur after a normal infancy and early childhood at the age of 6 to 15 years presenting with epileptic seizures followed soon later by myoclonic jerks. Attacks are easily provoked by varied stimuli, particularly after waking in the morning. The course of the disease is progressive and without proper treatment slowly leads to decline of mental and motor functions. Spike-and-wave pattern is typical finding of EEG recording.
  http://dmoztools.net/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Neurological_Disorders/Epilepsy/Progressive_Myoclonic/Unverricht-Lundborg_Disease/
*  Febrile Seizure | Shaker Heights, Solon, OH | Suburban Pediatrics
Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen are used to treat fever but have not been proven to prevent a seizure or its recurrence. Nothing has been guaranteed to prevent an initial febrile seizure.. References. Baumann RJ, Duffner PK: Treatment of Children with Simple Febrile Seizures: The AAP Practice Parameter. Pediatric Neurology 2000;23 (1):11-17.. Shinnar S, Glauser TA: Febrile Seizures. Journal of Child Neurology 2002;17:S44-S52.. Provisional committee on Quality Improvement Subcommittee on Febrile Seizures: Practice Parameter: The Neurodiagnostic Evaluation of the Child with a First Simple Febrile Seizure. Pediatrics/AAP 1996:71-74.. Hampers L: Diagnosis and Management of Febrile Seizures. Pediatric Emergency Medicine at The Children's Hospital, Denver Colorado p 1-8.. Reviewed by: Sunit Gill MD. This Article contains the comments, views and opinions of the Author at the time of its writing and may not necessarily reflect the views of Pediatric Web, Inc., its officers, directors, affiliates or agents. ...
  http://suburbanpeds.rainbowbabies.org/Parent-Resources/Medical-Conditions/Febrile-Seizure.aspx
*  Plus it
Mutations in a voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN1A) result in Dravet Syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy. Zebrafish with a mutation in scn1Lab recapitulate salient phenotypes associated with DS including seizures, early fatality and resistance to antiepileptic drugs. To discover new drug candidates for DS, we screened a chemical library of ∼1,000 compounds and identified four compounds that rescued the behavioral seizure component, including one compound (dimethadione) that suppressed associated electrographic seizure activity. Fenfluramine, but not Huperzine A, also showed antiepileptic activity in our zebrafish assays. The effectiveness of compounds that block neuronal calcium current (dimethadione) or enhance serotonin signaling (fenfluramine) in our zebrafish model suggests these may be important therapeutic targets in patients with DS. Over 150 compounds resulting in fatality were also identified. We conclude that the combination of behavioral and electrophysiological ...
  http://www.eneuro.org/content/early/2015/08/20/ENEURO.0068-15.2015
*  Motor seizure | definition of motor seizure by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of motor seizure in the Medical Dictionary? motor seizure explanation free. What is motor seizure? Meaning of motor seizure medical term. What does motor seizure mean?
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/motor+seizure
*  Milder phenotypes of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome. - Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences
Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is a treatable condition resulting from impaired glucose transport into the brain. The classical presentation is with infantile-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay. Non-classical phenotypes with movement disorders and early-onset absence epilepsy are increasingly recognized and the clinical spectrum is expanding. The hallmark is hypoglycorrhachia (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] glucose|2.2 mmol/l) in the presence of normoglycaemia with a CSF/blood glucose ratio of less than 0.4. GLUT1DS is due to a mutation in the solute carrier family 2, member 1 gene (SLC2A1). We present five individuals (four males, one female), all of whom had a mild phenotype, highlighting the importance of considering this diagnosis in unexplained neurological disorders associated with mild learning difficulties, subtle motor delay, early-onset absence epilepsy, fluctuating gait disorders, and/or dystonia. The mean age at ...
  https://www.ndcn.ox.ac.uk/publications/241011
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*  The Ketogenic Diet from the Ayurvedic Perspective | John Douillard's LifeSpa
Whenever I come across conflicting scientific studies, I generally like to look to ancient wisdom to help break the tie. As a hunter-gatherer, it would be impossible to eat a ketogenic diet. Remember, it was devised as a medicinal diet for epilepsy, and not as a way-of-life diet. Think about it… How could traditional people eat a diet consisting of 80-90% fat? We only recently developed techniques to press oil out of seeds and nuts. An extreme diet such as keto would be nearly impossible for our ancestors!. The only culture that came close to eating a ketogenic diet were the Inuit people of the Arctic, who had a naturally-occurring, very high-fat, low-carb diet of mostly seal blubber and fish meat. Amazingly, they acquired a gene to block them from going into ketogenesis from their super high-fat diet. (12) The question begging to be asked here is, why would the only culture who naturally ate a ketogenic diet acquire a gene to prevent ketogenesis if the ketogenic diet was in fact a ...
  https://lifespa.com/ketogenic-diet-ayurvedic-perspective/
*  Plus it
Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. The pilocarpine-induced model of chronic epilepsy in rats (Turski et al., 1983, 1989; Cavalheiro et al., 1991; Mello et al., 1993) was chosen because it replicates several features of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Male Sprague Dawley rats (36-60 d old; 102-210 gm) were injected with methylscopolamine and terbutaline (2 mg/kg, i.p.). Thirty minutes later, experimental rats received a single injection of pilocarpine HCl, whereas sham-treated rats received saline injections. Although a range of pilocarpine doses (315-350 mg/kg, i.p.) was tested with the aim to produce the highest proportion of rats experiencing status epilepticus with the lowest mortality rate, a concentration of 335 mg/kg was used for ,90% of the experiments. Seizure duration and frequency progressively increased until a state of SE characterized by rearing and falling was achieved. SE was allowed to proceed for 75-90 min and then was terminated with sodium pentobarbital ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/6/2048
*  Temporal lobe seizure Coping and support - Mayo Clinic
Consider wearing a medical alert bracelet to help emergency medical personnel. The bracelet should state whom to contact in an emergency, what medications you use and your medication allergies.. Even after they're under control, seizures can affect your life. Temporal lobe seizures may present even more of a coping challenge because people may not recognize the unusual behavior as a seizure. Children may get teased or be embarrassed by their condition, and living with the constant threat of another seizure may frustrate children and adults.. You may find it helpful to talk with others in similar situations. Besides offering support, they may have advice or tips for coping you haven't thought of.. The Epilepsy Foundation has a network of support groups, as well as online forums for teens and adults who have seizures and for parents of children who have seizures. You can reach the foundation at 800-332-1000 or visit the foundation website. You can also ask your doctor if he or she knows of any ...
  https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/temporal-lobe-seizure/basics/coping-support/CON-20022892?p=1
*  Cortical Stimulation Mapping and Speech Production | SIG 2 Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language...
The work of Penfield and collaborators was based predominantly on patients undergoing surgical treatment of epilepsy. The goal of surgery for epilepsy continues to be the excision of epileptogenic tissue in its entirety without resection of normal tissue or tissue essential for speech, language, and memory. Some neurosurgeons have suggested using anatomical landmarks to spare language cortex with dominant hemisphere surgery, such as the superior temporal gyrus and beyond 4 cm from the temporal tip. There is, however, considerable variability in cortical organization across individuals, and resections in anatomically "safe" areas have been associated with post-operative aphasias (Ojemann, 1993). Thus, reliance on anatomical landmarks may put language at risk in some patients. The surest method to exclude speech and language cortex from resection is to methodically map the cortical area housing the epileptogenic focus ...
  http://sig2perspectives.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=1758177
*  Vagus Nerve Stimulation<...
Stimulating this nerve - using an implanted device that controls the vagus nerve much like an artificial pacemaker controls the heart - can suppress seizures after they start and can reduce seizure frequency by 45 to 80 percent. VNS devices stimulate this nerve by sending mild electrical impulses to it, which are then are carried up to the brain to the areas where seizures begin.This technique, known as vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), is most effective in people with atonic and focal seizures. The device tends to be least effective in individuals who experience generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures.. Surgery to implant a VNS device takes 1 to 2 hours under general anesthesia and can be performed on an inpatient or outpatient basis. The VNS unit is typically placed on the left side of the body so that it can control the heart rate before or during a seizure, but in some cases it may be repositioned to the right side. The amount of stimulation and frequency can be adjusted by the ...
  http://www.brainrecoveryproject.org/for-parents/brain-surgeries-to-stop-seizures/vagus-nerve-stimulation-vns/
*  1954 | John M. Freeman '54 | Amherst College
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 1964-1966. John Mark Freeman was born in Brooklyn, New York, and educated at Deerfield Academy and Amherst College prior to studying medicine and completing a residency in pediatrics at Johns Hopkins. His decision to become a child neurologist was based on the particular influence of David Clark. Dr. Freeman's interactions with Arnold Gold, Sidney Carter, John Menkes, and Horace Hodes awakened the interest in research that has so strongly marked his career development. Dr. Freeman was awarded Columbia's Lucy Moses prize for research in neurology.. After two years of research at Walter Reed and then three years on the faculty at Stanford, he returned to Johns Hopkins as director of the child neurology service and of the birth defects treatment center. During the 21 years that he spent in. these, he rose to the rank of professor and in 1991 was named the Lederer Professor of Pediatric Epilepsy. His particular concentration in epilepsy was ...
  https://www.amherst.edu/amherst-story/magazine/in_memory/1954/johnfreeman
*  Ketogenic Diet Weight Loss
A ketogenic diet is a way of a diet that promotes a state of ketosis in the body. In general, a ketogenic diet contains the following proportions of macronutrients 60% to 80% of total calories come from fat, 15% to 35% of total calories are derived from a protein with 5% or less of total calories are obtained from carbohydrates. A ketogenic diet, on the other hand, is well known for being a low carb diet, where the body produces ketones in the liver which is used as energy. It can also be referred to as keto diet, low carb diet, low carb high fat (LCHF), etc. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures. (1). When you eat something high in carbohydrates, your body will produce glucose and insulin. Glucose is the easiest and lightest molecule for your body to convert and use as energy so that it will be chosen over any other sources of energy. Insulin is produced to process the glucose in your bloodstream by ...
  http://www.probioticsgazette.com/ketogenic-diet-weight-loss/
*  Neural Stem Cell or Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived GABA‐ergic Progenitor Cell Grafting in an Animal Model of...
Grafting of neural stem cells (NSCs) or GABA‐ergic progenitor cells (GPCs) into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in patients with drug‐resistant chronic epilepsy, which afflicts >30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases
  http://www.currentprotocols.com/WileyCDA/CPUnit/refId-sc02d07.html?quicktabs_cp=abstract
*  Neuropathic Pain Aided by Morphine + Epilepsy Medication
Scientists studying induced nerve injury in rodents have found that the analgesic effects of morphine can decline over time. When morphine is used in combination with carbamazepine, which prevents epileptic seizures, this loss of drug efficacy may be reversed.. There has been mixed efficacy in general using opioids to treat neuropathic pain. The pain relief brought about by morphine can diminish over time. In this study, when carbamazepine was added to the morphine regimen, opioid induced hyperalgesia was reversed. As reported in PLOS ONE, the combination of drugs administered to rodents showed that "the dampening of the analgesic effects of morphine on neuropathic pain behavior in vivo can be countered with the addition of CBZ.". To read the article, click here.. To read the journal article, click here.. Posted on September 16, 2014. ...
  https://www.painweek.org/news_posts/neuropathic-pain-aided-by-morphine-epilepsy-medication.html
*  Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust » Neurology
Both Dr Arora and Dr Beach offer paediatric neurology clinics of which there are five each month in total. Evening appointments are available. A wide variety of conditions are seen including headache, neuromuscular disorders, movement disorders and some complex disability. Most children with muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis receive shared care with Great Ormond Street Hospital . A paediatric neurologist from Addenbrooke's does an outreach clinic four times per year.. Clinical geneticists from Addenbrooke's do clinics in the department twice monthly. A metabolic specialist from Guy's & St Thomas' Hospitals visits each quarter. We have access to an excellent paediatric Ophthalmology service with Dr Puvanachandra and his team.. Colleagues often seek advice on acute neurological presentations in paediatrics and these are often followed up in paediatric neurology. Rehabilitation following neurological injury is usually co-ordinated by Dr Arora.. ...
  http://www.nnuh.nhs.uk/our-services/our-hospitals/jennylind/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/neurology/
*  Vegetarian Site Mischaracterizing The Atkins Diet - Carbwire
Filed under: Atkins Diet - @ September 28, 2006 Our vegetarian friends over at the "Disease Proof" blog (led by Dr. Joel Fuhrman-remember my review of his "Eat To Live" book?) posted a column today entitled "Will America Ever Eat Better?" where a regular poster at the "Livin' La Vida Low-Carb" blog is quoted.. In a discussion of eating a healthy diet, Gerald Pugliese from "Disease Proof" lamented that not everyone will follow Dr. Fuhrman's vegetarian diet because they don't see any value in eating vegetables.. Here's what Pugliese wrote:. "Get a load of this commenter on the low-carb blog LivinLaVidaLowCarb:. Who the hell cares about the veggies anyway? You don't need them and there is absolutely nothing essential about them. Don't let the acculturated veggie sympathizers tell you otherwise.. Pretty crazy right? Especially since even the Atkins Diet calls for the daily consumption of vegetables.. That quote from my recent blog post showing one of my weekly low-carb menus is from none other than ...
  http://www.carbwire.com/2006/09/28/vegetarian_site_mischaracterizing_the_atkins_diet