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*  Zea mays BETL-2 protein Summary Report | CureHunter
... basal endosperm transfer layer; isolated from maize; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AJ133529 ... BETL - basal endosperm transfer layer; isolated from maize; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AJ133529 ... BETL-2 protein, Zea mays; basal endosperm transfer layer 2 protein, Zea mays ...
  http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC402653-Zea-mays-BETL-2-protein.do
*  The globby1-1 (glo1-1) mutation disrupts nuclear and cell division in the developing maize seed causing alterations in...
Endosperms (8 dap) in (C,E,G) wild-type and (F,H-J) glo1-1. (C) Wild-type basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL; betl in figure ... basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL), embryo-surrounding region (ESR) and starchy endosperm (SE) - which are believed to be ... Basal structures are predetermined in the syncytial endosperm. Disruptions to the basal endosperm region are witnessed from an ... wild-type endosperm and (F) glo1-1 endosperm with constrictions around the apical region (arrow) and abnormal basal endosperm ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/130/20/5009
*  Frontiers | A comparative glycoproteome study of developing endosperm in the hexose-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant and...
Overall, these results provide for the first time a global glycoproteome profile of maize BETL-enriched basal endosperm to ... As the first filial cell layer, BETL is a gateway to sugars, nutrients and water from mother plant; and anchor of numerous ... Previous studies showed that basal developing endosperms of miniature1 (mn1) mutant seeds lacking the Mn1-encoded cell wall ... Previous studies showed that basal developing endosperms of miniature1 (mn1) mutant seeds lacking the Mn1-encoded cell wall ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2014.00063/full
*  Maize defective kernel mutant generated by insertion of a Ds element in a gene encoding a highly conserved TTI2 cochaperone. -...
... has a defective basal endosperm transfer (BETL) layer, and results in a smaller seed with highly underdeveloped endosperm. The ... PC, placento-chalazal layer. (B) 10DAP dek endosperm showing detachment from the base of the seed. (C) RT-PCR of BETL-specific ... Defects in endosperm development in dek38-Dsg. (A) 8DAP endosperm sections showing underdeveloped BETL in dek mutant. Arrows ... genes (N, normal sample; D, dek sample). (D) Cell size comparison in endosperm cells between a normal and dek seed. ...
  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28461460
*  RNA Sequencing of Laser-Capture Microdissected Compartments of the Maize Kernel Identifies Regulatory Modules Associated with...
basal endosperm transfer layer. CSE. central starchy endosperm. CZ. conducting zone. GRN. gene regulatory network. LCM. laser- ... Detailed analyses of a coexpression module highly correlated with the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL) identified a ... Endosperm is an absorptive structure that supports embryo development or seedling germination in angiosperms. The endosperm of ... starchy endosperm. AL. aleurone. ESR. embryo-surrounding region. BETL. ...
  http://www.plantcell.org/content/early/2015/03/17/tpc.114.135657
*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00001363/00001
... to 10 DAP revealed d evelopmental delay of basal en dosperm transfer cell layer (BETL) as well as starchy endosperm defects. ... encodes a small cysteine rich peptide that is required for the normal development of the basal endosperm transfer cells (BETCs ... 50 mutation of the Mn1 encoded cell wall invertase, wh ich is entirely expressed in the basal endosperm and is essential to ... Here we report a comparative proteomic study between Mn1 and mn1 basal endosperm to better understand the possible basis of ...
  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00001363/00001
*  Amplification of prolamin storage protein genes in different subfamilies of the Poaceae | Dr. Joachim Messing
... has a defective basal endosperm transfer (BETL) layer, and results in a smaller seed with highly underdeveloped endosperm. The ... during endosperm development. This zein is known to impact the level of Met stored in kernels. The elite event with the highest ...
  https://www.waksman.rutgers.edu/messing/publications/amplification-prolamin-storage-protein-genes-different-subfamilies-poaceae
*  Boraginales
... testa with single layer of transfer cells [cells with labyrinthine ingrowths of the wall]; chalazal endosperm haustorium +, ... position of transfer cells; MTOCs not associated with plastids, basal body 350-550 nm long, stellate array in transition region ... 3-4 layers of transfer cells; endosperm haustoria?, 0, cotyledons plicate, margins toothed; n = 7-9. ... transfer cells in funicle and placenta also; fruit a schizocarp, or drupaceous, endocarp multilayered; endosperm cellular. ...
  http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/orders/boraginalesweb.htm
*  Zm.14528 protein (Zea mays) - STRING interaction network
Embryo-sac basal-endosperm-layer embryo-surrounding-region2 Putative receptor protein kinase CRINKLY4 Precursor (EC 2.7.11.1); ... Necessary and sufficient for the establishment and differentiation of the endosperm nutrient transfer cells located at the ... Embryo-sac basal-endosperm-layer embryo-surrounding-region2 Defective kernel1 ; Essential protein involved in epiderm ... Embryo-sac basal-endosperm-layer embryo-surrounding-region2 Embryo surrounding region1 ; Extracellular signal peptide that ...
  https://string-db.org/network/4577.GRMZM2G167733_P02
*  Developmental and Thermal Regulation of the Maize Heat Shock Protein, HSP101 | Plant Physiology
8I) as well as in the basal half of the kernel (Fig. 8N), data suggesting that Hsp101 accumulates in the aleurone layer at an ... whereas the endosperm tissue includes the aleurone layer for the 3-h germinated kernels (Al/En). Five micrograms of soluble ... Poly(A+) mRNA was isolated, transferred to nylon membrane following resolution on a 7% (w/v) formaldehyde/MOPS [3-(N-morpholino ... No signal was detected in the endosperm when probed with Hsp101 sense RNA (see right, Fig. 8, H, I, K, M, and N). In addition, ...
  http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/127/3/777.full
*  Endosperm - Wikipedia
Endosperm thus has an important role within the human diet worldwide. The aleurone is the outer layer of endosperm cells, ... most basal angiosperms still contain the four-cell embryo sac and produce diploid endosperms. Endosperm is the evolutionary ... Endosperm tissue also mediates the transfer of nutrients from the mother plant to the embryo, it acts as a location for gene ... This can make endosperm a source of nutrition in the human diet. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread ( ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endosperm
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
As in vivo, melanocytes in reconstructed skin are localized at the basement membrane interspersed with basal layer ... In order to determine imprinting status of a gene and methylation pattern in endosperm, we need to be able to isolate endosperm ... A small propargyl group is transferred from the cofactor analogue SeAdoYn to the protein by the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) ... which locate primarily at the basal layer of the epidermis. The recent development of 3D human skin reconstruct models has ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/24832207/dna-methylation-characteristics-primary-melanomas-with-distinct
*  Amborella - Wikipedia
Floyd, S.K. & Friedman, W.E. (2001). "Developmental evolution of endosperm in basal angiosperms: evidence from Amborella ( ... The skin is papery, surrounding a thin fleshy layer containing a red juice. The inner pericarp is lignified and surrounds the ... In the circumstances, it is not surprising in principle to find that there should have been horizontal gene transfer between ... In systematics the term "basal" describes a lineage that diverges near the base of a phylogeny, and thus earlier than other ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amborella
*  Lecture 16 Outline
The basal cell gives rise to the suspensor. Cells of the suspensor divide transversely to form a longitudinal file of cells. ... In the globular stage embryo, there is expression of a lipid transfer protein gene specifically in the protodermal cells. The ... The suspensor pushes the embryo proper into the nutrient-rich endosperm and is also important for nutrient transport into the ... They are hypothesized to function in ion sequestration and in forming a protective layer for stabilizing membranes. ...
  http://www.public.iastate.edu/~bot.512/lectures/embryo.htm
*  Angiosperm - The Full Wiki
Endosperm. Endosperm formation generally begins after fertilization and before the first division of the zygote. Endosperm is a ... Archaefructaceae, a New Basal Angiosperm Family. Science 296(5569): 899-904.. *^ Xin Wing; Shuying Duan, Baoyin Geng, Jinzhong ... In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the ... Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot easily transfer pollen ...
  http://www.thefullwiki.org/Angiosperm
*  ZHOUPI controls embryonic cuticle formation via a signalling pathway involving the subtilisin protease ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 and...
S8). In both ale1-1 and ale1-4 mutant backgrounds, only a single layer of endosperm cells was observed (Fig. 3O), similar to ... 4). A basal level of ALE1 expression was also observed in inflorescence samples from all plants transformed with pSUC5:ALE1, ... All resulting seedlings were transferred to small pots containing moist compost in mixed trays, and covered with a loosely ... At maturity, only a single-cell layer of endosperm tissue remains surrounding the dormant embryo (Bethke et al., 2007; Penfield ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/140/4/770
*  Seed - Wikipedia
The endosperm is surrounded by the aleurone layer (peripheral endosperm), filled with proteinaceous aleurone grains. Originally ... Two sperm cells transferred from the pollen do not develop the seed by double fertilization, but one sperm nucleus unites with ... The radicle, the basal tip of the hypocotyl, grows into the primary root. Monocotyledonous plants have two additional ... The mature inner integument has a palisade layer, a pigmented zone with 15-20 layers, while the innermost layer is known as the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed
*  Root cap A mass of hard c
Thatch A layer of grass clippings, stems, and roots that accumulates between the surface of a turf and the soil. Thinning The ... Self-pollination The transfer of pollen from the stamen to the stigma of the same flower or to the flowers of genetically alike ... Seed The mature ovule of a flowering plant containing an embryo, an endosperm (sometimes), and a seed coat. Seedbed Soil that ... Rooting media Materials such as peat, sand, perlite, or vermiculite in which the basal ends of cuttings are placed vertically ...
  https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59981442/horticulture-principles-and-practices/779
*  Cucurbitales
... position of transfer cells; MTOCs not associated with plastids, basal body 350-550 nm long, stellate array in transition region ... associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure + [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0 ... endosperm +, cellular, development heteropolar [first division oblique, micropylar end initially with a single large cell, ... single, conduplicate, stigma capitate, dry, compitum 0; ovule with outer integument ca 11[?-30] layers across; fruit a drupe; ...
  http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/APWeb/orders/cucurbitalesweb.htm
*  Crossosomatales
... position of transfer cells; MTOCs not associated with plastids, basal body 350-550 nm long, stellate array in transition region ... then 2-3 layers of elongated unthickened cells; endosperm development?; embryo curved, terete; n = ? ... associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure + [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0 ... outer testa of 5-12 layers of crystalliferous sclereids; endosperm +, moderate; n = 250. ...
  http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/orders/crossosomatalesweb.htm
*  Austrobaileyales
... position of transfer cells; MTOCs not associated with plastids, basal body 350-550 nm long, stellate array in transition region ... persistent layer of nucellar tissue surrounding the endosperm, but it did not contain food reserves. ... associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure + [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0 ... outer layers lignified, palisade, (mesotesta not lignified); thin layer of nucellus persistent, embryo suspensor multicellular ...
  http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/orders/austrobaileyalesweb.htm
*  Cornales
... position of transfer cells; MTOCs not associated with plastids, basal body 350-550 nm long, stellate array in transition region ... testa with hypodermal layer thickened); endosperm copious to none. ... associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure + [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0 ... basal part of nucellus persists [Fendlera]; endosperm nuclear [Fendlera]; n = 16. ...
  http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/orders/cornalesweb.htm
*  Dilleniales
... position of transfer cells; MTOCs not associated with plastids, basal body 350-550 nm long, stellate array in transition region ... associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure + [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0 ... endosperm +, cellular, development heteropolar [first division oblique, micropylar end initially with a single large cell, ... but they are uncommon in more basal clades (González & Mello 2009). Compared to many more basal eudicots and monocots, the two ...
  http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/orders/dillenialesweb.html
*  Chloranthales
... position of transfer cells; MTOCs not associated with plastids, basal body 350-550 nm long, stellate array in transition region ... associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure + [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0 ... This is perhaps the best place to put triploid endosperm on the tree; the other would be as a synapomorphy for all angiosperms ... endosperm +, ?diploid, cellular, development heteropolar [first division oblique, micropylar end initially with a single large ...
  http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/orders/chloranthalesweb.htm