*  The Tree of Life: Who are the microbes on your fruits and veggies?
Abstract: Fresh fruits and vegetables can harbor large and diverse populations of bacteria. However, most of the work on produce-associated bacteria has focused on a relatively small number of pathogenic bacteria and, as a result, we know far less about the overall diversity and composition of those bacterial communities found on produce and how the structure of these communities varies across produce types. Moreover, we lack a comprehensive view of the potential effects of differing farming practices on the bacterial communities to which consumers are exposed. We addressed these knowledge gaps by assessing bacterial community structure on conventional and organic analogs of eleven store-bought produce types using a culture-independent approach, 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Our results demonstrated that the fruits and vegetables harbored diverse bacterial communities, and the communities ...
  https://phylogenomics.blogspot.com/2013/03/who-are-microbes-on-your-fruits-and.html
*  Bacteria vs. Viruses
Bacteria help our bodies with digestion and produce needed vitamins. Bacteria also help us by destroying harmful organisms within our bodies.. There are more bacterial cells in your body than there are human cells.. Most bacteria reproduce using a process called 'binary fission.' To do this, a single bacterium will grow to twice its normal size and then split into two 'daughter' cells. The two new cells are exact copies of the original bacterium.. Bacteria are used to make cheese, milk, sourdough bread and yogurt.. 99% of all bacteria are helpful.. Dead or weakened bacteria and viruses are used for making helpful vaccines.. Scientists estimate that bacteria produce nearly half the oxygen found in the atmosphere.. Helpful bacteria are used to purify water at sewage treatment plants and to break down oil after oil spills.. One healthy bacterium, given the ...
  https://www.mansfieldct.org/Schools/MMS/staff/hand/Immunebacteriavsviruses.htm
*  Frontiers | Particle-Associated Differ from Free-Living Bacteria in Surface Waters of the Baltic Sea | Microbiology
Many studies on bacterial community composition (BCC) do not distinguish between particle-associated (PA) and free-living (FL) bacteria or neglect the PA fraction by pre-filtration removing most particles. Although temporal and spatial gradients in environmental variables are known to shape BCC, it remains unclear how and to what extent PA and FL bacterial diversity responds to such environmental changes. To elucidate the BCC of both bacterial fractions related to different environmental settings, we studied surface samples of three Baltic Sea stations (marine, mesohaline and oligohaline) in two different seasons (summer and fall/winter). Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed significant differences in BCC of both bacterial fractions among stations and seasons, with a particularly high number of PA operational taxonomic units (OTUs at genus-level) at the marine station in both seasons.
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01297/full
*  "Understanding gut microbial community dynamics using an in vitro bioreactor model" Dr. Allen-Vercoe - 8/14/2017 - University...
What: Academic Seminar, Dr. Emma Allen Vercoe, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Guelph Topic: Understanding gut microbial community dynamics using an in vitro bioreactor model When: Monday, August 14, 10:30-11:30 a.m. Where: Robert B. Schultz Lecture Theatre
  http://events.umanitoba.ca/EventList.aspx?view=EventDetails&eventidn=13884&information_id=29910&type=&rss=rss
*  Bacteria by sameer mohammed on Prezi
This bacterium can be airborne so if you are around someone with TB, then there is a good chance that you will get it as well. When you do, the bacterium enters and if you have a strong immune system, you may not notice the disease right away because your immune is fighting off the bacteria. when the bacteria can't take over, it starts to reproduce more of its kind and sooner or later, your immune system won't stand a chance against the bacteria. As this battle continues, bacteria reproduces its kind to make a large group.When the immune system cannot take anymore, the bacteria invades and since there are so many bacteria cells, it is like an explosion of disease in the body. The macrophage are phagocytic cells and if they can't kill the bacteria, then the bacteria will replicate by cell division until the macrophage bursts. The bacteria are then taken over ...
  https://prezi.com/zlv7hkr7hkf1/bacteria/
*  Title : The Determination of Microbial Numbers Objectives:Practically every phase of microbiology requires method for...
Introduction. Experiment 4 Title : The Determination of Microbial Numbers Objectives: * Practically every phase of microbiology requires method for measuring microbial numbers. * Study the theoretical relationship of one bacterial cell, or clump of cells. * Study the effect of dilution to the bacteria growth. * Determine the cell masses of a culture in order estimates the total cellular protoplasm per milliliter of culture. * To learn both quantitative plating methods which are spread plate and pour plate to measure the number of bacteria. * To understand the measurement for the number bacteria by performing plate and dilution count. Result and Observations: Part I: Spread Plate Unlabelled sample - Dilution factor 10-1 Sample A - Dilution factor 10-2 Sample B - Dilution factor 10-3 Sample C - Dilution factor 10-4 Observation: According to the observation, the result is showed that the colonies of E.coli cultures are too numerous to count via ...
  http://www.markedbyteachers.com/as-and-a-level/geography/title-the-determination-of-microbial-numbers-objectives-practically-every-phase-of-microbiology-requires-method-for-measuring-microbial-numbers-study-the-theoretical-relationship-of-one-bacterial-cell-or-clump-of-cells.html
*  Mitarbeitende - Eawag
In nitritationammox reactors, several bacterial groups contribute to the overall nitrogen conversion. Knowing the activity of the main bacterial groups, especially of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria (AMX), is extremely helpful to understand the process and optimise its operation. Mass balances of dissolved compounds such as ammonium, nitrite and nitrate commonly allow the determination of bacterial activities in a nitritationammox process, but the activity of heterotrophic bacteria (HET) is usually neglected. However, even in wastewater with a low organic substrate content, heterotrophic denitrification can contribute substantially to nitrogen removal. The goal of this study was to critically evaluate the applicability of mass balances for the determination of the relevant bacterial activities in a nitritationammox process with high HET activity. We set up and solved mass balances of different degrees ...
  http://www.eawag.ch/de/ueberuns/portraet/organisation/mitarbeitende/profile/kai-udert/show/
*  Summary of medically important bacteria - Oxford Medicine
This chapter provides a brief summary of a classification system for medically important bacteria, based on a traditional phenotypic approach. The primary focus is on organisms that are significant causes of disease in the tropics and subtropics.
  http://oxfordmedicine.com/view/10.1093/med/9780198737773.001.0001/med-9780198737773-chapter-1
*  Bacteria - humans, body, used, water, process, Earth, life, plants
Bacteria can also be classified according to the effects they have on human life. Some bacteria are used to supply products that improve human life, others cause disease, while still others have no overall affect at all on human life. Helpful bacteria. Bacteria make possible the digestion of foods in many kinds of animals. Cows, deer, sheep, and other ruminants, for example, have a large organ known as the rumen in which bacteria live and help break down cellulose fibers and other tough plant materials. In humans, bacteria known as Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) occur everywhere in the digestive system, aiding in the breakdown of many kinds of foods. Bacteria are also responsible for the production of vitamin K and certain B vitamins. Certain kinds of bacteria are also essential in the decay and decomposition of waste materials. Such bacteria are known as ...
  http://www.scienceclarified.com/As-Bi/Bacteria.html
*  List of Bacteria on the Human Body: Compiling an Atlas Of Common Bacteria Types on Humans to Help Fight Disease
There is no escape, as they follow you everywhere. Your body is riddled with bacteria. There are armpit bacteria, mouth bacteria, nose bacteria, hair bacteria and many more. In fact around 100 trillion bacteria give or take a few call you home. Scientists have now compiled a huge list of bacteria on the human body, and it has revealed that everyone has their own personalized community of bacteria. Find out more about this research and some key bacteria facts in this article.
  http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/55299.aspx
*  colony of bacteria - TheOS.IN
Antibiotics are used to kill the growth of bacteria. It is basically used to cure diseases. Antibiotics do not harm us.. Today, people fear that bacteria do not die from antibiotics, because bacteria are too strong. This can happen when antibiotics are used too much. If they are regularly used, some bacteria may develop an immunity to the antibiotic. These bacteria can then reproduce and make a large colony of bacteria immune from the antibiotic. Now, scientists find out that antibiotics losing war against germs. Many bacteria got antibiotic resistance and they love to feast on antibiotics. According to wikipedia, Antibiotic resistance evolves naturally via natural selection through random mutation, but it could also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once such a gene is generated, bacteria can then transfer the genetic information in a ...
  https://theos.in/tag/colony-of-bacteria/
*  Antibiotic kills both bad AND good bacteria
Antibiotics can't distinguish between the "good" and the "bad" bacteria. There is a delicate balance of billions of bacteria inside our digestive tract. Bifido bacteria in the large intestine and acidophilus in the small intestine and vagina protect against infection by yeast and other bad bacteria. Also "friendly" bacteria found on the skin protect against bad bacteria, yeast and fungal infections. Continued use of antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, can seriously disrupt the normal ecology of the body and render anyone more susceptible to pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria, yeast, viral and parasitic infection.. The worst thing one can do is to take only a few of the antibiotic prescribed. Shortened course of antibiotics often wipes out only the most vulnerable bacteria, while allowing relatively resistant bacteria to survive. Naturally, ...
  http://www.akusihat.com/antibiotic-kills-both-bad-and-good-bacteria/
*  Faces of science:: When Bacteria Attack
Bacteria are living organisms. They come in different shapes and sizes but are only ever one cell. Bacteria reproduce asexually by dividing into two, to produce two bacteria genetically identical to the original. In the right conditions (usually warm, moist conditions), bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes, which means if you start with one bacterium, in one hour you could have 8. Bacteria live all over our skin and right through our alimentary canal. Most bacteria are harmless to us and some can even help us digest food. These 'harmless' bacteria can also help prevent harmful ones from having the opportunity to attack us.. See a video of how bacteria multiply below.. ...
  http://www.catie.org.uk/facesofscience/bacteria_attack/default.htm
*  NetLogo Models Library: Bacteria Food Hunt
INITIAL-#-BACTERIA-PER-VARIATION is the number of bacteria you start with in each of the six possible variations in flagella number. The overall population of bacteria is determined by multiplying this value by 6.. ENERGY-COST-PER-FLAGELLA determines how much energy is lost for every flagella that a bacteria has, each time step. Bacteria with 6 flagella will lose 6 times this value, whereas bacteria with one flagellum will lose 1 times this value. This energy loss is deducted on top of a base metabolism energy loss for all bacteria each time step.. VISUALIZE-VARIATION helps you apply different visualization cues to see which variation each a bacterium has. When set to 'flagella and color', the number of flagella will appear on each bacterium and these will flap/twist back and forth as the bacteria moves. The color of the bacteria will correspond to how many ...
  http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/BacteriaFoodHunt
*  Researchers Unlock The Secret Of Bacteria's Immune System - Redorbit
A team of Universit© Laval and Danisco researchers has just unlocked the secret of bacteria's immune system. The details of the discovery, which may eventually make it possible to prevent certain bacteria from developing resistance to antibiotics, are presented in today's issue of the scientific journal Nature.. The team led by Professor Sylvain Moineau of Universit© Laval's Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Bioinformatics showed that this mechanism, called CRISPR/Cas, works by selecting foreign DNA segments and inserting them into very specific locations in a bacterium's genome. These segments then serve as a kind of immune factor in fighting off future invasions by cleaving incoming DNA.. The researchers demonstrated this mechanism using plasmids, DNA molecules that are regularly exchanged by bacteria. The plasmid used in the experiment, which contained a gene for antibiotic resistance, was inserted into bacteria used in making ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1944716/researchers_unlock_the_secret_of_bacterias_immune_system/
*  Controlling bacteria at its roots » UF Health Podcasts - University of Florida Health
The terms Nus-G [nuss-G] and R-F-A-H probably sound like little more than alphabet mumbo jumbo to most folks. But scientists say these molecules might be the keys to survival for disease-causing bacteria like E. coli.. Nus-G and R-F-A-H help regulate growth and determine how effectively bacteria can infect a host. Understanding how bacteria grow and ward off immune system attacks could lead to drugs that keep infections at bay.. In the molecular world, Nus-G and R-F-A-H act like light switches. They latch on to a cell's DNA and turn genes on or off. Found in all bacteria, Nus-G regulates about ninety-seven percent of a bacterium's genetic code. Without it, bacteria would die. Scientists recently discovered that R-F-A-H oversees the remaining three percent of the genome. Its sole purpose? To make bacteria infectious.. Once triggered, R-F-A-H allows bacteria to infect a host, arming them with ...
  http://news.health.ufl.edu/2007/9198/multimedia/health-in-a-heartbeat/controlling-bacteria-at-its-roots/
*  Seeding the gut against disease? Researchers have discovered a link between certain bacteria in the gut and prevention of Crohn...
Natural News) A recent study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine has identified a bacterial enzyme called urease that plays a central role in the gut microbiome imbalance commonly associated with Crohn's disease. A team of health experts at the Penn Medicine and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has carried out an analysis of fecal samples from Crohn's disease patients ...
  http://www.historyuncensored.co.uk/seeding-the-gut-against-disease-researchers-have-discovered-a-link-between-certain-bacteria-in-the-gut-and-prevention-of-crohns-disease/
*  History of Antibiotics - Lablinn
Then, in the first decade of the 20th century, German physician Paul Ehrlich noticed that certain chemical dyes coloured some bacteria but not others, meaning that certain bacteria could be selectively targeted, which is pretty important in a medicine. (The selectivity principle, by the way, is how the gram test works. It differentiates between gram positive bacteria, which have a thick cell wall made of a protein called peptidoglycan, and gram negative bacteria, which don't, because a violet stain stays on the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacteria and not on the gram-negatives ones. So you just add the chemicals and check if the bacteria are violet or not.) Anyway, Ehrlich then tested a ton of drugs on rabbits infected with syphilis and eventually came up with Salvarsan, a literal lifesaver for sufferers of syphilis, which was extremely common at the time ...
  http://lablinn.weebly.com/history-of-antibiotics.html
*  Cell Biology/Cell types/Bacteria - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Bacteria are prokaryotic, unicellular organisms. Bacteria are very small; so much so that 1 billion could fit on 1 square centimeter of space on the human gums, and 1 gram of digested food has 10 billion bacteria. Bacteria are the simplest living organisms. Previously they fell under the Kingdom Moneran, but now they fall into two different Domains: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. There are several differences between the two. Typically, microbiologists in the 21st century call these groups "Archaea" and "Bacteria." One of the co-discoverers of the three Domains has argued that the term "prokaryote" should be removed from classrooms because it reflects an evolutionary hypothesis that has been disproved, given that the Archaea are more closely related to the Eukarya than they are to the Bacteria (Pace 2006, Nature 441 p. 289).. It is incorrect to think of ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cell_Biology/Cell_types/Bacteria
*  New study finds that bacteria on marine sponges can develop capacity to move and inhibit biofilm formation | University of...
Bacteria have ways of communicating with each other, and scientists have now identified a new signaling system that, when there is a critical mass of bacteria present, causes the bacteria to produce an appendage known as a flagellum that moves like a corkscrew and gives them the ability to swim away, inhibiting the formation of biofilm. "Anything we can discover about this bacterial communication could be really important in understanding how bacteria become pathogenic in humans or how they form film on teeth or internal medical devices," said study co-author Dr. Russell Hill, Director of the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology in Baltimore, Maryland. "Understanding that process may help in the future for controlling biofilms.". It is estimated that pound by pound there are more bacteria on the Earth than all other life forms combined. They are simple organisms that consist of one cell and can ...
  http://www.umces.edu/imet/release/2012/sep/04/new-study-finds-bacteria-marine-sponges-can-develop-capacity-move-and-inhibit-bi
*  Why Certain Bacteria Are Not So Efficient at Producing Biofuel | The Cornell Daily Sun
NASA's annual climate reports seem to be displaying a chilling trend: 2016 was the third consecutive hottest year on record. With the world's fossil fuel consumption increasing by 0.6 percent last year, the chances of permanently altered climate patterns are no longer miniscule.However, spurred by the Paris Agreement of 2015, countries seem to be embracing […]
  http://cornellsun.com/2017/01/31/why-certain-bacteria-are-not-so-efficient-at-producing-biofuel/
*  Re: what type of household bacteria are found on sinks/faucets?
The water that comes out of the faucet when we turn it on is from either a public system or maybe a private well. Most public systems, and a few private wells, use disinfectant (usually chlorine, which is pretty much like the chlorine bleach you buy at the grocery store) to try to kill disease agents like viruses and certain bacteria. This usually succeeds, though it doesn't take care of Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that got into Milwaukee's water in 1993 and made over 400,000 people ill. Even if all the disease agents are killed by disinfection, the water is not sterile there are still bacteria present. These are species that live in the water or on the inside surfaces of water pipes, where some of them build up slimy "biofilms." So, when you turn on the tap, you are getting water with some (hopefully, harmless) bacteria in it. The water may still have some active chlorine in it, but levels are usually very low. What happens next ...
  http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/oct99/939145015.Mi.r.html
*  Bacteria Slaying Strain as Antibiotic Replacement | Science Today | Simply Knowledge
Bacteria Eaters. Scientists from the University of Leicester, UK have identified a strain of bacteria which feeds on the hospital superbug Clostridium difficile (C. diff). The discovery is a major step towards eliminating the usage of antibiotics against the bacterial infections as bacteria are known to eventually outsmart them.. The technique uses naturally occurring bacteriophage (bacteria eaters) against the bug C. diff present in the gut. These bacteriophages kill the C. diff cells by replicating its DNA inside its cells, which ultimately lead to its bursting. Thereafter, the new phages released from the dead cells spread out to kill the other C. diff cells. C. diff is known to kill people and it becomes dangerous when the antibiotic treatments interfere with the balance of 'good' bacteria in the gut. However, these phages generally infect only one strain of bacteria which makes them ...
  http://simplyknowledge.com/popular/science_detail/bacteria-slaying-strain-as-antibiotic-replacement
*  Baby's First Bacteria (repost) - Kevin Bonham
Basically, what this paper shows is that the types of bacteria that get us started are established very early.. Babies born through the traditional route are very quickly exposed to the bacterial communities of their mothers - both vaginal and gut bacteria (women often defecate when giving birth). Once these bacteria get established, they fill up all the niches, and prevent other bacteria from getting a foothold. By contrast, c-section babies don't have this initial exposure - the womb is fairly sterile, and the conditions of this surgery prevent contact with the mother's other mucosal surfaces. Because of this, the infant is ripe for colonization from the myriad of bacteria found everywhere else, from the nurses and doctors that handle them to the bacteria on the skin on the mother's breast when feeding.. It's important to note that we can't yet draw a distinct causative link between early ...
  http://www.kevinbonham.com/webeasties/2010/06/23/babys-first-bacteria
*  Shapes Of Bacteria | Infomers
Shapes Of Bacteria | Learn more about Shapes Of Bacteria | Meaning of Shapes Of Bacteria | Description of Shapes Of Bacteria | Details of Shapes Of Bacteria | Article on Shapes Of Bacteria | Essay on Shapes Of Bacteria | Definition of Shapes Of Bacteria | infomers
  http://www.infomers.com/Shapes+of+Bacteria