*  Intensive fungicide use may lead to azole resistance in humans
... published an article in the Lancet Infectious Diseases about the relationship between fungicide use in agriculture ... ... Azoles - a group of nitrogen compounds - are found in a large number of natural substances but they are also used in ... Intensive fungicide use may lead to azole resistance in humans. December 1, 2009 ... published an article in the Lancet Infectious Diseases about the relationship between fungicide use in agriculture and azole ...
  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2009-12-intensive-fungicide-azole-resistance-humans.html
*  UK calls for agricultural fungicide restraint to reduce azole resistance in Aspergillus | Gaffi - Global Action Fund for Fungal...
Resistance can arise through use of fungicide azoles on many crops or clinically through patient use, especially in those with ... UK calls for agricultural fungicide restraint to reduce azole resistance in Aspergillus. Posted December 10, 2015. . ... Lord O'Neil and colleagues call for massive restraint in the use of both antibiotics in farmed animals and azole fungicides on ... In his report Lord O'Neill states "Azole-based therapies are the most important class of oral drugs we have to fight the ...
  https://www.gaffi.org/uk-calls-for-agricultural-fungicide-restraint-to-reduce-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus/
*  Pesticide Chemistry: Human Welfare and Environment - 1st Edition
The Chemistry of N-Substituted Azole Fungicides. Problems and Opportunities with Pheromones. Stereo-selective Synthesis of ... Structure-Activity Correlation in the Azoles. The Fungicidal Activity of Acyl Anilines. Sulfonylureas: New High Potency ... Affinity and Mobility of Fungicides in Soils and Rice Plants. Author Index to Volume 1. Subject Index to Volume 1. ... Structure-Activity Relationships in Fungicides and Bactericides. QSAR of Bacterial Folate-Synthesis Inhibitors. Prediction of ...
  https://www.elsevier.com/books/pesticide-chemistry-human-welfare-and-environment/doyle/978-0-08-029222-9
*  Dr Josie Parker
Price, C., Parker, J., Warrilow, A., Kelly, D. & Kelly, S. (2015). Azole fungicides - understanding resistance mechanisms in ... Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles ... Lamb, D., Warrilow, A., Rolley, N., Parker, J., Nes, W., Smith, S., Kelly, D. & Kelly, S. (2015). Azole antifungal agents to ... Vale-Silva, L. Coste, A. Ischer, F. Parker, J. Kelly, S. Pinto, E. & Sanglard, D. (2012). Azole resistance by loss of function ...
  http://www.swansea.ac.uk/staff/medicine/research/parkerje/
*  Publikationen: Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie
CYP51 encodes the target site of azole fungicides, widely used clinically and in agriculture. Azole resistance can evolve due ... re-emergence of CYP51A constitutes a novel mechanism for the evolution of resistance to azoles. Pyrosequencing analysis of ... The main measure for the control of R. commune is the use of fungicides with different modes of action, in combination with the ... Phylogenetic analyses show that the origin of CYP51A far predates azole use, and newly sequenced Rhynchosporium genomes show ...
  http://www.ipb-halle.de/forschung/stress-und-entwicklungsbiologie/forschungsgruppen/molekulare-kommunikation-in-pflanze-pathogen-interaktionen/publikationen/
*  Molecular Modelling of the Emergence of Azole Resistance in Mycosphaerella graminicola
... to new azole fungicides may increase sensitivity to older azole fungicides might inform effective rotation of fungicides or ... Å for all docked azoles). However, unlike Y461H, Y137 is withdrawn from the azole binding region (,4.5 Å from all docked azoles ... Are azole fungicides losing ground against Septoria wheat disease? Resistance mechanisms in Mycosphaerella graminicola. Pest ... Control of the pathogen now relies on the application of azole fungicides which are demethylase inhibitors (DMIs) that inhibit ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3124474/
*  Frontiers | Accumulation of Azole Drugs in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae Is the Result of Facilitated Diffusion...
... including azole antifungals, are used to prevent and combat M. oryzae plant infections. The target of azoles is CYP51, an ... Since rice is a world-wide staple food crop, infection by M. oryzae poses a serious global food security threat.Fungicides, ... The uptake system is specific for azole or azole-like compounds and can be modulated depending on cell phase and growth media. ... The uptake system is specific for azole or azole-like compounds and can be modulated... ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01320/full
*  Spatiotemporal Variation and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Water of the Lower Catchment Basin of Acheloos River, Western...
... and azole fungicides and the cumulative risk assessment is determined. Cumulative risk quotients for fungicides were always ... The presence of azoles in water samples of Acheloos River comes from agricultural applications in the surrounding area as well ... In the case of fungicides, mean concentrations of triadimefon (. ng L−1) and penconazole (. ng L−1) for the year 2005 were ... In the case of fungicides, the highest mean concentrations were detected for penconazole (S5: ng L−1) in 2005, for ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/231610/
*  Cyproconazole - Wikipedia
Cyproconazole is an agricultural fungicide of the class of azoles, used on cereal crops, coffee, sugar beet, fruit trees and ... azole fungicides on hormone production and xenobiotic metabolism in a human placental cell line". Int J Environ Res Public ... Fungi can develop resistance if the same fungicide is used repeatedly or when fungicides with the same mode of action are ... It is the active ingredient in two foliar fungicides for soybeans in the U.S., Alto X, and mixed with azoxystrobin in Quadris ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyproconazole
*  Key cereal fungicides may be banned as EU tightens rules - Farmers Weekly
Many leading cereal fungicides are likely to be banned by the European Union due to their perceived effect on human health, ... loss of azoles would be a big blow to growers as they are contained in products such as Proline and Ignite and in SDHI-azole ... Its proposals could result in the loss of the azoles, which are used in most cereal fungicides, and also pyrethroid ... Earlier this week, farm business consultant Andersons said the loss of pesticides - including some azole fungicides, herbicides ...
  http://www.fwi.co.uk/arable/key-cereal-fungicides-may-be-banned-as-eu-tightens-rules.htm
*  Epoxiconazole - Wikipedia
Epoxiconazole is a fungicide active ingredient from the class of azoles developed to protect crops. In particular, the ... In contrast to the relatively rapid development of resistance to strobilurins, azole fungicides like Epoxiconazole have ... Additional classes of fungicides like contact fungicides, strobilurins or carboxamides are available to farmers. In the latter ... Fungicide performance network. Up to date information on fungicide performance for wheat growers". HGCA (Home Grown Cereals ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epoxiconazole
*  Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase - Wikipedia
Other studies employ spectrophotometry to quantify azole-CYP51 interactions (Becher et al.). Coordination of azoles to the ... Steroidogenic enzyme Fungicide Antifungal "Metabocard for 4,4-Dimethylcholesta-8,14,24-trienol (HMDB01023)." Human Metabolome ... from Azole-resistant Candida albicans Clinical Isolates Contribute to Resistance to Azole Antifungal Agents. Antimicrob Agents ... Prolonged use of azoles as antifungals has resulted in the emergence of drug resistance among certain fungal strains (Becher et ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanosterol_14_alpha-demethylase
*  Antifungal - Wikipedia
For example, the azole group of drugs is known to have caused anaphylaxis. There are also many drug interactions. Patients must ... Antimicrobial Fungicide Baginski M, Czub B (Jun 2009). "Amphotericin B and its new derivatives". Current Drug Metabolism. 10 (5 ... "Research and Markets: Global Antifungal Therapeutics (Polyenes, Azoles, Echinocandins, Allylamines) Market:Trends and ... For example, the azole antifungals such as ketoconazole or itraconazole can be both substrates and inhibitors of the P- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifungal
*  Imidazole - Wikipedia
See also: Hantzsch, A. (1888) "Allegemeine Bemerkungen über Azole" (General observations about azoles), Annalen der Chemie, 249 ... Synthetic imidazoles are present in many fungicides and antifungal, antiprotozoal, and antihypertensive medications. Imidazole ... ISBN 978-0-8138-2061-3. Sunderland, M. R.; Cruickshank, R. H.; Leighs, S. J. (2014). "The efficacy of antifungal azole and ... For comparison, another group of azoles is the triazoles, which includes fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. The ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imidazole
*  PI276/PI276: Wood Preservatives
Copper azoles. Copper azoles contain copper, along with fungicides from a family of chemicals known as the triazoles; together ... Tebuconazole and propiconazole are triazole fungicides. In addition to being components of copper azole products, tebuconazole ... Copper azoles protect softwoods from wood-destroying fungi and insects. Cooper azoles have largely replaced chromated copper ... The fungicides are also formulated with the insecticide imidacloprid for spray, dip, or pressure treatment to protect wood from ...
  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi276
*  azole (CHEBI:68452)
conazole fungicide (CHEBI:87067) is a azole (CHEBI:68452). diazole (CHEBI:23677) is a azole (CHEBI:68452). oxazole (CHEBI:35790 ... Azoles can also contain one or more other non-carbon atoms, such as nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen.. ... is a azole (CHEBI:68452). pyrroles (CHEBI:26455) is a azole (CHEBI:68452). tetrazoles (CHEBI:35689) is a azole (CHEBI:68452). ... azole (CHEBI:68452) is a monocyclic heteroarene (CHEBI:38179) azole (CHEBI:68452) is a organonitrogen heterocyclic compound ( ...
  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:68452
*  Fumigatus isolates from India harboring TR34/ L98H mutations in the | PI4KInhibitor pi4kinhibitor.com
... fumigatus isolates to registered and commonly used azole fungicides in India and determined the genetic relatedness of Indian ... consistent with cross-resistance of these isolates to the tested azoles. Among the triazoles, the MIC difference between wild ... 2). In contrast to the genetic uniformity of azole-resistant strains from India, the azole-susceptible isolates from both ... 2). In contrast to the genetic uniformity of azole-resistant strains from India, the azole-susceptible isolates from both ...
  http://www.pi4kinhibitor.com/2017/09/30/fumigatus-isolates-from-india-harboring-tr34-l98h-mutations-in-the/
*  ASMscience | Mechanisms of Resistance
Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: a side-effect of environmental fungicide use? Lancet Infect Dis 9:789-795.. ... Upregulation of ERG genes in Candida species by azoles and other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44 ... Development of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus during azole therapy associated with change in virulence. PLoS One 5: ... Emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and spread of a single resistance mechanism. PLoS Med 5:e219.. ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555817381.mcm11.ch130