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*  Antibiotic sensitivity test - definition of antibiotic sensitivity test by The Free Dictionary
Define antibiotic sensitivity test. antibiotic sensitivity test synonyms, antibiotic sensitivity test pronunciation, antibiotic sensitivity test translation, English dictionary definition of antibiotic sensitivity test. n. A substance, such as penicillin or erythromycin, produced by or derived from certain microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria, that can destroy or...
  https://www.thefreedictionary.com/antibiotic+sensitivity+test
*  Antibiotic treatment on bacteria, SEM - Stock Image C032/2250 - Science Photo Library
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Antibiotic treatment on bacteria. Cellular effects of an antibiotic on the bacterium (Escherichia coli). The moderate spectrum antibiotic, amoxicillin (also known as amoxicillin), acts by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. This image shows the degradation of the E. coli cell wall peptidoglycan layer after antibiotic treatment. It will eventually lead to the bursting of the cell and release of the cell contents, killing the bacterium. Amoxicillin acts on a wide range of Gram-positive, and a limited range of Gram-negative bacteria. Magnification: x7,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2250
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/799069/view
*  Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
This is a general term, describing any of numerous classes of antibiotics. Common to all of them is their ability to effectively treat a wide range of bacteria.. These antibiotics would include:. Aminoglycoside. ...
  http://medicalcorps.org/pharmacy/BroadSpectrumAntibiotics.htm
*  GPATcrackers: Pharmacology and chemistry of quinolones: Broad spectrum antibiotics
Learning platform for GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test) aspirants. In this blog you will get free notes and objective questions for your GPAT preparation. This is an initiative to help all GPAT aspirants in their preparation. Below, categories are given from where you can go to the particular subject for your GPAT preparation. If you do not find any topic here do let us know. We will be happy to update the topic. All the best for your GPAT preparation.. ...
  http://www.gpatcrackers.com/2014/09/pharmacology-and-chemistry-of-quionoles.html
*  免費醫療APP】PAH Antibiotic Guidelines|線上玩APP不花錢-硬是要APP
PAH Antibiotic Guidelines線上破解APP新玩法懶人包,詳細解說醫療APP手遊最新APP消息,不能錯過全世界Android App Store、iOS App Store、Windows App Store搶先資訊antibiotics guideline,Antibiotic Guide app熱門APP載點排行榜,the sanford guide to antimicrobial therapyThe Antibiotics Guidelines app and content management service allows pharmacists within a Trust to create their own local antibiotics guidelines via a
  https://searchapp.soft4fun.net/article/information/PAH%20Antibiotic%20Guidelines/31374
*  Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition on an intensive care unit: relationship between antibiotic selective pressure and patients'...
This study suggests two main conclusions. First, P. aeruginosa acquisition should be related to the proximity of a patient colonized with P. aeruginosa in the area (same room) with a chronological component (the previous day) along with selective antibiotic pressure. Antibiotic selective pressure alone did not influence P. aeruginosa acquisition. The hypothesis of a complex mechanism involving antibiotic selective pressure and patient colonization pressure should be relevant for P. aeruginosa acquisition in an ICU with endemic context. If the interaction of both pressures overriding each pressure taken separately is reviewed, there could be some practical implications. Developing strategies for either decreased antibiotic use for "endogenous-like" acquisition or hygiene improvement in response to environmental contamination in "exogenous-like" acquisition could be insufficient. In an endemic ICU without obvious epidemic acquisition, it is arguable that a reduction in antibiotic selective ...
  https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/cc10026
*  What are antibiotic resistant bacteria? - Daijiworld.com
London, Dec 21 (IANS): Antibiotic resistant bacteria are "sleeper cells" which can survive doses of antibiotics and lie resting in a dormant state, but have the ability to "wake up" and re-infect, research has found.. Antibiotic resistance is one of the most pressing public health challenges and threatens the ability to effectively fight infectious diseases including pneumonia and tuberculosis.. In the study, led by Stefano Pagliara, a biophysicist at the University of Exeter, the team used a miniaturised device which enabled them to isolate and study single bacteria over time.. Next, the team dosed bacteria with ampicillin. They found that the vast majority of the 1.3 per cent of cells that survived were live but non-growing.. These are "sleeper cells" because they look dormant and resemble the cells killed by antibiotics, but are potentially dangerous with the ability to "wake up" and re-infect humans or animals, Pagliara said, in the paper published in the journal BMC Biology.. Besides, these ...
  http://www.daijiworld.com/news/newsDisplay.aspx?newsID=487280
*  Parkside Medical Centre, Boston - Library - Health A-Z
If you experience a worsening of symptoms because of a bacterial infection (known as an "infective exacerbation") then you'll need to be treated with antibiotics.. A sample of phlegm will be taken to determine what type of bacteria is causing the infection, although you'll be initially treated with an antibiotic known to be effective against a number of different bacteria (a broad spectrum antibiotic) because it can take a few days to get the test results. Depending on the test results, you may be prescribed a different antibiotic, or in some cases, a combination of antibiotics known to be effective against the specific bacteria causing the infection.. If you're well enough to be treated at home, you'll probably be prescribed two to three antibiotic tablets a day for 10-14 days. It's important to finish the course even if you feel better, as stopping the course prematurely could cause the infection to recur quickly.. If your symptoms are more severe (see symptoms of bronchiectasis for a detailed ...
  http://www.parkside-medicalcentre.co.uk/Library/Conditions/Articles/bronchiectasis/treatment
*  College Surgery (Culm Valley)
If you experience a worsening of symptoms because of a bacterial infection (known as an "infective exacerbation") then you'll need to be treated with antibiotics.. A sample of phlegm will be taken to determine what type of bacteria is causing the infection, although you'll be initially treated with an antibiotic known to be effective against a number of different bacteria (a broad spectrum antibiotic) because it can take a few days to get the test results. Depending on the test results, you may be prescribed a different antibiotic, or in some cases, a combination of antibiotics known to be effective against the specific bacteria causing the infection.. If you're well enough to be treated at home, you'll probably be prescribed two to three antibiotic tablets a day for 10-14 days. It's important to finish the course even if you feel better, as stopping the course prematurely could cause the infection to recur quickly.. If your symptoms are more severe (see symptoms of bronchiectasis for a detailed ...
  http://www.collegesurgery.org.uk/p0.html?a=0&sc=hs&op=as&topic=conditions/articles/bronchiectasis/treatment&display=Treating%20bronchiectasis
*  Antimicrobial & Immunization for Bacterial Gastritis | SBIR.gov
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a gastric bacterial pathogen of humans; infection is the cause of type B gastritis and is also strongly associated with gastric carcinoma (intestinal type) and gastric MALT lymphoma. Combination antimicrobial therapy (triple therapy with a bismuth salt, metranidazole and a broad spectrum antibiotic) is successful in 80% of Hp-infected symptomatic patients; treatment failures are expressed as recrudescence of infection and clinical signs and are associated with development of antibiotic-resistant microbes and poor patient compliance. In a previous SBIR, we have demonstrated that parenteral immunization with an Hp proteolytic digest prevents colonization in Hp-challenged gnotobiotic swine. Preliminary data suggest that activated T cells and their products, in particular, interferon gamma (IFNg), are central for this immunoprotective effect. An ideal approach to the problem of recrudescence treatment failure is to combine antimicrobial ...
  https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/86570
*  Citizen News Service - CNS: Antibiotic Therapy: The Pneumonia Panacea
About 60% of pneumonia cases in the developing world are caused mainly by bacteria. Antibiotics to a large extend can control pneumonia if provided well on time. Dr.Y.C.Govil (Professor of Pediatrics in Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaj Medical University) says," Penicillin was discovered in the 1930s, and before that there were no antibiotics and people use to die like flies. Similar thing will happen if pneumonia is not checked. It is unfortunate, but now a days, a lot of antibiotic misuse is happening in our country and the reason is that many a times patients are been treated by unqualified practitioners of medicine in rural areas. I think almost 20%-30% or even more of patients would initially go to an unqualified practitioner. So here they are in the habit of advising lots of broad spectrum antibiotics in the beginning. Even in viral infection, where antibiotics are not usually indicated, antibiotics are prescribed. This is also prevalent in the urban setup as well. Very often patients try to self ...
  http://www.citizen-news.org/2011/11/antibiotic-therapy-pneumonia-panacea.html
*  Narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents - MedChemComm (RSC Publishing)
While broad spectrum antibiotics play an invaluable role in the treatment of bacterial infections, there are some drawbacks to their use, namely selection for and spread of resistance across multiple bacterial species, and the detrimental effect they can have upon the host microbiome. If the causative agent
  http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/md/c7md00528h/unauth
*  Plus it
Research into community acquired pneumonia over the past two decades has focused on developing tools to measure the severity of illness and which antibiotics to choose. Several tools can now help clinicians identify patients with severe community acquired pneumonia in clinical settings.1 In people with severe disease, international guidelines recommend early treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, which provide cover for atypical pathogens.2 It is less clear how best to manage patients during their stay in hospital. In this week's BMJ, a randomised trial by Oosterheert and colleagues reports the effect of switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics after three days rather than seven days in people with severe community acquired pneumonia.3 Until now, the lack of quality trial data in areas such as route of antibiotic administration, duration of treatment, and assessment of clinical stability has led to a conservative approach to … ...
  http://www.bmj.com/content/333/7580/1181
*  Meta-analysis of bacterial resistance to macrolides : Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - oi
Objectives: Understanding changing resistance patterns is important in determining appropriate antibiotic treatments. This meta-analysis systematically evaluated resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes to macrolide antibiotics among patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections.. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched and experts were consulted to identify published and unpublished literature reporting macrolide resistance rates. Identified studies were evaluated by two independent reviewers; those meeting a priori specified criteria (resistance by patient condition and strain, resistance thresholds, 1997-2003 isolates) were included. Data from included studies were abstracted by two independent reviewers using a standard review form. Discrepancies in abstracted data were resolved by the study investigator.. Results: Random-effects meta-analysis was performed for outcomes present in at least four studies overall and for specified subgroups. ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/jac/dki060
*  Antibiotic Resistant Disease | EarthScape
Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have discovered a new way to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria by using the bacteria's own genes. For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used to treat a variety of deadly infections and saved countless lives. Its broad introduction and application has changed the face of medicine and world populations worldwide. Yet, despite the advances made to antibiotics over the years, the list of antibiotic resistant bacteria, such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), E.coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter, is growing and becoming one of the world's most serious health concerns. Infections once routinely treatable have now become more difficult to control as well as lethal in some cases.
  http://www.earthscape.org/science/news/antibiotic-resistant-disease/
*  Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, Shigella dysenteriae CIP 54-51 and Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103 907. Discs of Gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic were used as positive controls.The results showed that all the extracts possess antimicrobial activities. A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the leaves and that of the bark showed that for all the tested microorganisms, the hydroalcoholic extract of the bark is more active than the aqueous extract of the leaf. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves is as effective as the aqueous extract of the stem bark prescribed by the traditional healer, suggesting it is possible to use leaves other than the roots and bark.The phytochemical screening showed that sterols and triterpenes, saponosides??, tannins, reducing compounds, coumarins, anthocyanosides, flavonosides are present in both bark and leaf but in different concentrations ...
  http://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=tc08035&lang=en
*  Antibiotic Resistance | Science Articles | Naked Scientists
In the past when bacteria developed resistance, there were alternative antibiotics that could be used. However, with the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria the situation became a lot more serious. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) has been found to show resistance to Streptomycin, Aminoglycosides, Chloramphenicol, Trimethoprim, Rifampicin, Fusidic acids and Quinolones. Until recently Vancomycin was seen as the antibiotic of last resort against MRSA, however between 2002 and 2006 seven cases of Vancomycin resistance have been reported in the USA7.. Some strains of Enterococci and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have also developed resistance to most current antibiotics6.. Discovery of new classes of antibiotics has slowed in recent years. The last new antibiotic class to be discovered was Bedaquiline in 1997, becoming available on the market in 2012, with antibiotic resistance to the drug being observed in 2006 before it was even introduced8.. Are there any antibiotics left to ...
  https://www.thenakedscientists.com/articles/features/antibiotic-resistance
*  Student Research: Jessica Kocian | Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
Background: The use of antibiotics in swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is believed to be contributing to an increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the swine population, and in the facilities. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in these CAFOs pose both an occupational threat and community threat. Among the resistant bacteria found when sampling swine CAFOs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of highest concern. MRSA has been cultured from both swine and swine workers in the Netherlands, Canada and the United States. Additionally, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been reported as far as 300m downwind of CAFOs.. Methods: In this study, we assessed the risks posed to worker health by applying quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to MRSA in swine CAFOs. Probabilistic 2D modeling was used to characterize routes of exposure to swine workers during a typical work-day and a Beta-Poisson model was used to predict the dose-response of MRSA ...
  http://deohs.washington.edu/student-research/jessica-kocian
*  Text of H.R. 2629 (114th): Antibiotic Development to Advance Patient Treatment Act (Introduced version) - GovTrack.us
Text of H.R. 2629 (114th): Antibiotic Development to Advance Patient ... as of Jun 3, 2015 (Introduced version). H.R. 2629 (114th): Antibiotic Development to Advance Patient Treatment Act
  https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/114/hr2629/text/ih
*  In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibility of Ocular Pathogens Collected from the Aqueous and Vitreous Humor during the ARMOR...
Purpose : Topical antibiotics are a key part of strategies employed to minimize the incidence of intraocular infections prior to and following ocular surgery. Despite such efforts, bacterial resistance is prevalent and can reduce the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Here we examined resistance profiles of common bacterial pathogens isolated from the aqueous and vitreous humor to antibiotics routinely used in ophthalmic practice. Methods : From 2009 through 2015, 172 aqueous and vitreous humor isolates were collected through the ARMOR surveillance study including 11 Haemophilus influenzae, 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 21 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 30 Staphylococcus aureus, and 100 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Where applicable, isolates were categorized as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant based on systemic breakpoints. Results : ...
  http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2560811
*  Drug-resistant bacteria - Stock Video Clip K003/8465 - Science Photo Library
Animation showing drug-resistant bacteria reproducing, as antibiotic drugs kill non-resistant bacteria around them. These bacteria are on a surface in the human body. Antibiotic drugs (white flecks) are shown withering the yellow bacteria, while the blue ones are immune to its effects. Drug resistance is a serious problem in modern medicine, as widespread use of antibiotics has led to the natural selection of resistant strains, which are not killed by the most common antibiotics. Examples include MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Clostridium difficile, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae. - Stock Video Clip K003/8465
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/517069/view
*  Agrimycin 200, 100 ml. Bottle - Vaccines and Antibiotics - Health - Products
This is the generic version of LA-200, the oxytetracycline, broad spectrum antibiotic for use in treating respiratory infection/pneumonia, mastitis, pinkeye, scours, and shipping fever. Do not use milk for food for 96 hours after last treatment. Do not u
  http://www.caprinesupply.com/products/health/vaccines-and-antibiotics/agrimycin-200.html
*  Plus it
We conducted a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with women who had participated in the United Kingdom in ORACLE, a large randomised trial, and who had requested the results of the trial. Interviews aimed to explore women's views about receiving a leaflet summarising the results of the trial. All participants provided informed consent.. ORACLE was a double blind randomised controlled trial of antibiotics in pregnancy, funded by the UK Medical Research Council.7 8 It was designed to test the hypothesis that treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics prolongs labour and reduces neonatal mortality and morbidity for women who are less than 37 weeks pregnant, and who are either in preterm labour or have prelabour rupture of the membranes. ORACLE used a 2×2 factorial design, with four treatment possibilities: augmentin 375 mg, erythromycin 250 mg, either antibiotic with placebo, or both placebos. During the period of the trial (July 1994-May 2000), 11 154 women were randomised to ORACLE ...
  http://www.bmj.com/content/332/7535/206
*  Abstract: Differences in Susceptibilities for Multidrug Resistant Gram Negative Organisms Between Urine and Blood Cultures in...
Background: Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) are at an increased risk of colonization and infections with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). Antimicrobial stewardship strategies emphasize that empiric antimicrobial therapy should be patient specific, guided by local data and the presumptive site of infection. Methods: Retrospective review of the microbiology surveillance system (Vigilanz ) comparing antimicrobial susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates between blood and urine cultures in SOTR at a 1550-beds hospital in Miami, Florida (01/01/2013 to 12/30/2014). Only the first positive isolate per patient was included. Antibiograms (ATB) were categorized by source (blood and urine). Proportions of bacterial susceptibilities to specific antibiotics were compared between cultures by source and with the hospital-wide pooled ATB using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test accordingly. Results: 1005 unique patient isolates in SOTR were identified, 606 (60.3%) from urine, and 399 ...
  https://idsa.confex.com/idsa/2015/webprogram/Paper52553.html