*  Plus it
This pathway is activated predominantly in axonal growth cones compared with the somatodendritic compartment. After stimulation ... AMPA induces activation of MAPK in axonal growth cones of cultured hippocampal neurons and in growth cone particles. At 5 DIV, ... AMPA induces MAPK activation in the axonal growth cone. To investigate how AMPA receptor activation might modulate growth cone ... activation of MAPK occurred prominently at axonal growth cones and distal axons (percentage of P-MAPK-positive growth cones, ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/7/1654
*  Growth Cone Collapse Induced by Semaphorin 3A Requires 12/15-Lipoxygenase | Journal of Neuroscience
Accurate axonal targeting requires that growth cones navigate precisely along pathways defined by attractive and repulsive cues ... also uses a signaling pathway involving 12/15-LO to trigger growth cone collapse and that this pathway affects growth cone ... HETE diminishes growth cone adhesion.. To study changes in growth cone adhesion in further detail, we analyzed growth cone ... Growth cone collapse must occur as a result of at least two mechanisms: loss of F-actin from the growth cone periphery and ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/12/4932
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2005) Axonal protein synthesis and degradation are necessary for efficient growth cone regeneration. J Neurosci 25:331-342. ... The present study targeted the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which regulates cell growth and is ... and guidance of axonal growth cones (Campbell and Holt, 2001). The present study addressed the following questions. Is the mTOR ... 2001) Chemotropic responses of retinal growth cones mediated by rapid local protein synthesis and degradation. Neuron 32:1013- ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/25/8259
*  Pincher-generated Nogo-A endosomes mediate growth cone collapse and retrograde signaling | JCB
The Nogo-Nogo receptor pathway limits a spectrum of adult CNS axonal growth. J. Neurosci. 26:12242-12250. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI ... Growth cone collapse. The response of neuronal growth cones was quantified on three independent experiments (n = 90 neurons per ... Although, e.g., NGF promotes neurite outgrowth and attracts growth cones, Nogo-A inhibits outgrowth and induces growth cone ... To determine the importance of NogoΔ20 endocytosis for the growth cone collapse, we examined the growth cone response of ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/188/2/271
*  Regulation of Patterned Dynamics of Local Exocytosis in Growth Cones by Netrin-1 | Journal of Neuroscience
Netrin-1-regulated exocytosis in hippocampal axonal growth cones depends upon the activation of the Erk1/2 and SFK pathways, ... 1996) Growth cone collapse and inhibition of neurite growth by botulinum neurotoxin C1: a t-SNARE is involved in axonal growth ... While several signaling pathways implicated in cone navigation have been identified, membrane dynamics in growth cones remains ... G, Plot of fluorescent areas of the central domain of the growth cone in A, normalized to the total area of the growth cone, ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/13/5156
*  Spatial Distributions of Guidance Molecules Regulate Chemorepulsion and Chemoattraction of Growth Cones | Journal of...
... do these repulsive factors then also impede axonal growth in the appropriate direction? Axonal pathways are formed in a highly ... also induce growth cone collapse of cortical axons? To address this issue, we used time-lapse imaging to examine axonal growth ... the net growth speed, i.e., the mean growth speed excluding the periods of growth cone collapse, was not different on control ( ... it was often assumed that the effects would depend on the distance from the growth cone to the target. The closer a growth cone ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/20/3/1030
*  Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 mutation that is associated with disease onset in infancy disrupts axonal pathfinding during...
1986). Pathway selection by growth cones of identified motoneurons in live zebrafish embryos. Nature 320, 269-271. ... 1989). The growth cones of identified motoneurons in embryonic zebrafish select appropriate pathways in the absence of specific ... 2001). Electrical activity modulates growth cone guidance by diffusible factors. Neuron 29, 441-452. ... the abnormal axonal trajectories in ioFL-expressing cells do not reflect a failure to refine the terminal axonal arbor. Errors ...
  http://dmm.biologists.org/content/5/6/921
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During axonal development, cGMP signaling has been implicated in modulating growth cone response to extracellular guidance cues ... and mediates APC localization and microtubule assembly in the growth cone that is regulated by Wnt signaling, another pathway ... GSK3 inactivation in the growth cone mediates NGF-dependent axon growth, while partial inactivation along the axons leads to ... 2003) Cyclic AMP/GMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels sets the polarity of nerve growth-cone turning. Nature 423:990-995. ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/5/1350
*  IGI: Inferred from Genetic Interaction | Gene Ontology Consortium
The response to axonal injury requires the activities of MAP kinase and cAMP signaling pathways that are required, for example ... for signaling growth cone formation. In C. elegans, the activity of the upstream-most kinase in one of the MAPK signaling ... or on cellular growth on high-osmolarity media. To identify potential osmosensors in the SHO1 branch of the HOG pathway, the ... Note that rescue experiments may be used to help determine the order in which gene products act within a biological pathway or ...
  http://geneontology.org/page/igi-inferred-genetic-interaction
*  Aaron D. Gitler | Stanford Medicine Profiles
In the nervous system, axonal pathways are shaped by repulsive cues provided by ligands of the semaphorin family that are ... sensed by migrating neuronal growth cones through plexin receptors. We show that proper blood vessel pathfinding requires the ... thus highlighting major response pathways. We used this approach to reveal cellular pathways responding to the toxicity of ... Parallel PARKing: Parkinson's genes function in common pathway. Neuron Chuang, R. S., Gitler, A. D. 2013; 77 (3): 377-379 ...
  https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/aaron-gitler
*  ZFIN Publication: Eisen et al., 1989
During axonal pathfinding, an identified motoneuron pioneers the peripheral motor pathway. Growth cones of later motoneurons ... The growth cones of identified motoneurons in embryonic zebrafish select appropriate pathways in the absence of specific ... The growth cones of identified motoneurons in embryonic zebrafish select appropriate pathways in the absence of specific ... Developing motoneurons in zebrafish embryos follow a stereotyped sequence of axonal outgrowth and accurately project their ...
  http://zfin.org/ZDB-PUB-961014-275
*  SOMA Abstracts in 2009 Student Poster Competition | The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
NTERM and β-cat107 also selectively inhibited filopodial and lamellipodia protrusions in optic axonal growth cones. Expression ... The Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) pathway also plays an important role in the cell death/survival pathway after a ... directional growth and a balance between different type of growth cone protrusions. β-catenin likely regulates these ... We assayed the effects of these mutants on defasciculation, directionality and growth cone protrusions of optic axons in the ...
  http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2093875
*  Guidepost cells - Wikipedia
They act as intermediate targets for long and complex axonal growths by creating short and easy pathways, leading axon growth ... Single guidepost cells, acting like "stepping-stones" for the extension of Ti1 pioneer growth cones to the CNS, were first ... The LOT is the first system where guideposts cells were proposed to play a role in axonal guidance. In this migrational pathway ... There are subpopulations of glial cells that provide guidance cues for axonal growth. The first set of cells, called the "mid- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guidepost_cells
*  Breaking symmetry - polarity signaling in axon guidance and synapse formation | Center for Brain Science
... planar cell polarity pathway, is responsible for recognizing and responding to Wnt gradients by axonal growth cones. More ... His lab went on to show that a non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, ...
  http://cbs.fas.harvard.edu/resources/activities/%5Bfield_speaker-title%5D-breaking-symmetry-%E2%80%94-polarity-signaling-axon-guidance-and-
*  The formin DAAM is required for coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in axonal growth cones | Development
Veli-Matti Leppänen and Kari Alitalo provide an overview of the VEGF signalling pathway and highlight the functions of VEGF/ ... The formin DAAM is required for coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in axonal growth cones ... The formin DAAM is required for coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in axonal growth cones ... The formin DAAM is required for coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in axonal growth cones ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/144/16/e1.1
*  Inside story on Sema3A and axonal pathfinding | Development
Sema3A secreted by peripheral tissues interacts with neuropilin (its receptor) in the growth cones of motoneurons to control ... Thus, the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic Sema3A may help to organize the axonal pathways of motoneurons. ... Special issue: On Growth and Form - 100 years on. When D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson's On Growth and Form was published 100 years ... On Growth and Form in context - an interview with Matthew Jarron. The University of Dundee is home to the D'Arcy Thompson ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/134/24/e2404
*  Collapsin response mediator protein family - Wikipedia
Indeed, CRMPs participate in two distinct transduction pathways inducing axonal growth cone collapse. Both pathways involve Rho ... Rho family GTPases regulate the cytoskeletal reorganization of the growth cone and affect the growth cone motility. In Sema3A ... involvement in axonal guidance has been proposed by localization of CRMPs in neurites and axonal growth cone. ... which modulates the actin filament assembly in the growth cone. Moreover, CRMP-2 is involved in another growth cone collapse ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collapsin_response_mediator_protein_family
*  Spatial targeting of type II protein kinase A to filopodia mediates the regulation of growth cone guidance by cAMP | JCB
... of cAMP regulation of axonal growth is further augmented by recent findings that manipulating the cAMP signaling pathway can ... Growth cone turning induced by extracellular chemical gradients. Growth cone turning induced by chemical gradients was ... Measurements from each growth cone were normalized, and results from multiple growth cones were then averaged. ... to promote growth cone attraction. Finally, we find that I-1 and PP1 mediate growth cone repulsion induced by myelin-associated ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/176/1/101
*  Semaphorin 4D/Plexin-B1-Mediated M-Ras GAP Activity Regulates Actin-Based Dendrite Remodeling through Lamellipodin | Journal of...
Lpd is localized at the tips of filopodia in axonal growth cones during the stage of axonal development; knockdown of Lpd ... Axonal R-Ras GAP activity downregulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, and thereby induces inactivation of a ... Lpd has been reported to be localized at the tips of axonal growth cones and involved in axonal morphogenesis (Krause et al., ... Lpd has been well known as an Ena/VASP-binding protein and localizes at the tips of F-actin in axonal growth cones (Krause et ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/24/8293.full
*  Plus it
Xiang Y, Li Y, Zhang Z, Cui K, Wang S, Yuan XB, Wu CP, Poo MM, Duan S (2002) Nerve growth cone guidance mediated by G protein- ... Because knockdown of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling caused RGC axons to follow aberrant pathways in the retina, we examined axonal ... Once at the head of the optic stalk, the growth cones interact with Netrin-1, which guides them out of the eye into the optic ... Our results suggest that SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling plays an important role in the guidance of RGC growth cones to the exit site of ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/7/1711
*  Conversion of Neuronal Growth Cone Responses from Repulsion to Attraction by Cyclic Nucleotides | Science
The above studies on growth cone turning induced by Sema III and MAG point to the existence of at least two distinct pathways ... These factors may exert either attractive or repulsive action on the extension of axonal growth cones (1, 2). There is evidence ... Cytosolic Ca2+ regulates growth cone motility (25). An increase in cytosolic Ca2+concentration correlates with growth cone ... did not affect the growth cone response. Thus, cGMP regulates the direction of growth cone turning induced by Sema III. NO and ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/281/5382/1515?ijkey=02a4a262bbd0da1a9538ea43f4e9af3e6b893adc&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth. | Sigma-Aldrich
The establishment of neural circuits depends on the ability of axonal growth cones to sense their surrounding environment en ... We reveal the intracellular pathway that underlies this process and describe how phosphorylation of the actin nucleation- ... Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth.. [Mariola R Chacón, Ana ... Time-lapse recordings and in vitro FRAP analysis indicate that filopodia motility is altered in growth cones lacking FAK, ...
  https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/22872087
*  Patente US20040241315 - High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying - Google Patentes
Such information may provide basic mechanisms that determine the behavior of axonal growth cones during embryonic and fetal ... The particular pathways taken by different axons are determined by the assortments of guidance cue receptors that are expressed ... Growth cones probably encounter multiple guidance cues simultaneously, and the resultant growth cone behavior reflects the ... growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epithelial growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) and ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US20040241315?hl=es&dq=flatulence
*  Plus it
... axonal protein synthesis is required for growth cone collapse.. Growth cone collapse assay is a simplified method to examine ... 2003) B-type Eph receptors and ephrins induce growth cone collapse through distinct intracellular pathways. J Neurobiol 57:323- ... C, ES-MN growth cones can adapt to a high concentration of Sema3a. At 900 ng/ml Sema3a, the rate of collapsed growth cone is ... human ES-MNs extend axons terminated by well elaborated growth cones (Fig. 5B). The growth cone collapse assay revealed that ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/4/1496
*  Neurotrophin signaling endosomes; biogenesis, regulation, and functions
Formation of neurotrophin endosomes in growth cones. Retrograde neurotrophin signaling starts at axonal growth cones with ... Rab5 and Rab7 control endocytic sorting along the axonal retrograde transport pathway. Neuron. 2006;52:293-305. [PubMed] ... initiate signals at axonal growth cones by binding specific Trk receptors, with TrkA responding primarily to NGF, TrkB to BDNF ... Snapin recruits dynein to BDNF-TrkB signaling endosomes for retrograde axonal transport and is essential for dendrite growth of ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4987223/