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This pathway is activated predominantly in axonal growth cones compared with the somatodendritic compartment. After stimulation ... AMPA induces activation of MAPK in axonal growth cones of cultured hippocampal neurons and in growth cone particles. At 5 DIV, ... AMPA induces MAPK activation in the axonal growth cone. To investigate how AMPA receptor activation might modulate growth cone ... activation of MAPK occurred prominently at axonal growth cones and distal axons (percentage of P-MAPK-positive growth cones, ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/7/1654
*  Growth Cone Collapse Induced by Semaphorin 3A Requires 12/15-Lipoxygenase | Journal of Neuroscience
Accurate axonal targeting requires that growth cones navigate precisely along pathways defined by attractive and repulsive cues ... also uses a signaling pathway involving 12/15-LO to trigger growth cone collapse and that this pathway affects growth cone ... HETE diminishes growth cone adhesion.. To study changes in growth cone adhesion in further detail, we analyzed growth cone ... Growth cone collapse must occur as a result of at least two mechanisms: loss of F-actin from the growth cone periphery and ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/12/4932
*  Axonal growth cones in the developing amphibian spinal cord. - Semantic Scholar
This study demonstrates that the configurations of growth cones belonging to the same axonal pathway vary with age and with ... Growth cones of younger animals generally were more complex than those of older ones. Growth cones closer to the leading edge ... Growth cones of lateral and ventral marginal zones, including those of descending spinal and supraspinal pathways, were labeled ... Growth cones of Rohon-Beard central ascending axons were fusiform or clavate, while those of sensory ganglion axons showed ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Axonal-growth-cones-in-the-developing-amphibian-Nordlander/e7618c3d69557aad98e81cbd76c571df534c01d5
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2005) Axonal protein synthesis and degradation are necessary for efficient growth cone regeneration. J Neurosci 25:331-342. ... The present study targeted the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which regulates cell growth and is ... and guidance of axonal growth cones (Campbell and Holt, 2001). The present study addressed the following questions. Is the mTOR ... 2001) Chemotropic responses of retinal growth cones mediated by rapid local protein synthesis and degradation. Neuron 32:1013- ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/25/8259
*  Pincher-generated Nogo-A endosomes mediate growth cone collapse and retrograde signaling | JCB
The Nogo-Nogo receptor pathway limits a spectrum of adult CNS axonal growth. J. Neurosci. 26:12242-12250. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI ... Growth cone collapse. The response of neuronal growth cones was quantified on three independent experiments (n = 90 neurons per ... Although, e.g., NGF promotes neurite outgrowth and attracts growth cones, Nogo-A inhibits outgrowth and induces growth cone ... To determine the importance of NogoΔ20 endocytosis for the growth cone collapse, we examined the growth cone response of ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/188/2/271
*  Regulation of Patterned Dynamics of Local Exocytosis in Growth Cones by Netrin-1 | Journal of Neuroscience
Netrin-1-regulated exocytosis in hippocampal axonal growth cones depends upon the activation of the Erk1/2 and SFK pathways, ... 1996) Growth cone collapse and inhibition of neurite growth by botulinum neurotoxin C1: a t-SNARE is involved in axonal growth ... While several signaling pathways implicated in cone navigation have been identified, membrane dynamics in growth cones remains ... G, Plot of fluorescent areas of the central domain of the growth cone in A, normalized to the total area of the growth cone, ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/13/5156
*  Spatial Distributions of Guidance Molecules Regulate Chemorepulsion and Chemoattraction of Growth Cones | Journal of...
... do these repulsive factors then also impede axonal growth in the appropriate direction? Axonal pathways are formed in a highly ... also induce growth cone collapse of cortical axons? To address this issue, we used time-lapse imaging to examine axonal growth ... the net growth speed, i.e., the mean growth speed excluding the periods of growth cone collapse, was not different on control ( ... it was often assumed that the effects would depend on the distance from the growth cone to the target. The closer a growth cone ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/20/3/1030
*  Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 mutation that is associated with disease onset in infancy disrupts axonal pathfinding during...
1986). Pathway selection by growth cones of identified motoneurons in live zebrafish embryos. Nature 320, 269-271. ... 1989). The growth cones of identified motoneurons in embryonic zebrafish select appropriate pathways in the absence of specific ... 2001). Electrical activity modulates growth cone guidance by diffusible factors. Neuron 29, 441-452. ... the abnormal axonal trajectories in ioFL-expressing cells do not reflect a failure to refine the terminal axonal arbor. Errors ...
  http://dmm.biologists.org/content/5/6/921
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During axonal development, cGMP signaling has been implicated in modulating growth cone response to extracellular guidance cues ... and mediates APC localization and microtubule assembly in the growth cone that is regulated by Wnt signaling, another pathway ... GSK3 inactivation in the growth cone mediates NGF-dependent axon growth, while partial inactivation along the axons leads to ... 2003) Cyclic AMP/GMP-dependent modulation of Ca2+ channels sets the polarity of nerve growth-cone turning. Nature 423:990-995. ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/5/1350
*  IGI: Inferred from Genetic Interaction | Gene Ontology Consortium
The response to axonal injury requires the activities of MAP kinase and cAMP signaling pathways that are required, for example ... for signaling growth cone formation. In C. elegans, the activity of the upstream-most kinase in one of the MAPK signaling ... or on cellular growth on high-osmolarity media. To identify potential osmosensors in the SHO1 branch of the HOG pathway, the ... Note that rescue experiments may be used to help determine the order in which gene products act within a biological pathway or ...
  http://geneontology.org/page/igi-inferred-genetic-interaction
*  Guidepost cells - Wikipedia
They act as intermediate targets for long and complex axonal growths by creating short and easy pathways, leading axon growth ... Single guidepost cells, acting like "stepping-stones" for the extension of Ti1 pioneer growth cones to the CNS, were first ... The LOT is the first system where guideposts cells were proposed to play a role in axonal guidance. In this migrational pathway ... There are subpopulations of glial cells that provide guidance cues for axonal growth. The first set of cells, called the "mid- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guidepost_cells
*  Aaron D. Gitler | Stanford Medicine Profiles
In the nervous system, axonal pathways are shaped by repulsive cues provided by ligands of the semaphorin family that are ... sensed by migrating neuronal growth cones through plexin receptors. We show that proper blood vessel pathfinding requires the ... thus highlighting major response pathways. We used this approach to reveal cellular pathways responding to the toxicity of ... Parallel PARKing: Parkinson's genes function in common pathway. Neuron Chuang, R. S., Gitler, A. D. 2013; 77 (3): 377-379 ...
  https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/aaron-gitler?tab=teaching
*  ZFIN Publication: Eisen et al., 1989
During axonal pathfinding, an identified motoneuron pioneers the peripheral motor pathway. Growth cones of later motoneurons ... The growth cones of identified motoneurons in embryonic zebrafish select appropriate pathways in the absence of specific ... The growth cones of identified motoneurons in embryonic zebrafish select appropriate pathways in the absence of specific ... Developing motoneurons in zebrafish embryos follow a stereotyped sequence of axonal outgrowth and accurately project their ...
  http://zfin.org/ZDB-PUB-961014-275
*  SOMA Abstracts in 2009 Student Poster Competition | The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
NTERM and β-cat107 also selectively inhibited filopodial and lamellipodia protrusions in optic axonal growth cones. Expression ... The Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) pathway also plays an important role in the cell death/survival pathway after a ... directional growth and a balance between different type of growth cone protrusions. β-catenin likely regulates these ... We assayed the effects of these mutants on defasciculation, directionality and growth cone protrusions of optic axons in the ...
  http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2093875
*  SHTN1 - Shootin-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SHTN1 gene & protein
... activity at the axonal growth cone. Plays also a role in regenerative neurite outgrowth. In the developing cortex, cooperates ... RAC1 and PAK1-dependent signaling pathway, thereby converting the F-actin retrograde flow into traction forces, concomitantly ... Involved in the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) in the growth cone of primary hippocampal ... Mediates netrin-1-induced F-actin-substrate coupling or 'clutch engagement' within the axon growth cone through activation of ...
  https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0MZ66
*  Breaking symmetry - polarity signaling in axon guidance and synapse formation | Center for Brain Science
... planar cell polarity pathway, is responsible for recognizing and responding to Wnt gradients by axonal growth cones. More ... His lab went on to show that a non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, ...
  http://cbs.fas.harvard.edu/resources/activities/%5Bfield_speaker-title%5D-breaking-symmetry-%E2%80%94-polarity-signaling-axon-guidance-and-
*  Collapsin response mediator protein family - Wikipedia
Indeed, CRMPs participate in two distinct transduction pathways inducing axonal growth cone collapse. Both pathways involve Rho ... Rho family GTPases regulate the cytoskeletal reorganization of the growth cone and affect the growth cone motility. In Sema3A ... involvement in axonal guidance has been proposed by localization of CRMPs in neurites and axonal growth cone. ... which modulates the actin filament assembly in the growth cone. Moreover, CRMP-2 is involved in another growth cone collapse ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collapsin_response_mediator_protein_family
*  The formin DAAM is required for coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in axonal growth cones | Development
Veli-Matti Leppänen and Kari Alitalo provide an overview of the VEGF signalling pathway and highlight the functions of VEGF/ ... The formin DAAM is required for coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in axonal growth cones ... The formin DAAM is required for coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in axonal growth cones ... The formin DAAM is required for coordination of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in axonal growth cones ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/144/16/e1.1
*  Inside story on Sema3A and axonal pathfinding | Development
Sema3A secreted by peripheral tissues interacts with neuropilin (its receptor) in the growth cones of motoneurons to control ... Thus, the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic Sema3A may help to organize the axonal pathways of motoneurons. ... Special issue: On Growth and Form - 100 years on. When D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson's On Growth and Form was published 100 years ... On Growth and Form in context - an interview with Matthew Jarron. The University of Dundee is home to the D'Arcy Thompson ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/134/24/e2404
*  Spatial targeting of type II protein kinase A to filopodia mediates the regulation of growth cone guidance by cAMP | JCB
... of cAMP regulation of axonal growth is further augmented by recent findings that manipulating the cAMP signaling pathway can ... Growth cone turning induced by extracellular chemical gradients. Growth cone turning induced by chemical gradients was ... Measurements from each growth cone were normalized, and results from multiple growth cones were then averaged. ... to promote growth cone attraction. Finally, we find that I-1 and PP1 mediate growth cone repulsion induced by myelin-associated ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/176/1/101
*  Gastric Band Surgery France | Category Archives: News | Page 3
... and this pathway is critical for axonal plasticity and growth-cone motility (5, 14-16). For example, the specific complex I ... Neuronal growth cones require optimal mitochondrial function to produce ATP for axon growth/plasticity, and sensory axons ... M1R-selective antagonists activate the AMPK pathway to drive neurite outgrowth. A key pathway that senses cellular energy ... as the growth-cone motility required to maintain fields of innervation consumes 50% of ATP supplies in neurons due to high ...
  https://gastricbandfrance.co.uk/category/news/page/3
*  Semaphorin 4D/Plexin-B1-Mediated M-Ras GAP Activity Regulates Actin-Based Dendrite Remodeling through Lamellipodin | Journal of...
Lpd is localized at the tips of filopodia in axonal growth cones during the stage of axonal development; knockdown of Lpd ... Axonal R-Ras GAP activity downregulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, and thereby induces inactivation of a ... Lpd has been reported to be localized at the tips of axonal growth cones and involved in axonal morphogenesis (Krause et al., ... Lpd has been well known as an Ena/VASP-binding protein and localizes at the tips of F-actin in axonal growth cones (Krause et ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/24/8293.full
*  Analysis of zebrafish sidetracked mutants reveals a novel role for Plexin A3 in intraspinal motor axon guidance | Development
We propose that axonal repulsion via Plexin A3 is a major driving force for intraspinal motor growth cone guidance. ... Eisen, J. S., Myers, P. Z. and Westerfield, M. (1986). Pathway selection by growth-cones of identified motoneurons in live ... 1A). CaP growth cones do not migrate longitudinally, but extend ventrally into the periphery. By contrast, the growth cones of ... During intraspinal migration of motor growth cones, Plexin A3 acts cell autonomously to direct subsets of growth cones, those ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/134/18/3251?ijkey=ba22e75fe27bdd6efe1911be9bc822b7d3a31669&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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Xiang Y, Li Y, Zhang Z, Cui K, Wang S, Yuan XB, Wu CP, Poo MM, Duan S (2002) Nerve growth cone guidance mediated by G protein- ... Because knockdown of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling caused RGC axons to follow aberrant pathways in the retina, we examined axonal ... Once at the head of the optic stalk, the growth cones interact with Netrin-1, which guides them out of the eye into the optic ... Our results suggest that SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling plays an important role in the guidance of RGC growth cones to the exit site of ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/7/1711
*  Conversion of Neuronal Growth Cone Responses from Repulsion to Attraction by Cyclic Nucleotides | Science
The above studies on growth cone turning induced by Sema III and MAG point to the existence of at least two distinct pathways ... These factors may exert either attractive or repulsive action on the extension of axonal growth cones (1, 2). There is evidence ... Cytosolic Ca2+ regulates growth cone motility (25). An increase in cytosolic Ca2+concentration correlates with growth cone ... did not affect the growth cone response. Thus, cGMP regulates the direction of growth cone turning induced by Sema III. NO and ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/281/5382/1515?ijkey=02a4a262bbd0da1a9538ea43f4e9af3e6b893adc&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha