*  Planar cell polarity genes frizzled4 and frizzled6 exert patterning influence on arterial vessel morphogenesis - pdf download
Planar cell polarity genes frizzled4 and frizzled6 exert patterning influence on arterial vessel morphogenesis. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
  http://books.duhnnae.com/2017/jun9/149862407078-Planar-cell-polarity-genes-frizzled4-and-frizzled6-exert-patterning-influence-on-arterial-vessel-morphogenesis.php
*  Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the 43A-E region containing the segment polarity gene costa and the cellular polarity genes...
A cytogenetic analysis of the 43A-E region of chromosome 2 in Drosophila melanogaster is presented. Within this interval 27 complementation groups have been identified by extensive F2 screens and ordered by deletion mapping. The region includes the cellular polarity genes prickle and spiny-legs, the segmentation genes costa and torso, the morphogenetic locus sine oculis and is bounded on its distal side by the eye-color gene cinnabar. In addition 19 novel lethal complementation groups and two semi-lethal complementation groups with morphogenetic escaper phenotypes are described. ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/135/1/105
*  Exclusion of a Proton ATPase from the Apical Membrane Is Associated with Cell Polarity and Tip Growth in Nicotiana tabacum...
Cellular polarization is crucial for many biological processes, including cell morphogenesis, proliferation, and differentiation. The orientation of the polarity axis is initially defined by asymmetrical extrinsic or intrinsic cues acting at the cell surface, which then have to be recognized and interpreted by signaling molecules, leading to the asymmetrical activation/inhibition and/or distribution of downstream effectors. This asymmetry is further stabilized by rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, enabling the cell to assume an asymmetric shape (Sohrmann and Peter, 2003).. In pollen tubes, we can consider two distinct axes: the polarity axis and the growth axis. The polarity axis can be drawn transversally at the base of the tip dome separating the tip region from the rest of the tube, whereas the growth ...
  http://www.plantcell.org/content/20/3/614.full
*  The in vivo function of mammalian cell and tissue polarity regulators - how to shape and maintain the epidermal barrier |...
What is the importance of polarity signaling in regulating asymmetric divisions in mammals? In Drosophila neuroblasts, the initial polarization cue comes from the apical enrichment of the polarity proteins Par3, Par6 and aPKC. This apical distribution is essential for asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants, which is coupled to spindle orientation by binding to the adaptor protein Inscuteable (Insc) (Fig. 3A). Insc then recruits a protein complex consisting of the heterotrimeric G protein α1-subunit (Gα1), PINS and MUD, which provides attachment sites for astral microtubules (Knoblich, 2010). Polarized distribution of the aPKC-Par complex is inherited from the epithelial cell, from which the neuroblast arose after delamination (Prehoda, 2009). Similarly, in both mouse neurons and in the epidermis, PAR3 and aPKC show an apical distribution that is independent of cell division (Lechler and Fuchs, 2005). In the ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/125/15/3501
*  ZFIN Person: Reugels, Alexander
Proper spatial and temporal specification of cells during development is crucial for the generation of cellular diversity in the nervous system of complex organisms. We are interested in the mechanisms underlying the establishment of cellular polarity and the generation of neuronal cell lineages during neurulation in Danio rerio. We were able to show that neurulation in zebrafish embryos is characterised by oriented cell divisions and the progressive establishment of cellular polarity. Mitoses in the neural plate and neural tube are planar, but in the neural keel/rod stage the mitotic spindle rotates by 90°, causing cell divisions to occur perpendicular to the plane of the neuroepithelium. However, the mechanisms and molecules that establish cellular polarity and cause the stereotypic orientation of the mitotic spindle ...
  https://zfin.org/ZDB-PERS-001206-1
*  Non-Cell-Autonomous Roles for the Planar Cell Polarity Gene Vangl2 in Development of the Coronary Circulation | Circulation...
These studies suggest a non-cell-autonomous role for Vangl2-PCP signaling in coronary artery formation. The coronary vessels in Lp/Lp hearts fail to develop a normal SMC layer and enlarged ectopic vessels are found in the subepicardium, on the surface of the heart. Loss of functional Vangl2 results in reduced deposition of fibronectin in the subepicardial space, which may limit normal migration of EPDCs into the myocardium. In addition activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling in the myocardium is disrupted, which causes disorganization within the ventricular wall via effects on the cytoskeleton. Although the precise mechanism by which PCP signaling regulates cytoskeletal organization remains unclear, mislocalization of activated MYPT is likely to have major implications for polarization and organization of ventricular cardiomyocytes. These data suggest that PCP signaling may be important at a number of levels for development of the mature ventricular myocardium and coronary vessels.. Proper ...
  http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/102/5/615.long
*  Modeling Planar Cell Polarity | Science Signaling
Epithelial cells of many organisms show planar cell polarity. In the Drosophila wing, hexagonally packed cells accumulate various planar cell polarity signaling components in localized areas (proximally or distally), and an actin-rich hair develops from the distal vertex and points distally. Although several molecular components for this patterning have been elucidated, the complexity in number of factors and their various interactions, including the effects of neighboring cells on each other, has hindered a full understanding of planar cell polarity. Amonlirdviman et al. now combine biology and mathematical modeling to address the complex phenotypes produced by genetic manipulations. The model incorporates transcellular interactions between membrane proteins and is based on reaction-diffusion and partial differential equations. This ...
  http://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2005/268/tw39
*  Left-right asymmetry in the chick embryo requires core planar cell polarity protein Vangl2.
Consistent left-right patterning is a fascinating and biomedically important problem. In the chick embryo, it is not known how cells determine their position (left or right) relative to the primitive streak, which is required for subsequent asymmetri
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Left-right-asymmetry-in-chick/19621439.html
*  Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization | Circulation
Background-Sprouting angiogenesis is a key process driving blood vessel growth in ischemic tissues and an important drug target in a number of diseases, including wet macular degeneration and wound healing. Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and 2 are known regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and polarity, but their function in angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. Methods and Results-Mice carrying inducible, endothelial-specific Nck1/2 deletions fail to develop front-rear polarized vessel sprouts and exhibit severe angiogenesis defects in the postnatal retina and during embryonic development. Inactivation of NCK1 and 2 inhibits polarity by preventing Cdc42 and ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2015/12/09/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.017537
*  Difference between Polarized and Unpolarized Light - Difference Between A to Z - Learn to Differentiate
Polarized light has vibrations occurring within them in one plane. On the other hand, unpolarized light has vibrations occurring within them randomly angles with no plane.. In a Polarized light, a process which evolves during this stage can help to transform the light into polarized that originally remains unpolarized and has the title of polarization. Note that it's possible to alter unpolarized light into an energized light and the process is called polarization.. This is quite not exactly like what you may see in case you somehow managed to look together with a silent and watch a constant wave moving towards you. According to quantum mechanics, electromagnetic waves may similarly be flooding of particles known as photons. A photon has one of two possible twists; it could either turn in a right-hand sense or a left-hand sense about its path of travel.. ...
  https://differencebetweenatoz.com/difference-polarized-unpolarized-light/
*  Faculty Research Page | Department of Molecular & Cell Biology
How is the polarity of epithelial cells established and maintained?. Epithelial cells constitute the most widespread and evolutionarily ancient mode of animal tissue organization. The functions of epithelia rely on their highly polarized architecture, in which specific proteins are restricted to apical, junctional, and basolateral surfaces. We are working to understand the mechanisms that regulate cell polarity, exploiting our discovery of the Scribble module that acts to distinguish the epithelial basolateral domain by antagonizing the apical Par/aPKC complex. Cell biological assays of protein trafficking and biochemical studies of Scribble module partners are revealing their mysterious basic polarizing activities. As novel insights can come from unbiased genetic screens, we have designed several to isolate new regulators of epithelial polarity. These screens identify genes that directly ...
  http://mcb.berkeley.edu/faculty/CDB/bilderd.html
*  British Library EThOS: Cellular-level mechanisms of polarity and their role in plant growth
Coordinated cell polarity fields are essential for plant and animal development. Several models have been proposed for how these cell polarity fields are established. However, it remains unclear how different models are related to each other and how coordinated cell polarity fields are generated. Here, I present a hypothesis that both plant and animal cell polarity fields are based on a common intracellular partitioning (IP) mechanism that spontaneously generates cell polarity independently from pre-established asymmetries. I show how plant polarity fields may be accounted for through an auxin-mediated indirect cell-cell coupling mechanism that coordinates polarities established by IP, and provides an explicit molecular hypothesis that is consistent with current experimental ...
  http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.637564
*  Putting cell polarity on the map | JCB
Genetics and biochemistry have been used to map many of the individual pathways that establish and maintain cell polarity in yeast, but Drees et al. (page 549) have now produced the equivalent of an aerial photograph of these processes. Using a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen, the authors assayed the universe of likely protein-protein interactions involved in cell polarity development. The resulting protein interaction map provides tantalizing insights and identifies dozens of potential mechanistic connections worth closer examination.. The authors used 68 yeast proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton, septins, the secretory apparatus, and Rho-type GTPases as baits in parallel two-hybrid screens covering ∼90% of the predicted Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORFs. The screen uncovered 128 novel protein-protein interactions, including 44 involving previously uncharacterized proteins. The appearance of known interactions in the screen, ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/154/3/478.1
*  VackvSuG: BMP4 and Wnts niche successior Crumbs.
The leading edge two regions hdlg-13 and insertion 12, both unique and partially redundant functions in two regions of alternative splicing the human homolog of the Drosophila Discs-large tumor suppressor. In adult flies, is located at the apical-lateral membrane boundary, isoform S97 expression is localized to the cell borders, coexpressed with scrib, at the septate junction and within the CNS of both embryos and larvae (in non-neural and neural cells) and are only the characteristics of malignant cancers derived from epithelial tissues. Loss of either Stardust [Sdt] or Dlg affects epithelial development, assembling Crumbs [Crb] homologs among MPP family members of Drosoplila sdt. Self-refinement of Notch activity through the transmembrane protein Crumbs: modulation have been implicated in the specification of tissue boundaries, in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, Crumbs is involved in a feedback mechanism used by the Notch polarity determinant. In the ...
  http://lnwme.blogspot.com/2008/09/bmp4-and-wnts-niche-successior-crumbs.html
*  PARD6A Gene - GeneCards | PAR6A Protein | PAR6A Antibody
Complete information for PARD6A gene (Protein Coding), Par-6 Family Cell Polarity Regulator Alpha, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=PARD6A
*  Biology-Online • View topic - HEK293 cells fractionation
hello everyone i am new . i want to say about HEK293 cells fractionation. The cell polarity regulator, human Scribble (hScrib), is a potential tumour suppressor whose loss is a frequent event in late-stage cancer development. hese results provide a clear mechanistic explanation of how hScrib can regulate ERK signalling and begin to explain how loss of hScrib during cancer development can contribute to disease progression ...
  http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/about20120.html?hilit=Suppressor
*  Biology-Online • View topic - HEK293 cells fractionation
hello everyone i am new . i want to say about HEK293 cells fractionation. The cell polarity regulator, human Scribble (hScrib), is a potential tumour suppressor whose loss is a frequent event in late-stage cancer development. hese results provide a clear mechanistic explanation of how hScrib can regulate ERK signalling and begin to explain how loss of hScrib during cancer development can contribute to disease progression ...
  http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-127867.html
*  Control of MAPK Signaling by Cell Polarity Proteins - Paul Cullen
The long-term objective of this proposal is to understand how intracellular signals are directed along specific pathways to induce a defined output. Signal tran...
  http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-GM098629-04
*  VANGL1 Gene - GeneCards | VANG1 Protein | VANG1 Antibody
Complete information for VANGL1 gene (Protein Coding), VANGL Planar Cell Polarity Protein 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id=81839&id_type=entrezgene
*  PRICKLE4 Gene - GeneCards | PRIC4 Protein | PRIC4 Antibody
Complete information for PRICKLE4 gene (Protein Coding), Prickle Planar Cell Polarity Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=PRICKLE4
*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Expression of Partitioning Defective 3 (Par-3) for Predicting Extrahepatic Metastasis and Survival...
Partitioning defective 3 (Par-3), a crucial component of partitioning-defective complex proteins, controls cell polarity and contributes to cell migration and cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the clinical relevance of Par-3 in tumor progression and metastasis has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact and association of Par-3 expression and clinical outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first confirmed that Par-3 was abundantly expressed in HCC cell lines by Western blot analysis. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the association of Par-3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in primary and subsequent metastatic tumors of patients with HCC. Par-3 was overexpressed in 47 of 111 (42.3%) primary tumors. Increased expression of Par-3 in primary tumors predicted an increased five-year cumulative incidence of extrahepatic ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/1/1684/notes
*  Plus it
Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality and squamous cell carcinoma is a prevalent histological subtype worldwide. The partition-defective 3 (PAR-3) protein belongs to a partition defective complex that controls polarity, which is mainly composed of PAR-3, PAR-6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). PAR-3 contains one self-oligomerization domain in the N-terminus, three PDZ protein interaction domains and one aPKC-binding domain. Owing to these domains, PAR-3 is able to form a conserved protein complex with PAR-6 and aPKC. In mammalian epithelial cells, PAR complex assembles at tight junctions, and plays a role in controlling apical-basal polarity, asymmetric cell division, and directional cell migration. It is well known that disrupted cell polarity is a feature of epithelial cancers. Therefore, it is believed that PAR proteins may be involved in ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/75/15_Supplement/4950
*  PAR proteins diffuse freely across the anterior-posterior boundary in polarized C. elegans embryos | JCB
Here, we have shown that PAR polarity determinants are not only dynamic but exhibit both (a) a boundary flux as membrane-associated proteins diffuse laterally out of their respective domains as a result of the concentration differences that exist across the PAR domain boundaries and (b) an exchange between the membrane-associated state and a rapidly mixing cytoplasmic pool. This dynamic behavior contrasts with the relative stability of PAR domains during the maintenance phase when both the size and position of PAR domains are relatively unchanged over the course of nearly 10 min. We have examined several potential mechanisms to explain the segregation of PAR proteins, including (a) a physical barrier separating the two domains, (b) passive sorting, for example, caused by repulsive or attractive forces such as those that drive the phase separation of oil and water, or (c) active transport on the membrane, such as actin- or microtubule-dependent processes. Our data are inconsistent with the ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/193/3/583.full
*  Plus it
We then considered that increased cell death might explain the reduced number of RPCs and neurons observed at E13.5, but staining for activated caspase-3 at E11.5 and E13.5 revealed no significant changes in cell death (E13.5: control, 2.4 ± 1.3 cells/200 μm, n = 4; cDKO, 3.2 ± 1.1 cells/200 μm, n = 4). At E16.5 and P0, however, we found an important increase in the number of caspase-positive cells in cDKO compared with controls (data not shown). Intriguingly, we noticed that the timing of appearance of dead cells in cDKO correlates with the appearance of a dysmorphic retinal neuroepithelium. At E13.5, the cDKO retinas are normally layered and display the expected apical staining of the polarity proteins Par-3 and atypical PKC (data not shown). In addition, there are no ectopic RPC mitoses at E13.5. As seen with PH3 staining, all mitoses appear at the apical surface (Fig. 2D,E). Since the ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/48/17197